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BSCI105 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Cathryn Tsu

BSCI105 Exam 1 Study Guide BSCI105

Marketplace > University of Maryland > Biological Sciences > BSCI105 > BSCI105 Exam 1 Study Guide
Cathryn Tsu
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This study guide covers chapter 1-6 to prepare for the first exam. I've been having technical difficulties with getting it up and making sure it can be seen so bear with me. Anyways please enjoy lo...
Principles of Biology
Norma Allewell
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cathryn Tsu on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSCI105 at University of Maryland taught by Norma Allewell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Maryland.

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Date Created: 02/13/16
     Sat 02/13/2016  BSCI105 Exam 1 (Chapters 1­6) Study Guide   Date of Exam: Wed 02/17/2016  ____________________________________________________________________________  Overview      ­ The first exam will cover the main building blocks of life: how they’re grouped on  both a broad and specific cellular level. This will span from the overlying themes  of biology, its chemical context, the huge significance of water and carbon,  macromolecules, and the structure and function of the cell.  ____________________________________________________________________________  Chapter 1: Evolution, Themes of Biology, & Scientific Inquiry ​ (basic stuff, don’t  worry about this as much)  ­ Biology​ ­ the scientific study of life  ­ Evolution​ ­ the process of change that has transformed organisms from their earliest  existence to the present (researched through biology)   ­ Levels of Biological Organization (Most broad to most specific)   1) Biosphere  2) Ecosystems  3) Communities   4) Populations  5) Organisms   6) Organ & Organ Systems  7) Tissues  8) Cells   9) Organelles   10)Molecules  ­ Emergent Properties  ​­ properties that arise in the  arrangement/interactions of components as complexity increases   ­ The connection between an organism’s structure & function***  ­ A cell:​rokaryote ​vs.Eukaryote  ­ Genomics ​  scientifically looking at whole sets of genes/other DNA   ­ Proteomics ​ ­ study of sets of proteins in a given proteome or group of  proteomes  ­ Interactions between organisms: win­win, win­lose, lose­lose       Sat 02/13/2016  ­ Feedback Regulation​  ­ the production of a process regulates that very process  (negative v. positive)   ­ Charles Darwin & Darwinism   ­ Scientific Inquiry ( Experiment, Independent & dependent varia les) ____________________________________________________________  Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life   ­ Matter​ ­ anything that takes up space and has mass   ­ Elements​  ­ substances that can’t be broken down into any other simpler  substances (92 in nature)  ­ C, N, H, and O make up 96% of living matter  ­ Compounds​  ­ a combination of two or more elements in fixed ratios (different  element combinations = different compound characteristics)   ­ Trace Elements​  ­ elements that organisms require in small quantities  ­ Atom​  ­ the smallest unit of matter with elemental properties; has subatomic  particles:    ­ Protons: (+) charge   ­ Neutrons: no charge   ­ protons & neutrons​  make up the atom’s ​nucleus​, giving it a (+)  charge  ­ also protons + neutrons =  ​an element’s ​ass number  ­ an element’s ​atomic number =​  the # of protons (the # of protons  also = the # of electrons​)  ­ Electrons: (­) charge   ­ “opposites attract” b/t electrons and protons allow electrons to be  around the nucleus   *remember an atom’s nuclear symbol   ­ Isotopes ​­ atoms of the same element that have more neutrons than  others which gives them a greater mass  ­ Radioactive isotopes​  ­ occurs when the nucleus experiences  spontaneous decay & emits particles and energy   ­ Half­life­ the amount of time it takes for 50% of a “parent” isotope  to decay into the “daughter” isotope   ­ An atom & their electron shells possess different energy qualities:  shell movement, ​ valence electron d​ependent behavior  ­ Orbitals​ ­ 3D space where an electron is located most of the time;  remember different orbitals like​, p, d    ­ Covalent bonds ​ ­ a pair of electrons shared by 2 atoms (ex. H  atoms)        Sat 02/13/2016  ­ Polar covalent bonds v. nonpolar covalent bonds  ­ Electronegativity​  ­ attraction of certain atoms for electrons of a covalent bond  (O** is very important later on)   ­ Ions ­ when 2 atoms’ inequality is so strong the more electronegative removes  the electron from the other   ­ Cation v. anion   ­ Weak chemical bonds   ­ Hydrogen bonds***   ­ Van der Waals Interactions   ­ Orbital hybridization   ­ Reactions: