New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 2 Study Guide

by: StephanieMJ
GPA 3.8

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This study guide covers the essay questions for chapters 5 (political parties) and 6 (interest groups). There are also page number suggestions, video links, and examples included to better help you...
State & Local Govt
Stan Melnick
Study Guide
Government, political science, State and Local Government, GOVT, Study Guide, exam, Essay Questions, study, help
50 ?




Popular in State & Local Govt

Popular in Political Science

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by StephanieMJ on Saturday February 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POS 2112 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Stan Melnick in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 155 views. For similar materials see State & Local Govt in Political Science at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


Reviews for Exam 2 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/13/16
(POS 2112) EXAM 2 ESSAY QUESTIONS Use these answer/video links as a guide for your studies!   1 Can all interests be organized and represented? Discuss the critiques of pluralism by  Schattschneider and Lindblom. Do they make convincing arguments? Give one  example that highlights their arguments. ***Read pages 180­182 for a thorough understanding*** ­All interests cannot be organized and represented.  ­E.E. Schattschneider simply stated, "The flaw in the pluralist heaven is that the heavenly  chorus sings with a strong upper­class accent." Clearly, the pluralist system has a  mobilization of bias which benefits the private, organized interests. The powerful interest  groups have more of an advantage when they go up against the public interests. The  reasoning for this is the powerful interest groups privatize conflict which in turn limits the  other interests ability to become involved in the policy­making process.  ­Charles Lindblom disputed that business (economic) interest groups have an advantage  in regard to politicians in market economies. Citizens and government officials can be hurt  by the private decisions made by the business.  ­Schattschneider and Lindblom make convincing arguments because money seems to play  a large role in who makes the rules. The private, business, for­profit organizations seem to  have the power and are organized, whereas the other interests are limited.  ­Example: a business's decision to relocate or lay off workers can threaten the economic  stability of a state or local government. If an automobile manufacturer in Michigan  announces plans to move its operations to Mexico, the plant closing will likely increase  unemployment in the community, prompt other businesses to also move, and discourage  economic investment in the area. Using its threat of exit, business is able to indirectly limit  the ability of governmental officials to regulate economic interests.  ­­public­policy­process­problem­recognition­policy­ formation­policy­implementation.html     1 Discuss how states regulate lobbyists, comparing the stringency of the rules and which are most effective. ***Read pages 185­191 for a thorough understanding*** ­How States Regulate Lobbyists:   20 states regulate lobbying of both executive and legislative officials, 12 regulate  only legislative lobbying and 18 regulate lobbying of all government officials.   Every state requires lobbyists to register with a state regulatory agency or the state  legislature.   19 states require lobbyists to register prior to plying state policymakers. Another 26  states allow lobbyists to register within the first 10 days of engaging state lawmakers.  5 states, as well as the District of Columbia, are much more lenient. These 5 states  give lobbyists a grace period of 10 days to register after trying to influence  legislation.   Lobbyist pricing for admissions varies even more. 8 states (Arkansas, Delaware,  Hawaii, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Oregon, and Washington) do not require  lobbyists to pay a fee to conduct business. Half of the states charge an annual fee of  up to $500, with another 17 charging $50 or less a year. Massachusetts requires all  lobbyists to pay $1,000, giving them 10 days to register after making their first  contact.  ­Effectiveness:  The effectiveness of lobbyists is influenced by institutional constraints existing within a state.      1 Describe the different kinds of lobbyists and their effectiveness, and detail the types of techniques they tend to use.  ***Read pages 187­189 for a thorough understanding*** ­Types of Lobbyists:  In­house lobbyists:  ­Employed individuals of a membership group, association, or institution  representing their own organization (About 40% all lobbying done in state  capitals is conducted by in­house lobbyists). ­Executive directors, public relations officers, and lawyers often serve as this  type of lobbyist. The major companies who use these lobbyists do so to  maintain a foot in the doors of policy makers and state lawmakers. The majority of in­house lawyers have extensive experience working in the area in which  they are doing the lobbying.   