Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide POS 2112
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by StephanieMJ on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POS 2112 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Stan Melnick in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 155 views. For similar materials see State & Local Govt in Political Science at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 02/13/16
(POS 2112) EXAM 2 ESSAY QUESTIONS Use these answer/video links as a guide for your studies! 1 Can all interests be organized and represented? Discuss the critiques of pluralism by Schattschneider and Lindblom. Do they make convincing arguments? Give one example that highlights their arguments. ***Read pages 180182 for a thorough understanding*** All interests cannot be organized and represented. E.E. Schattschneider simply stated, "The flaw in the pluralist heaven is that the heavenly chorus sings with a strong upperclass accent." Clearly, the pluralist system has a mobilization of bias which benefits the private, organized interests. The powerful interest groups have more of an advantage when they go up against the public interests. The reasoning for this is the powerful interest groups privatize conflict which in turn limits the other interests ability to become involved in the policymaking process. Charles Lindblom disputed that business (economic) interest groups have an advantage in regard to politicians in market economies. Citizens and government officials can be hurt by the private decisions made by the business. Schattschneider and Lindblom make convincing arguments because money seems to play a large role in who makes the rules. The private, business, forprofit organizations seem to have the power and are organized, whereas the other interests are limited. Example: a business's decision to relocate or lay off workers can threaten the economic stability of a state or local government. If an automobile manufacturer in Michigan announces plans to move its operations to Mexico, the plant closing will likely increase unemployment in the community, prompt other businesses to also move, and discourage economic investment in the area. Using its threat of exit, business is able to indirectly limit the ability of governmental officials to regulate economic interests. http://study.com/academy/lesson/thepublicpolicyprocessproblemrecognitionpolicy formationpolicyimplementation.html 1 Discuss how states regulate lobbyists, comparing the stringency of the rules and which are most effective. ***Read pages 185191 for a thorough understanding*** How States Regulate Lobbyists: 20 states regulate lobbying of both executive and legislative officials, 12 regulate only legislative lobbying and 18 regulate lobbying of all government officials. Every state requires lobbyists to register with a state regulatory agency or the state legislature. 19 states require lobbyists to register prior to plying state policymakers. Another 26 states allow lobbyists to register within the first 10 days of engaging state lawmakers. 5 states, as well as the District of Columbia, are much more lenient. These 5 states give lobbyists a grace period of 10 days to register after trying to influence legislation. Lobbyist pricing for admissions varies even more. 8 states (Arkansas, Delaware, Hawaii, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Oregon, and Washington) do not require lobbyists to pay a fee to conduct business. Half of the states charge an annual fee of up to $500, with another 17 charging $50 or less a year. Massachusetts requires all lobbyists to pay $1,000, giving them 10 days to register after making their first contact. Effectiveness: The effectiveness of lobbyists is influenced by institutional constraints existing within a state. 1 Describe the different kinds of lobbyists and their effectiveness, and detail the types of techniques they tend to use. ***Read pages 187189 for a thorough understanding*** Types of Lobbyists: Inhouse lobbyists: Employed individuals of a membership group, association, or institution representing their own organization (About 40% all lobbying done in state capitals is conducted by inhouse lobbyists). Executive directors, public relations officers, and lawyers often serve as this type of lobbyist. The major companies who use these lobbyists do so to maintain a foot in the doors of policy makers and state lawmakers. The majority of inhouse lawyers have extensive experience working in the area in which they are doing the lobbying. Contract lobbyists: Work for a lobbying firm or independently. Predominately male, former legislators, elected or appointed state officials, or staff. Charge clients hourly fee; typically work for multiple clients. Around 20% of lobbying corps in state capitals are composed of contract lobbyists (depending on the professionalization of the state legislature). Government lobbyists: About 30% of all lobbyists in the states are government lobbyists. Public sector entities (county, regional governments, municipal, special districts like police and fire forces, hospitals, public colleges/universities, etc.) employ governmental relations personnel to advocate their vested interests in state capitals. Many are female; tend to be career bureaucrats or former legislative staff with experience in dealing with the governmental agency they represent. Volunteer lobbyists: 10% of state lobbying communities are composed of these individuals; also known as hobbyists. No compensation. Assist in public interest groups. Examples of some volunteers: Retirees, college students, high school students. Others are a nuisance by hanging around state legislatures and taking part in the action. "Volunteer lobbyists are the only ones left worthy of the name lobbyists, as contract and inhouse lobbyists do not need to hang out in the lobbies anymore; their campaign contributions and influence enable them to be ushered directly in the front door of legislator's offices." https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aTbtKRdYbYo 1 Compare the different perspectives that David Truman and Mancur Olson have regarding how and why interest groups form. ***Read pages 183184 for a thorough understand*** David Truman: Argued that humans are naturally predisposed to creating and participating in groups in order to satisfy their needs. Many individuals have diverse interests, therefore people belong to several groups. Following the pluralist logic that groups emerge when a disturbance in the status quo occurs, the number and types of interest groups will grow as a society becomes more complex. As a state's economy grows, so does the number of interest groups operating in that state. Mancur Olson: In contrast to Truman, Olson contended there are many costs associated with an individual joining a group. If given a choice, rational actors would generally not join groups, choosing instead to benefit from the actions of the groups without bearing any of the attendant costs. Pointed out that individuals usually joined groups for three reasons: peer pressure, coercion, or if they receive some type of selective benefit. http://study.com/academy/lesson/developmentmaintenanceofinterestgroups.html http://study.com/academy/lesson/whatareinterestgroupsintheunitedstateshistory types.html 1 Assess how a state's socioeconomic makeup influences its interest group density and diversity, discussing which factors contribute to the dynamics of a state's interest group