Intro To Social Psych Exam 1 Study Guide
Intro To Social Psych Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 3430 - 03
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3430 - 03 at Tulane University taught by O'Brien, Laurie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 233 views. For similar materials see Intro To Social Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Intro To Social Psych Exam 1 Study Guide 1. What is a hypothesis and how is it related to a theory? ◦ An explicit, testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur ◦ Narrower, more precise, derived from theories ◦ Ex: Children exposed to violent TV shows will be more likely to hit their siblings than children exposed to nonviolent TV shows. • Social learning theory suggests ppl learn to b aggressive from viewing violence 2. What are some of the ways that self-report data can become biased? • Framing of the question ◦ Self explanatory • Response options ◦ Modal response - one chosen most • Anchoring bias ◦ When you throw a number out, ppl tend to use it as an anchoring point; ppl tend to under adjust 3. Be able to distinguish between random assignment and random sampling. • Random sampling - Everyone in population of interest has equal chance of being included ◦ How Tulane students feel about LSU • This class would be a convenient sample ◦ Can be difficult, maybe impossible ◦ How women feel about abortion • Can be difficult if you have a big population Random assignment - Everyone in experiment has equal chance of being assigned to each group ◦ Wanted to know whether taking 0, 50, 100 mg of caffeine before exam ◦ Random sampling choose individuals of pop, random assignment, once you chose your sample and choose experimental and control group 4. Know the advantages and disadvantages of correlational research. Choosing a method • Depends on what we want to know ◦ Correlational research • Examine existing Relationships b/t variables w/out trying to manipulate • Naturally occurring relationship b/t 2 variables • Directional Relationships ▪ Pos ▪ neg ◦ Exp. Research • Impact of one variable on another 5. Know the advantages and disadvantages of experimental research. Experimental paradigm • Manipulation & Measurement – Alter level, intensity, presence of IV – Measure DV • Control – Control influence of extraneous variables • Randomization – Control differences between groups • Independent variables - changing; – The variable that is manipulated in an experiment • Dependent variable - measuring; the variable that is measured • Subject variables - – variables that characterize pre-existing differences among participants ◦ Religion, gender • Main effect - – The overall effect an IV has on the DV, ignoring other IVs. ◦ Ex: husband's masculinity in relation to wife being faithful or unfaithful; high masc. if wife is faithful, low if not • Interaction - The effect of an IV on the DV changes as a function of another variable. ◦ Ex: husband's masculinity in relation to wife being faithful or not in the US compared to Brazil; much bigger difference with the wife being unfaithful and the husband's masc.: much lower in brazil - Honor culture - rep is important, men respond with aggression and violence Experimental issues • Stronger claims on causal relationships • demand characteristics -– Cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected. ◦ Problems with this • Tell kids with caffeine before a test that we think they'll do better compared to those we don't give caffeine and don't acknowledge • Internal Validity – Did the IV cause the changes in the DV? • External Validity – Would the same results be obtained for other people in other situations? Errors in experimentation • Type 1 - false pos ◦ Telling a man he's preggers • Type 2 - false neg ◦ Telling an obviously pregnant woman she's not preggers 6. What is hindsight bias? - the inclination, after an event has occurred, to see the event as having been predictable, despite there having been little or no objective basis for predicting it. 7. What is the self-concept and where does it come from? - how we see ourselves - self is social - classic vies - looking class self : we see ourselves as others see us (Cooley) - we see ourselves as we think others see us (Mead) - reflected appraisals - how others see us (social self) - how we think others see us (perceived self) 8. What is a self-schema and what is its function? • Beliefs about self that organize social world • Influence how one processes information • Experiment (Markus, 1977) ◦ Method • Three groups of women: schematic independent, schematic