Contract lobbyists:  ­Work for a lobbying firm or independently.  ­Predominately male, former legislators, elected or appointed state officials, or  staff.  ­Charge clients hourly fee; typically work for multiple clients. ­Around 20% of lobbying corps in state capitals are composed of contract  lobbyists (depending on the professionalization of the state legislature).   Government lobbyists: ­About 30% of all lobbyists in the states are government lobbyists.  ­Public sector entities (county, regional governments, municipal, special  districts like police and fire forces, hospitals, public colleges/universities, etc.)  employ governmental relations personnel to advocate their vested interests in  state capitals.  ­Many are female; tend to be career bureaucrats or former legislative staff with  experience in dealing with the governmental agency they represent.   Volunteer lobbyists: ­10% of state lobbying communities are composed of these individuals; also  known as hobbyists. ­No compensation.  ­Assist in public interest groups.  ­Examples of some volunteers: Retirees, college students, high school students.  ­Others are a nuisance by hanging around state legislatures and taking part in  the action.  ­"Volunteer lobbyists are the only ones left worthy of the name lobbyists, as  contract and in­house lobbyists do not need to hang out in the lobbies anymore;  their campaign contributions and influence enable them to be ushered directly in the front door of legislator's offices." ­     1 Compare the different perspectives that David Truman and Mancur Olson have  regarding how and why interest groups form. ***Read pages 183­184 for a thorough understand*** ­David Truman:  Argued that humans are naturally predisposed to creating and participating in groups  in order to satisfy their needs.  Many individuals have diverse interests, therefore people belong to several groups.   Following the pluralist logic that groups emerge when a disturbance in the status quo  occurs, the number and types of interest groups will grow as a society becomes more  complex. As a state's economy grows, so does the number of interest groups  operating in that state.   ­Mancur Olson:  In contrast to Truman, Olson contended there are many costs associated with an  individual joining a group. If given a choice, rational actors would generally not join  groups, choosing instead to benefit from the actions of the groups without bearing any of the attendant costs.   Pointed out that individuals usually joined groups for three reasons: peer pressure,  coercion, or if they receive some type of selective benefit. ­­maintenance­of­interest­groups.html ­­are­interest­groups­in­the­united­states­history­ types.html     1 Assess how a state's socioeconomic makeup influences its interest group density and  diversity, discussing which factors contribute to the dynamics of a state's interest  group system. ***Read pages 201­204 for a thorough understanding*** ­As a state's economy grows, so does the number of interest groups operating in that state.  States with the largest economies invariably have the most interest groups. ­Wealthier states tend to have more interest groups, in part because governments are able to attract new business by increasing their expenditures. In states with fairly dense interest  group systems, the relative power of each group is lessened.  ­Interest group diversity is positively related to a state's economic diversity.  ­Legislatures of states with denser interest group systems tend to be less productive, as  measured by the proportion of all bills introduced that are passed.  ­States that have the initiative process has on average 17% more interest groups between  1975 and 1990, after controlling for other factors that might lead to interest group growth,  than states without the process. ­Actual initiative use by a state leads to a general increase in the number of membership  groups, associations, and not­for­profit organizations that have registered lobbyists in the  state, indicating that the institution of direct democracy can increase the aggregate size as  well as the diversity of state­level interest groups. ­States with more diverse interest group systems tend to adopt a greater number of public  policies that are more distributive and progressive.     1 Summarize the differences between the responsible party model and the functional  party model, providing examples of how parties in the United States tend to be more  "functional" than "responsible." ***Read pages 145­146 for a thorough understanding*** ­Responsible party model:  Parties should be ideologically consistent, in that they should present to voters a clear  platform and set of policies that are principled and distinctive.   Voters are expected to choose a candidate based on whether or not they agree with  the proposed programs and policies of that candidate's party. Once taking office, the  candidate is to be held responsible for implementing the party's program and policies.  Parties were to be distinguished by their unity and ideological purity, their  consistency, and their ability to provide for a "loyal opposition." ­Functional party model:  Any group however loosely organized, seeking to elect governmental office­holders  under a given label.  