JRL 101 Exam 2 Study Guide
JRL 101 Exam 2 Study Guide JRL 101
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mikaela Spence on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JRL 101 at West Virginia University taught by Dr. Oppe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 177 views. For similar materials see Media and Society in Journalism and Mass Communications at West Virginia University.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
JRL 101 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 13 and 14 Libel • Published statement that exposes someone to contempt or ridicule • Must be these three things o Defamation o Identification o Publication Privilege • Legal defense against libel and holds the statements from government meetings Ethics • Way of deciding what is good for a society or an individual • Way to choose between competing morals and help people decide in a case with a gray area Shield Laws • Journalist’s laws that give protection from testifying in court about stories or sources First Amendment • Freedom of speech • Freedom of religion • Freedom of press Sensationalism • Showing/ covering events that are lurid and very emotional. o Crime o Sex o Celebrity slipups o Violence Morals • Person’s code of behavior depending on philosophical principles or religious views. Golden Mean • Ethical behavior is derived from finding a balance • Individual must: o Know what they are doing o Pick their action with a moral reason o Act out of good character Sago Mine Disaster • 13 miners were trapped in a mine in WV for two days • News broke the unconfirmed news that there was 12 miners still alive • It made headlines all over the country • The reporters didn’t have their information confirmed before they let it leak and only one miner was alive out of the 13 Alien and Sedition Laws • Laws that punished anyone who published anything false, scandalous, or malicious against the US government • When Thomas Jefferson became president, he pardoned these John Peter Zenger • Published a piece in the New York Journal that accused the governor of corruption • Governor threw him in jail for libel • When the case went to trial, Zenger declared what he wrote was true • Found Zenger not guilty of libel Roth vs. US • Three part test o Standard for obscenity is set by the view of an average person § Neither conservative nor liberal o Taken as a whole § Whole piece has to be sexually explicit, not just a piece to be obscene o Dominant theme of the material as a whole has to appeal obsessively sexually to be obscene Original US Copyright Law • Protected author's and artist’s work for 14 years o Could be renewed for an additional 14 years Cameras in the courtroom • Allowed o Open trials belong to the public o Often times people in the courtroom forget that they’re there o Heighten public understanding o Judge whether or not it was performed properly • Not allowed o Cameras used to be big and distracting o Some witnesses refuse to be on camera Intrusion • Invasion of privacy by a physical trespassing into personal property, or personal space False Light • Invasion of privacy when a journalist publishes statements that aren’t true and it alters that person’s public image in which they can’t control. Misappropriation • Invasion of privacy by using a person’s name or image for commercial process without that person’s consent. Hazelwood vs. Kuhlmeier • Supreme Court ruled that o Principal could sensor a student newspaper when it was produced as part of a class o Student newspaper is a classroom exercise NOT a vehicle for free speech Morse vs. Fredrick • Showed the authority of public school’s administration to suspend students promoting illegal drugs at a school event. New York Times vs. Sullivan • Sullivan o Montgomery, Alabama police commissioner • NYT had an ad about stopping racial discrimination in the US o Told a story that was about Montgomery o BUT some of the story wasn’t true (It made the town and police look bad) • Sullivan claimed he was libeled by errors and won the case in Alabama • He went on to fight Supreme court o Court said that it was inevitable and “papers make errors” Judith Miller Case • Jailed for 85 days for refusing to testify in the Libby case • Her source then said it was okay to testify where she got the information • Accepted the release by Libby from her promise of confidentiality and testified Equal Time Provision • All political candidate need to have an equal amount of screen time Gertz vs. Welch • Magazine ran an article accusing Gertz of being a communist. • Question was if Gertz was a public figure • Court ruled that private citizens deserve more privacy because they have not submitted themselves into public attention and are less able to protect themselves than public figures. Advertising Council • The main reason it was formed was in response to charges of unethical behavior o Worked to maintain positive image the group fostered during WWII Net Neutrality • Rules that required Internet service providers to give equal access to all content providers Categorical Imperative • Idea of moral obligation that we should act the way we want everyone else to act Veil of Ignorance • John Rawl’s principle of ethics that says that justice comes from making decisions to maximize liberty for everyone and not considering what outcome gives us, personally, a bigger benefit. Utilitarianism • John Stuart Mill’s principle that ethical behavior comes from that will provide the greatest good for the biggest amount of people. Jose Vargas • Reporter for NYT Magazine • Publicly announced that he was an illegal immigrant by writing about it in an article • Controversy: He lied about his immigration status his entire adult life Fair Use Doctrine for • Attributed to Barbara Ringer American Copyright Law • She established the concept and extended the life of the copyright while overcoming sexism in the workplace Copyright Act of 1976 • Basic rights of copyright holders, • Codified the doctrine of "fair use" Progressive Case • Waned to publish a story on how hydrogen bombs were made • All information was found publicly • Prior Restraint
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