can’t create or destroy, only reorganize atoms   ____________________________________________________________  Chapter 3: Water & Life  ­ Water is a polar molecule (O & H w/hydrogen bonds)   ­ Solution v. solvent v. solute   ­ Aqueous solution ​ ­ a solute dissolved in water which is the solvent   ­  Hydrophilic v. hydrophobic   ­ Molecular mass ​ ­ sum of the masses w/in a molecule   ­ 6.022 x 10^23   ­ Hydrogen ion​  (H+) ­ single proton with a charge of 1+ , usually an electron is left  behind. The atom without the proton is now a ​ hydroxide ion​  (OH­)   ­Acid​  v base   ­ Solutions with high amounts of OH­ are basic   ­ The pH scale**  ­ Acids have pH values < 7   ­ Bases have pH values > 7   ­ Neutrals have pH values = 7  ____________________________________________________________  Chapter 4: Carbon & the Molecular Diversity of Life  ­ Stanley Miller’s experiment   ­ Carbon’s versatility allows it to help create a multitude of diverse organisms   ­ able to create up to 4 bonds  ­ completes valence shell by sharing 4 electrons  ­ form single/double bonds   ­ acts as an intersection   ­  Electron configuration determines the # of carbon atoms and the type of bonds  formed  ­ makes carbons covalently compatible w/other elements       Sat 02/13/2016  ­ Carbon skeleton variation:Length​, Branching/No branching​ , Double bond  position​ and Presence of rings  ­ Hydrocarbons**** (somewhat obvious in the name); H attach to carbon skeletons  ­ Isomers ­ same # of atoms in an element but different structures and properties  ­ Structural Isomers ​­ differ in covalent organization of atoms   ­ Cis v. Trans Isomers ​ ­ different spatial organizations  ­ Enantiomers​  ­ asymmetric carbons   ­ Levo v. Dextro   ­ one of the two is usually biologically active (has serious  pharmaceutical implications*)   ­FUNCTIONAL GROUPS (very important to remember***) pg. 63  ____________________________________________________________  Chapter 5: The Structure & Function of Large Biological Molecules  1) Carbohydrates  ­ Monosaccharides ­ ​ simple sugars  ­ most famous is g​lucose  ­ sugar classification depends on the # of carbons w/in the skeleton   ­ a sugar can either be a ketose or an aldose   ­ differences between the two**  ­Disaccharides   ­ Glycosidic linkage is equated to a peptide bond   ­ Polysaccharides ​­ used for either storage or building material   ­Starch: ​ mylopectin (branched)  v. Amylose (unbranched)  ­ Glycogen*   ­Cellulose: ​sed by plant cells   ­Chitin: used by arthropods   2) Lipids  ­ hydrophobic   ­ Fats:Unsaturated ​ v.Saturated   ­ Phospholipids​  ­ only has 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol   ­ hydrophilic head with a hydrophobic body; assemble into bilayers so they  do not make contact with water   3) Proteins   ­ constructed from the same set of 20 amino acids (have an idea of how to  recognize the amino acids, they’re usually sorted into groups)   ­ Nonpolar; hydrophobic (C & H)   ­ Polar; hydrophilic (O & N)   ­ Electrically charged side chains; hydrophilic       Sat 02/13/2016  ­ acids have a (­) charge  ­ bases have a (+) charge   ­ Protein structures********  ­ different functions: defense, enzymatic, transport, storage, structural, etc   ­ malfunction in protein folding can lead to diseases such as Alzheimer's  4) Nucleic acids   ­ made up of nucleotides  ­ consists of 5­C sugars, nitrogenous base, & 1 or more phosphate groups   ­ 2 families of nitrogenous bases: ​ yrimidine & Purine  ­ DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) v. RNA (ribonucleic acid)   ­ DNA lacks O atom RNA has  ­ DNA ​ toRNA​  to theprotein   *all groups except lipids are made of ​ olynomers  ­ polymer synthesis: ​dehydration reaction  ­ polymer deconstruction: ​hydrolosis   ­ constructed from common monomers, different variations  _______________________________________________________   Chapter 6: Tour of a Cell  basically know all the workings of the cellular structures and be able to understand how  they all come together to help the cell function    Animal Cell  & Plant cells have in common these structures:   ­ Nucleus   ­ nuclear envelope  ­ nucleolus   ­ The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) both smooth & rough   ­ The Golgi Apparatus   ­ Ribosomes  ­ Plasma membrane   ­ Lysosomes   ­ Chromatin   ­ Peroxisome  ­ Centrosome   ­ Mitochondrion   ­ Microfilaments   these 2 make up the cytoskeleton   ­ Microtubules          Sat 02/13/2016  However the animal cell has  ­ Intermediate filaments within the cytoskeleton as well  ­ Microfilli   ­ Flagellum  While the plant cell has  ­ The cell wall   ­ Plasmadesmata   ­ Central vacuole     Cell junctions ­ ​tight junctions​  todesomomes​  togap junctions (in decreasing  order)     


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