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WVU / Journalism Core / JOUR 101 / Who is john peter zenger?

Who is john peter zenger?

Who is john peter zenger?


School: West Virginia University
Department: Journalism Core
Course: Media and Society
Professor: Oppe
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: JRL101, JRL 101, journalism, Journalism101, journalism 101, Dr. Oppe, Oppe, WVU, West Virginia University, exam2, Exam 2, and Study Guide
Cost: 50
Name: JRL 101 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: Study Guide of exam 2 of JRL 101
Uploaded: 02/14/2016
5 Pages 46 Views 6 Unlocks

Ms. Cheyenne Funk (Rating: )

I had to miss class because of a doctors appointment and these notes were a LIFESAVER

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Material contains copyright content:

JRL 101

Who is john peter zenger?

Exam 2 Study Guide

Chapter 13 and 14


• Published statement that exposes someone to  contempt or ridicule

• Must be these three things

o Defamation

o Identification

o Publication


• Legal defense against libel and holds the  statements from government meetings


• Way of deciding what is good for a society or  an individual

• Way to choose between competing morals  and help people decide in a case with a gray  area

Shield Laws

• Journalist’s laws that give protection from  testifying in court about stories or sources

First Amendment

• Freedom of speech

• Freedom of religion

• Freedom of press


• Showing/ covering events that are lurid and  very emotional.

o Crime

o Sex

o Celebrity slipups

o Violence


• Person’s code of behavior depending on  philosophical principles or religious views.

It is an idea of moral obligation that we should act the way we want everyone else to act . what is it?

Golden Mean

• Ethical behavior is derived from finding a  balance

• Individual must:

o Know what they are doing

o Pick their action with a moral reason

o Act out of good character

Sago Mine Disaster

• 13 miners were trapped in a mine in WV for  two days

• News broke the unconfirmed news that there  was 12 miners still alive

• It made headlines all over the country

• The reporters didn’t have their information  confirmed before they let it leak and only one  miner was alive out of the 13

Alien and Sedition Laws

• Laws that punished anyone who published  anything false, scandalous, or malicious  

against the US government

• When Thomas Jefferson became president, he  pardoned these

John Peter Zenger

• Published a piece in the New York Journal that  accused the governor of corruption

• Governor threw him in jail for libel

• When the case went to trial, Zenger declared  what he wrote was true

• Found Zenger not guilty of libel

Roth vs. US

• Three part test

o Standard for obscenity is set by the  

view of an average person

▪ Neither conservative nor liberal

o Taken as a whole

▪ Whole piece has to be sexually  

explicit, not just a piece to be  


o Dominant theme of the material as a  

whole has to appeal obsessively  

sexually to be obscene

Define copyright act of 1976.

If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of universality in psychology?

Original US Copyright Law

• Protected author's and artist’s work for 14  years

o Could be renewed for an additional 14  years

Cameras in the courtroom

• Allowed

o Open trials belong to the public

o Often times people in the courtroom  

forget that they’re there

o Heighten public understanding  

o Judge whether or not it was performed  properly

• Not allowed

o Cameras used to be big and distracting o Some witnesses refuse to be on camera


• Invasion of privacy by a physical trespassing  into personal property, or personal space

False Light

• Invasion of privacy when a journalist  

publishes statements that aren’t true and it  alters that person’s public image in which  they can’t control.


• Invasion of privacy by using a person’s name  or image for commercial process without that  person’s consent.

Hazelwood vs. Kuhlmeier

• Supreme Court ruled that  

o Principal could sensor a student  

newspaper when it was produced as  

part of a class

o Student newspaper is a classroom  

exercise NOT a vehicle for free speech

Morse vs. Fredrick

• Showed the authority of public school’s  administration to suspend students  

promoting illegal drugs at a school event.

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between stagelike and continuous theories of cognitive development?

New York Times vs. Sullivan

• Sullivan

o Montgomery, Alabama police  


• NYT had an ad about stopping racial  

discrimination in the US

o Told a story that was about  


o BUT some of the story wasn’t true (It  

made the town and police look bad)

• Sullivan claimed he was libeled by errors and  won the case in Alabama

• He went on to fight Supreme court

o Court said that it was inevitable and  

“papers make errors”

Judith Miller Case

• Jailed for 85 days for refusing to testify in the  Libby case

• Her source then said it was okay to testify  where she got the information

• Accepted the release by Libby from her  promise of confidentiality and testified

Equal Time Provision

• All political candidate need to have an equal  amount of screen time

Gertz vs. Welch

• Magazine ran an article accusing Gertz of  being a communist.

• Question was if Gertz was a public figure • Court ruled that private citizens deserve more  privacy because they have not submitted  

themselves into public attention and are less  able to protect themselves than public figures.

Advertising Council

• The main reason it was formed was in  response to charges of unethical behavior

o Worked to maintain positive image the  group fostered during WWII

Net Neutrality

• Rules that required Internet service providers  to give equal access to all content providers

If you want to learn more check out What does an argument mean?

Categorical Imperative

• Idea of moral obligation that we should act  the way we want everyone else to act

Veil of Ignorance

• John Rawl’s principle of ethics that says that  justice comes from making decisions to  

maximize liberty for everyone and not  

considering what outcome gives us,  

personally, a bigger benefit.


• John Stuart Mill’s principle that ethical  behavior comes from that will provide the  greatest good for the biggest amount of  


Jose Vargas

• Reporter for NYT Magazine

• Publicly announced that he was an illegal  immigrant by writing about it in an article • Controversy: He lied about his immigration  status his entire adult life

Fair Use Doctrine for  

American Copyright Law

• Attributed to Barbara Ringer

• She established the concept and extended the  life of the copyright while overcoming sexism  in the workplace

Copyright Act of 1976

• Basic rights of copyright holders,  

• Codified the doctrine of "fair use"

Progressive Case

• Waned to publish a story on how hydrogen  bombs were made

• All information was found publicly

• Prior Restraint

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of the muscular system?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the six economic indicators?
Don't forget about the age old question of What type of data measurement has a true zero point?

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