SPCM 100 Study Guide for first Quiz/Test over material covered in weeks 1-4
SPCM 100 Study Guide for first Quiz/Test over material covered in weeks 1-4 SPCM 100
Popular in Communication and Popular Culture
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Popular in Communication Studies
Paige Von Almen
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grace Walkuski on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPCM 100 at Colorado State University taught by Garcia-Jimenez, Leonarda Immaculata in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Communication and Popular Culture in Communication Studies at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
Weeks 1-4 Study guide Saturday, 13 February, 2016 11:20 PM Defining Popular Culture: • A system of shared meanings, symbols, values, beliefs, worldviews,lifestyles… • Culture for the people created by the media • Mass media began in the 1950s post-war mainly through the production of cheap newspapers which allowed everyone,no matter their income, to consume culture. • Forever accessible to everyone Subculture vs Pop Culture: • Subculture: only consumed by sometypes/groups of people • Pop culture: shared by everyone • All pop culture starts as subculture and expands to the masses • Not all subculture becomespop culture • Examples:Hipsters, Whole Foods High Culture vs Low Culture: High Culture Low Culture Superior, Elite, Exquisite, Intelligent Inferior, Vulgar, Obscene For the high class people $$$ For lower class people $ Ballet, Opera, Symphony GTA, Wrestling, Reality TV • Pop culture includes both high and low culture • Thought to be Eclectic (made up of parts from various sources) • Could be thought of as a skyscraper (every form of culture has its place somewhereof the spectrum from high to low, more rigid) or as a map (a morefluid idea that all forms of culture are interconnected) Watch: 'The Newsroom Season 1 Opening Scene' (YouTube) • The explosion of the newscaster challenges the audience's cultural perception of patriotism. • His reflection on the days of his past shows his love and reminiscenceof the culture in his youth. Critiques of Popular Culture and some Causes: Loss of quality The goal of the news companies is more to make a profit $$$ than actually inform the people Fragmentation of Today there are so many different facets to receive the media that many people content and choose only the things they want to see audiences Commodificationof The concept of putting a price on something that we would not usually consider culture to be a 'good' that is to be packaged and sold. Fast culture There is so much repetition of ideas and events that people get bored or impatient and skip through the story. Therefore, media producers modify stories to keep the audience's attention. (again for $$$) Repetition of the Many media producers will report on the same topics so that not one producer same ideas gets all the attention and $$$ same ideas gets all the attention and $$$ Loss of democratic People often take what they see in the media to be the truth and don’t think reasoning through how the story could be different or if the producer modified the story to have a specific impact. Models of Communication At least one question on first quiz Linear Model Source ---> Transmitter ---> Channel ---> Receiver ---> Destination Noise Source • This model is not accurate in media today because there is not any feedback from the audience/public, information only movesin one direction • Can still be accurate for some books where the author isn't active in the media Cultural Approach • An act where everyonecollaborates and the audience selects the messages • Social networksallow people to post and share their own stories • Example: the New York Times published an article made entirely of readers responses to an act called 'Ghosting' - when one romantic partner seems interested and then suddenly stops interacting with his/her partner Structure: Who owns the media? In 1983 90% of the media was owned by 50 companies In 2011 90% of the media was owned by 6 companies(oligopoly) Biggest media companies in the western/developedsocieties: 1. Viacom 2. CBS 3. Disney 4. News-Corp 5. Comcast/NBCUniversal/ General Electric 6. Time Warner 7. Sony 8. Vivendi Universal Do certain companies have economic/politicalinterests? Example: News channels owned by General Electric will downplay topics like global warming in order to keep their business thriving Consequences of the Oligopoly on the media • Homogeneity:media companiesgive people what they want to hear instead of what they need to hear in order to turn a bigger profit order to turn a bigger profit • Support the Status Quo: media companies don’t show minority topics • Business: what are the media companies' responsibilities? • Conflicts of interests: Who can we trust? Transmedia: When the people expand the narratives of a TV series Example: people on the internet furthered the Breaking Bad story Watch: 'Generation Like' Frontline PBS How does this documentaryevaluate pop culture? What is the relationship between big media and social media? They are both feeding off each other What model of communicationis presented? Cultural approach, information is flowing in all directions How does it criticize pop culture? Elements to Criticize Pop Culture Narrative Elements • Genre - classification of style (can be multiple genres mixed) ○ Schindler's List: Drama Carol: Drama & Romance • Subject - topic of the production ○ Schindler's List: Holocaust Carol: Forbidden Love • Theme - lesson we learn / the moral ○ Schindler's The Holocaust was horrible Carol: True love overcomes List: and can't happen again every obstacle ○ **We must always ask ourselves what the media is teaching us, it’s the difference between high quality and low quality media • Conflict - the struggle between two forces ○ Schindler's List: Character vs SocietCarol: Character vs Society • Plot - sequence of events ○ Schindler's List: SacrificCarol: Forbidden Love • Tone - creator's attitude towards the subject (director) (NOT the mood) ○ Schindler's List: Sad, Hope, Optimism Carol: Sad, Hope, Optimism • Mood - how it makes you feel (audience) ○ Schindler's List: Sad, Hope, AngerCarol: Sad, Hope, Optimism • Narrative Point of View - 1st person (I), 2nd person (you), 3rd person (he/she/they/it) ○ Schindler's List: 3rd Carol: 3rd Analyzing Characters Major Characters • Protagonist - main character ○ Schindler's List: Oscar SchindlerCarol: Carol • Antagonist - opposes protagonist Schindler's Directorof the concentration Carol: Carol's ○ List: camp husband • Foil - contrasts protagonist, helps protagonist,supporter,best friend • Foil - contrasts protagonist, helps protagonist,supporter,best friend Schindler's List: Jewish FriendCarol: Carol's girlfriend ○ Minor Characters - lack depth, static characters, 1-2 known qualities, either all good or all bad, do not change throughout the production • Schindler's List: Nazi SoldierCarol: Friends Archetypes - "prototypes" for characters • Schindler's List: Chief LeadeCarol: Seductress Analyzing Setting • Time - day/night, time elapsed, era (can be seen by the clothes, technology, cars, music, language, etc. ○ Schindler's List: WWII, Holocaust Carol: 1950s • Place - type or exact location ○ Schindler's List: Auschwitz Carol: New York City • Context - how/shy people are there ○ Schindler's List: WWII Carol: Where they live Analyzing Audience - main target (age, gender, sexual orientation, race, social status, etc.) • Schindler's List: Teenager+, everyoneCarol: Adult+, LGBT community,upper class Summarizing - listing events in chronological order, no judgements, just the facts. What happened? Super bowl commercials • Highlighted patriotism and togetherness • Example: Super bowl babies commercial(Intertextuality: unintentionally relates back to the All You Need is LoveStarbucks campaign) 1984 Apple Commercial(DirectorRidley Scott) (Intertextuality: books titled 1984 (intentional) and Blade Runner) 1960swas the decade for pop culture • People started having the idea that they belonged to their own group of people and sense of community • Civil Rights Movement,hippies, JFK, "Make love not war" protests Mise en Scene 1. How the elementsare organized, arrangement 2. What stands out Analyze: Volkswagen Star Wars commercial Depth: What is in the… • Background, Middle ground, Foreground • Background, Middle ground, Foreground Density: how much visual info is available? • Stark, Moderate,Detailed, Cluttered (Moulin Rouge) Shot and camera proximities: How zoomed in the camera is • Long shot, Medium shot, Close-up shot, Extremeshot Angle: camera angle • Low angle (looking up at subject): making character look bigger and more powerful • Eye level: making the audience relate to the character, they are equals • High angle (looking down at subject): making character look smaller and less powerful Framing: can the character move around? Does the shot feel claustrophobic? • Tight (suggests character is confined by something) • Loose(suggests freedom) • Example: 1984Apple commercialhas tight framing Focus: how much detail you can see • Deep: entire image in focus • Shallow: part of the image focused, another part blurred Symmetry: what kind of lines does the scene make? • Lines draw the eye through the scene • Horizontal (balance) • Diagonal (shows who is more powerful) • Vertical (balanced) Characters: • Placement in the frame: ○ Top, Bottom,Left, Right • Staging: ○ Full Front (rarely used, too intimate) ○ 1/4 turn (common) ○ Profile (distracting, makes viewer unsure) ○ 3/4 turn (character is hiding something) ○ Rear (viewer is suspicious, isolated, rejected) Prominence: what stands out? Dominant: • What is the eye attracted to first? Secondary: • Then where does the eye go? • Eye is drawn first to human faces, then the largest object, then smaller human faces, the high contrast areas Dimension: • How big is it? Are the proportions realistic? Lighting: • High Key (light) (used in comedies and musicals) • Low Key (dark) (used in mysteriesand gangster movies) • Low Key (dark) (used in mysteriesand gangster movies) • Contrast of light and dark Characters: • Appearance: Clothing, Hair, Makeup, Accessories,Props Set: • Location,Setting, Props, Furnishing, Words, Names, Text, Signs Colors: • Dominance,Text, Graphics, Signs, Symbolism,Clothing, Lighting, Contrast, Filters • Often indicates target audience Special Effects: • Optical ○ Green Screens • Mechanical ○ Models, rain, explosions,costumes • Digital ○ CGI Intertextuality The way one text refers to another text What does the text remind you of? Genres usually carry commonthreads Intentional Intertextuality • Does the text directly mention any other texts or productions by name? Unintentional/coincidental Intertextuality • When a text/productionis created that is similar to a previous text/productionwith no obvious intentional implementation Indirect Allusion: Implying an inference to another text/production • A parody (Hunger Games and Starving Games) • Easter Eggs: items intentionally hidden in texts/productionsfor fun • Easter Eggs: items intentionally hidden in texts/productionsfor fun Symbolism: Aim it NOT to describe or summarize but to Analyze, Interpret, Evaluate, Argue, Persuade Symbolic meaning behind colors: Look for things that are Intense, Prominent, and are Repeated 1. What symbol is present in the text? (must be visible/ tangible) 2. Why do you believe it is a symbol? 3. What does it reflect? 4. Why is this important? 5. What are some other interpretations of this symbol? 6. Is it a commonsymbol? Hegemony: The social values of a society's powerful groups • American Hegemony:White, Straight, Male, Able bodied, Christian, Wealthy, Educated • Always ask yourself: is this production reinforcingor protesting against American hegemony? ○ #OscarsSoWhiteStraightMaleis a protest against American hegemony ○ Carol is NOT American hegemony because the characters do not fall into the categories and are not portrayed through stereotypes ○ Katy Perry's "Last Friday Night" music video reinforces American hegemonybecause the video only contains white people, straight relationships, and it portrays teenagers as crazy, young, people who just want to party and have fun • The media tells us what is normal/what to do/what not to do. What is it telling us? Ideologies: More political values of a powerful group • American Ideologies: White, Straight, Male, Christian, Capitalism, Universal Education, Cars, Consumerism,Anti-union, Anti-Immigration, etc. ○ Food Inc. and South Park are examples of productions that criticize American ideologies Equipment for living • The "rules" for how everyoneshould live that are set by the media • What is appropriate, desirable, and necessary
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