dependent, aschematic • Saw series of adjectives related to independence-dependence on screen; indicated if they did or did not describe them • Speed of response was the dependent variable • Y axis was speed in seconds, x axis was women; had independent words and dependent words ▪ Ind. women were able to quickly relate ind. words ▪ Dep. women were quicker with dep. words while ind. women were quicker with ind. words ▪ Aschem. women were even with both 9. Distinguish between individualism and collectivism. Individualism • Traits, personal qualities, things that make you unique from others (e.g., I am athletic). – Collectivism • Social group memberships (e.g., I am a Muslim, I am a Tulane cheerleader) or social relationships (e.g., I am the son of Judith Smith). 10. How does self-control work? • Muscle analogy ◦ Practice over time and it gets stronger • Mondo Cane study ◦ Either Inhibit reaction, exaggerate, no instructions ◦ Squeeze a handgrip exerciser with a paper in the middle ◦ 1 - did worse; spent up self control ◦ 2 and 3 - no differences • Implications for dieters ◦ Put ppl in a room with snacks on a diet or not on a diet then told them to do a taste test with ice cream; those on diet ate more 11. What does it mean to have an internal locus of control? • Locus of control - The extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally or externally controllable • High in internal - perceive outcomes in life as controllable ◦ Tend to do better in life (school, higher salaries, less likely to have problems with addiction) • High in external - feel they don’t have control over outcomes 12. What is learned helplessness and how does it impact people? • Hopelessness learned when people perceive no control over outcomes • Studies of dogs ◦ Had a couple groups of dogs, assigned some with uncontrollable electric shock or none ◦ Critical thing - changed procedures, shocked dogs but the dogs could make it stop • Took those shocked longer to make it stop • Implications: older adults and prisoners ◦ Gave those in nursing home a plant to take care of and said you have control - functioning better than those who left choices to others 13. How do researchers measure self-esteem? • Self serving bias - over report their self esteem; suggested • Self report scales • Widely used scale ◦ 10 item scale: Rosenberg's self esteem scale • I feel that I'm a person of worth, at least on an equal basis with others • On the whole, I am satisfied with myself • Letter test - like letters in their name indicates how high your self esteem is • IAT - implicit association test - measures attitudes and stereotypes ◦ Tapping thigh for pleasant and self and opposite • Implicit methods ◦ Measuring letter preference • Higher ratings of letters in your name ◦ IAT • Faster reaction to pos me, neg not me • Slower reaction to pos not me, neg me How do most people rate? • Most north americans have relatively high self-esteem • Not always affected by devalued group memberships • Julie Spenser Rogers - cross cultural comparing north americans and asians ◦ Asians have lower self esteem ◦ Just look at positive items, they score equal ◦ Asians score high on neg items ◦ Dialectical view of the self • Ppl are encouraged to recognize both pos and neg qualities about self Avg self esteem • In gen, evidence shows that ppl tend to have very pos views of self ◦ Implicit egotism • Ppl's names influence ppl's choices on where to live and what jobs to take ▪ If name is michelle you're likely to move to michigen to denver ▪ Ppl are attracted to common letters and sounds ◦ Above avg effect • How attractive are you - rate self above avg • Only for positive traits ◦ Unrealistic optimism • Bad things are less likely to happen to them 14. What is the spotlight effect? - Tendency to think that more people notice something about you than they do 15. Make sure you understand the self-evaluation maintenance model. T esser (1988) • Someone close to you succeeds • Self esteem affected by success and failure of close others • Two main processes underline SEM ◦ Reflection (basking in reflected glory) • We feel good when others we know do well ◦ Comparison • We feel bad when others we know do better than us SEM Model • What determines whether we compare or reflect ◦ Importance or "relevance" of a performance domain to the self ◦ Closeness of the other • If relevant, close others outperform = sad • If irrelevant, close others outperform = happy 16. What is BIRGing? - Basking in Reflected Glory - in sports • Number of school sweatshirts worn after team had won vs lost • Robert Shelldinee • Experiment ◦ Students given test in