BSCI105 Exam 1 Study Guide
BSCI105 Exam 1 Study Guide BSCI105
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cathryn Tsu on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSCI105 at University of Maryland taught by Norma Allewell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Sat 02/13/2016 BSCI105 Exam 1 (Chapters 16) Study Guide Date of Exam: Wed 02/17/2016 ____________________________________________________________________________ Overview The first exam will cover the main building blocks of life: how they’re grouped on both a broad and specific cellular level. This will span from the overlying themes of biology, its chemical context, the huge significance of water and carbon, macromolecules, and the structure and function of the cell. ____________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 1: Evolution, Themes of Biology, & Scientific Inquiry (basic stuff, don’t worry about this as much) Biology the scientific study of life Evolution the process of change that has transformed organisms from their earliest existence to the present (researched through biology) Levels of Biological Organization (Most broad to most specific) 1) Biosphere 2) Ecosystems 3) Communities 4) Populations 5) Organisms 6) Organ & Organ Systems 7) Tissues 8) Cells 9) Organelles 10)Molecules Emergent Properties properties that arise in the arrangement/interactions of components as complexity increases The connection between an organism’s structure & function*** A cell:rokaryote vs.Eukaryote Genomics scientifically looking at whole sets of genes/other DNA Proteomics study of sets of proteins in a given proteome or group of proteomes Interactions between organisms: winwin, winlose, loselose Sat 02/13/2016 Feedback Regulation the production of a process regulates that very process (negative v. positive) Charles Darwin & Darwinism Scientific Inquiry ( Experiment, Independent & dependent varia les) ____________________________________________________________ Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Matter anything that takes up space and has mass Elements substances that can’t be broken down into any other simpler substances (92 in nature) C, N, H, and O make up 96% of living matter Compounds a combination of two or more elements in fixed ratios (different element combinations = different compound characteristics) Trace Elements elements that organisms require in small quantities Atom the smallest unit of matter with elemental properties; has subatomic particles: Protons: (+) charge Neutrons: no charge protons & neutrons make up the atom’s nucleus, giving it a (+) charge also protons + neutrons = an element’s ass number an element’s atomic number = the # of protons (the # of protons also = the # of electrons) Electrons: () charge “opposites attract” b/t electrons and protons allow electrons to be around the nucleus *remember an atom’s nuclear symbol Isotopes atoms of the same element that have more neutrons than others which gives them a greater mass Radioactive isotopes occurs when the nucleus experiences spontaneous decay & emits particles and energy Halflife the amount of time it takes for 50% of a “parent” isotope to decay into the “daughter” isotope An atom & their electron shells possess different energy qualities: shell movement, valence electron dependent behavior Orbitals 3D space where an electron is located most of the time; remember different orbitals like, p, d Covalent bonds a pair of electrons shared by 2 atoms (ex. H atoms) Sat 02/13/2016 Polar covalent bonds v. nonpolar covalent bonds Electronegativity attraction of certain atoms for electrons of a covalent bond (O** is very important later on) Ions when 2 atoms’ inequality is so strong the more electronegative removes the electron from the other Cation v. anion Weak chemical bonds Hydrogen bonds*** Van der Waals Interactions Orbital hybridization Reactions: can’t create or destroy, only reorganize atoms ____________________________________________________________ Chapter 3: Water & Life Water is a polar molecule (O & H w/hydrogen bonds) Solution v. solvent v. solute Aqueous solution a solute dissolved in water which is the solvent Hydrophilic v. hydrophobic Molecular mass sum of the masses w/in a molecule 6.022 x 10^23 Hydrogen ion (H+) single proton with a charge of 1+ , usually an electron is left behind. The atom without the proton is now a hydroxide ion (OH) Acid v base Solutions with high amounts of OH are basic The pH scale** Acids have pH values < 7 Bases have pH values > 7 Neutrals have pH values = 7 ____________________________________________________________ Chapter 4: Carbon & the Molecular Diversity of Life Stanley Miller’s experiment Carbon’s versatility allows it to help create a multitude of diverse organisms able to create up to 4 bonds completes valence shell by sharing 4 electrons form single/double bonds acts as an intersection Electron configuration determines the # of carbon atoms and the type of bonds formed makes carbons covalently compatible w/other elements Sat 02/13/2016 Carbon skeleton variation:Length, Branching/No branching , Double bond position and Presence of rings Hydrocarbons**** (somewhat obvious in the name); H attach to carbon skeletons Isomers same # of atoms in an element but different structures and properties Structural Isomers differ in covalent organization of atoms Cis v. Trans Isomers different spatial organizations Enantiomers asymmetric carbons Levo v. Dextro one of the two is usually biologically active (has serious pharmaceutical implications*) FUNCTIONAL GROUPS (very important to remember***) pg. 63 ____________________________________________________________ Chapter 5: The Structure & Function of Large Biological Molecules 1) Carbohydrates Monosaccharides simple sugars most famous is glucose sugar classification depends on the # of carbons w/in the skeleton a sugar can either be a ketose or an aldose differences between the two** Disaccharides Glycosidic linkage is equated to a peptide bond Polysaccharides used for either storage or building material Starch: mylopectin (branched) v. Amylose (unbranched) Glycogen* Cellulose: sed by plant cells Chitin: used by arthropods 2) Lipids hydrophobic Fats:Unsaturated v.Saturated Phospholipids only has 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol hydrophilic head with a hydrophobic body; assemble into bilayers so they do not make contact with water 3) Proteins constructed from the same set of 20 amino acids (have an idea of how to recognize the amino acids, they’re usually sorted into groups) Nonpolar; hydrophobic (C & H) Polar; hydrophilic (O & N) Electrically charged side chains; hydrophilic Sat 02/13/2016 acids have a () charge bases have a (+) charge Protein structures******** different functions: defense, enzymatic, transport, storage, structural, etc malfunction in protein folding can lead to diseases such as Alzheimer's 4) Nucleic acids made up of nucleotides consists of 5C sugars, nitrogenous base, & 1 or more phosphate groups 2 families of nitrogenous bases: yrimidine & Purine DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) v. RNA (ribonucleic acid) DNA lacks O atom RNA has DNA toRNA to theprotein *all groups except lipids are made of olynomers polymer synthesis: dehydration reaction polymer deconstruction: hydrolosis constructed from common monomers, different variations _______________________________________________________ Chapter 6: Tour of a Cell basically know all the workings of the cellular structures and be able to understand how they all come together to help the cell function Animal Cell & Plant cells have in common these structures: Nucleus nuclear envelope nucleolus The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) both smooth & rough The Golgi Apparatus Ribosomes Plasma membrane Lysosomes Chromatin Peroxisome Centrosome Mitochondrion Microfilaments these 2 make up the cytoskeleton Microtubules Sat 02/13/2016 However the animal cell has Intermediate filaments within the cytoskeleton as well Microfilli Flagellum While the plant cell has The cell wall Plasmadesmata Central vacuole Cell junctions tight junctions todesomomes togap junctions (in decreasing order)
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