It is sometimes the case that parties will pursue policies that run contrary to principles in order to save their principles. This should not be interpreted as the parties being  hypocritical; rather, the parties, as rational actors, are being functionally responsible.  Political parties are "institutions responding to changes and searching for roles." ­American political parties have not been known for their ideological purity. ­Goal of the United States: winning and maintaining control of political office. ­Examples:  From Mississippi to Alaska, there are pro­choice and pro­life Democrats and  Republicans who disagree fundamentally with other members of their respective  parties on the issue of abortion.  In Utah (socially conservative state), members of the Log Cabin Republicans support  gay rights, whereas in liberal Vermont, Tea Party activists have tried to stir up the  state's dying Republican Party.      1 Evaluate the major differences between open and closed primary systems and how  they might encourage or discourage political participation. ***Read page 148 for a thorough understanding*** ­Open primary systems are where you can vote for either party you choose. This system  could bar individuals from entering into political association with the party.  ­Closed primary systems are where you can only vote for the candidates of the party you  are registered with prior to the election day. Third party members cannot vote/participate in the closed primary. This system can encourage voters to freely and secretly vote in a  weaker opponent from the opposing party. ­ ­­election­versus­general­election­definition­ differences.html     1 Describe the differences between Party­in­the­Electorate, Party Organization, and  Party­in­Government. ***Read pages 156­169 for a thorough understanding*** ­Party­in­the­Electorate:  Refers to ordinary citizens (eligible voters as well as non­voters) who identify with  and share some sense of loyalty to a particular party. They almost always vote for  candidates in their party in some or all elections.   The strength of an individual's attachment to a political party is measured by party  identification (PID).  PID is a genuine form of social identity that is affected in part by sociopsychological  influences.   Because some people are continually adjusting their PID in response to political and  economic change, evidence at the macro level reveals that the average PID in some  states has been slowly changing.   When individual political ideologies are aggregated, political ideologies found across  the states vary considerably.  ­Party Organization:  Refers to the network of elected and appointed party officials; paid staffers, national,  state, and local committees, and volunteer workers.   Most state and many local political parties are vibrant organizations, carrying out  essential campaign activities, such as mobilizing voters and raising campaign funds in support of their candidates.   The level of party organization across the 50 states varies considerably. State parties  are typically composed of a state central committee, congressional district  committees, county committees, and ward or precinct committees.  ­Party­in­Government:  Candidates running for elective office as well as officeholders at the local, state, and  national levels who are elected under the party label.   Republicans and Democrats (with the exception of Nebraska) dominate the  governmental structure of every state. ­­qQ ­­party­identification­membership.html ­­national­parties­organization­structure.html     1 Assess the various barriers facing third­party candidates and explain why they have  such a difficult time winning office. ***Read pages 169­173 for a thorough understanding*** ­Some barriers are constitutional, such as the single­member district electoral systems used  in most states. ­Other hurdles are statutory, such as ballot access restrictions, which are often very  challenging for third parties and their candidates. ­Often excluded from public forums and debates, which can cost them valuable name  recognition and fundraising opportunities. ­Candidates often tend not to receive endorsements from interest groups. ­Ballot access laws in the states ensure that the two major parties are guaranteed a place on  the ballot, whereas minor parties ­ if they do not win a certain percentage of the vote in  previous election ­ are required to circulate petitions to gather signatures in order to qualify  for the ballot.  ­Third party candidates and parties face psychological barriers. ­Citizens tend to have a strong devotion to one of the two major parties. ­Citizens alienated from the political system, and who therefore might be likely suspects to  vote for a third­party candidate, are much less likely to vote.  ­Third­parties have a hard time convincing contributors to give them money.  ­Media tend not to cover them since they have little chance of winning.  ­­third­parties­definition­role­examples.html


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.