system. ***Read pages 201204 for a thorough understanding*** As a state's economy grows, so does the number of interest groups operating in that state. States with the largest economies invariably have the most interest groups. Wealthier states tend to have more interest groups, in part because governments are able to attract new business by increasing their expenditures. In states with fairly dense interest group systems, the relative power of each group is lessened. Interest group diversity is positively related to a state's economic diversity. Legislatures of states with denser interest group systems tend to be less productive, as measured by the proportion of all bills introduced that are passed. States that have the initiative process has on average 17% more interest groups between 1975 and 1990, after controlling for other factors that might lead to interest group growth, than states without the process. Actual initiative use by a state leads to a general increase in the number of membership groups, associations, and notforprofit organizations that have registered lobbyists in the state, indicating that the institution of direct democracy can increase the aggregate size as well as the diversity of statelevel interest groups. States with more diverse interest group systems tend to adopt a greater number of public policies that are more distributive and progressive. 1 Summarize the differences between the responsible party model and the functional party model, providing examples of how parties in the United States tend to be more "functional" than "responsible." ***Read pages 145146 for a thorough understanding*** Responsible party model: Parties should be ideologically consistent, in that they should present to voters a clear platform and set of policies that are principled and distinctive. Voters are expected to choose a candidate based on whether or not they agree with the proposed programs and policies of that candidate's party. Once taking office, the candidate is to be held responsible for implementing the party's program and policies. Parties were to be distinguished by their unity and ideological purity, their consistency, and their ability to provide for a "loyal opposition." Functional party model: Any group however loosely organized, seeking to elect governmental officeholders under a given label. It is sometimes the case that parties will pursue policies that run contrary to principles in order to save their principles. This should not be interpreted as the parties being hypocritical; rather, the parties, as rational actors, are being functionally responsible. Political parties are "institutions responding to changes and searching for roles." American political parties have not been known for their ideological purity. Goal of the United States: winning and maintaining control of political office. Examples: From Mississippi to Alaska, there are prochoice and prolife Democrats and Republicans who disagree fundamentally with other members of their respective parties on the issue of abortion. In Utah (socially conservative state), members of the Log Cabin Republicans support gay rights, whereas in liberal Vermont, Tea Party activists have tried to stir up the state's dying Republican Party. 1 Evaluate the major differences between open and closed primary systems and how they might encourage or discourage political participation. ***Read page 148 for a thorough understanding*** Open primary systems are where you can vote for either party you choose. This system could bar individuals from entering into political association with the party. Closed primary systems are where you can only vote for the candidates of the party you are registered with prior to the election day. Third party members cannot vote/participate in the closed primary. This system can encourage voters to freely and secretly vote in a weaker opponent from the opposing party. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_95I_1rZiIs http://study.com/academy/lesson/primaryelectionversusgeneralelectiondefinition differences.html 1 Describe the differences between PartyintheElectorate, Party Organization, and PartyinGovernment. ***Read pages 156169 for a thorough understanding*** PartyintheElectorate: Refers to ordinary citizens (eligible voters as well as nonvoters) who identify with and share some sense of loyalty to a particular party. They almost always vote for candidates in their party in some or all elections. The strength of an individual's attachment to a political party is measured by party identification (PID). PID is a genuine form of social identity that is affected in part by sociopsychological influences. Because some people are continually adjusting their PID in response to political and economic change, evidence at the macro level reveals that the average PID in some states has been slowly changing. When individual political ideologies are aggregated, political ideologies found across the states vary considerably. Party Organization: Refers to the network of elected and appointed party officials; paid staffers, national, state, and local committees, and volunteer workers. Most state and many local political parties are vibrant organizations, carrying out essential campaign activities, such as mobilizing voters and raising campaign funds in support of their candidates. The level of party organization across the 50 states varies considerably. State parties are typically composed of a state central committee, congressional district committees, county committees, and ward or precinct committees. PartyinGovernment: Candidates running for elective office as well as officeholders at the local, state, and national levels who are elected under the party label. Republicans and Democrats (with the exception of Nebraska) dominate the governmental structure of every state. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=65tgCvzAqQ http://study.com/academy/lesson/politicalpartyidentificationmembership.html http://study.com/academy/lesson/thenationalpartiesorganizationstructure.html 1 Assess the various barriers facing thirdparty candidates and explain why they have such a difficult time winning office. ***Read pages 169173 for a thorough understanding*** Some barriers are constitutional, such as the singlemember district electoral systems used in most states. Other hurdles are statutory, such as ballot access restrictions, which are often very challenging for third parties and their candidates. Often excluded from public forums and debates, which can cost them valuable name recognition and fundraising opportunities. Candidates often tend not to receive endorsements from interest groups. Ballot access laws in the states ensure that the two major parties are guaranteed a place on the ballot, whereas minor parties if they do not win a certain percentage of the vote in previous election are required to circulate petitions to gather signatures in order to qualify for the ballot. Third party candidates and parties face psychological barriers. Citizens tend to have a strong devotion to one of the two major parties. Citizens alienated from the political system, and who therefore might be likely suspects to vote for a thirdparty candidate, are much less likely to vote. Thirdparties have a hard time convincing contributors to give them money. Media tend not to cover them since they have little chance of winning. http://study.com/academy/lesson/minorthirdpartiesdefinitionroleexamples.html
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