which half succeed, half fail ◦ Describe, in your own words, the outcome of a recent football game ◦ Those who failed test more likely to share in victory and distance from defeat ◦ Fail - we won vs they lost 17. How is automatic processing different from controlled processing? • Controlled processing ◦ Conscious, intentional, voluntary, effortful thinking • Automatic processing ◦ Non-conscious, unintentional, involuntary, effortless thinking 18. What is confirmation bias? - search for belief-consistent information so as to confirm one’s belief leading to statistical errors 19. What is belief perseverance? - the tendency to cling to one's initial belief even after receiving new information that contradicts or dis- confirms the basis of that belief. 20. Distinguish between the availability and representativeness heuristic (rules of thumb that help us make judgments or decisions) • Mental shortcuts ◦ Representativeness • Similar to typical case? • Astudent is blonde, surfs, laid back. Where is he from? • Statistically you're more likely to be killed by a deer (car accidents) ◦ Availability • What comes to mind? 21. How do self-fulfilling prophecies occur? ◦ self-fulfilling prophecy - making our schemas come true ◦ Expectation - perceiver behavior - target behavior - expectation confirmed ◦ Pygmalion effect • Randomly chose some students in class and told them they were intellectual bloomers; at the end of the year, those kids had better grades and were doing better • Attractive students are getting better grades 22. What is the fundamental attribution error? • Bias in attributional tendency • Overestimate the role of personal factors • Underestimate the role of situational factors 23. What is an attitude? • Positive or negative evaluation ◦ Person ◦ Object ◦ Idea • Cognitive, affective, and behavioral components ◦ Ex: miley cyrus you have thoughts, feelings, and find yourself listening to her music consequently 24. What is the principle of aggregation? - attitudes are much more predictive of behaviors over a long period of time as opposed to a single act or behavior 25. What is the foot-in-the door effect? - the tendency for people to comply with some large request after first agreeing to a small request 26. How and when do attitudes affect behavior? • We usually believe they equal each other ◦ Fundamental attribution error - judge ppl's internal states based on their behaviors and don’t take into situational accounts • Cognitive consistency ◦ Strive for coherence, meaning; we want the two to align bc it's consistence • Ex: if we think smoking is harmful and we smoke, it may cause anxiety • Strom Thurmond ◦ South Carolina senator ◦ Against race mixing ◦ His daughter was black When attitudes predict behavior • Self awareness • Strong attitudes ◦ Direct experience ◦ Rehearsed • Stable attitudes ◦ Measured at same time When attitudes predict behavior • Relevant to behavior ◦ Specific vs general attitude ◦ Birth control study (davidson and jaccard) • Attitude measure ▪ Attitude toward birth control (diff forms) ▪ Att. toward birth control pills ▪ Att. Toward using birth control pills ▪ Att. Toward using birth control pills over next two years • Attitude-behavior (how much they correlate with above sequentially) ▪ .08 ▪ .32 ▪ .53 ▪ .57 Why behavior affects attitudes • Cognitive dissonance theory (festinger) ◦ Behavior-attitude mismatch is uncomfortable ◦ Need to reduce dissonance ◦ Magnitude of dissonance is key ◦ Results in changed attitude • Festinger ◦ Brought participants to lab and had them do a boring task for an hour where they sat at a peg board and turned them; when it was over them told some of the people how expectation influences task and asked if they would lie and tell them it was interesting; some offered $20 to tell them, others offered $1 and third group didn't lie at all; how much did you enjoy the study? • No lie - low • $20 lie - slightly higher • $1 lie - really high • Argument is that they only got a dollar and were like why did I lie, cognitive dissonance made them convince themselves that it was fun • Insufficient justification • Festinger and Carlsmith • Initiation study (aronson and mills) ▪ Boring conversation about animal sex and then If you can read through a list of vulgar words or super vulgar words to an older man ▪ Sever initiation - liked most ▪ Mild initiation - liked medium ▪ No initiation - liked least • We need to justify why we went through what we did, that's why they liked it more • The tension that arises when on is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions is called: cognitive dissonance • ____ argue that when our attitudes are weak or ambiguous we infer them by looking at our behaviors and the circumstances under which they occur. Other word we deduce our attitudes in the same manner as would an outside observer ◦ Self-perception theory • Bem ▪ Reran original festinger and Carlsmith study ▪ You just learned about someone else that participated in the study • The ppl who guessed the participants liked the study the most was when they were paid $1 • Both theories now offered an explanation • We use behavior as a que; look to our behavior and infer our attitudes • Observe own behavior • Infer attitude • Offers alternative explanation why you might go through cognitive dissonance Comparing theories • In most circumstances, cog diss and self perc theory make same predictions • Critical diff ◦ Cog diss = arousal causes attitude change 27. Where do attitudes come from? • Conditioning ◦ Classical conditioning • Repeated pairing with NS and a pos or neg stimulus ◦ Operant conditioning • Punishment and reward • Balance theory ◦ Cognitive consistency theory - argue we have pressures towards consistencies in our attitudes • Genetic • Social roles ◦ Acquire the attitudes of other people in that role you take up 28. Be able to differentiate between self-perception theory and cognitive dissonance theory. • In most circumstances, cog diss and self perc theory make same predictions • Critical diff ◦ Cog diss = arousal causes attitude change 29. What are social norms? • : standards for accepted and expected behavior • All cultures have norms ◦ Cultural similarities • Incest, it's taboo ◦ Cultural differences • Personal space, those closer to the equator can tolerate less personal space than those away from it • Punctuality ▪ What is considered late? • Brazil = 33.5 min / CA= 19 min ▪ What is considered early? • Brazil = 54 minutes / CA= 24 min • Pace of life ▪ Accuracy of bank clocks ▪ Speed at which pedestrians walk ▪ Time to sell a stamp 30. What is culture? - the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of ppl and transmitted from one generation to the next 31. What is gender typing? • :process of categorizing ppl and things as masculine or feminine • Automatic process • Gender typing begins before birth (names) ◦ 90% of infants dressed in gender typed clothes ◦ Continues through childhood and adulthood 32. What is social role theory and how does it explain gender differences? • All cultures have social roles • Social roles are a set of norms defining how ppl in a given social position ought to behave ◦ High status • Ex: a teacher • This person will usually be the one to suggest for a relationship to become more informal ◦ Low status • Ex: a student ◦ Across all cultures, gender is an important social role 33. What is evolutionary psychology and how does it explain gender differences? ◦ The study of the evolution of cognition and behavior using principles of natural selection - Sex differences are based on the differences b/t parental investment - Women - invest greatly in reproduction of offspring so have developed traits that help improve the chances that each offspring will survive - Men - less concerned with reproduction and are less choosy about mates 34. What are some of the gender differences described in the book and in lecture? ◦ Big gender differences in physical aggression • Ex: FBI crime statistic: 85% of violent crime committed by men ◦ Why differences? ◦ Verbal aggression = no gender difference ◦ Relational aggression = women slightly higher ◦ Gender differences are: • Larger for reading facial expressions • Next largest for reading body cues • Smallest for decoding voice tone • Sexuality ◦ Men have more permissive attitudes about casual sex ◦ Differences have decreased since 1960, but still exist ◦ Evidence suggests men stronger sex drive • Mating preferences ◦ Women more likely to be attracted to powerful, ambitious, and wealthy partners ◦ Men are more likely to be attracted to physically attractive partners Division of labor • In us the proportion of married women in the paid workforce has doubled bt 1960-1998 • Number of women I college now surpasses the number of men • Earnings ◦ Women earn lower salaries Housework/childcare • Housework gap is narrowing ◦ Working women spend less time on housework than homemakers • Hetero men do more housework/childcare if: ◦ They have nontraditional sex role attitude ◦ Are needed because of mother's work schedule ◦ They have incomes similar to wife • Gay couples ◦ Gay men divide up chores based on preference ◦ Lesbian women share tasks
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