Exam 3 notes
Exam 3 notes Psychology 100
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kirsten Swikert on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Mark Graves in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 04/09/16
Motivation and Emotion • Motives and emotions motivate us to move, act, or prepare for action • The words motive and emotion are both derived from the Latin root movere meaning “to move” Motivation • Factors that activate, direct, and sustain goal-directed behavior • “Why’s” of behavior cannot be observed, must be inferred • Instincts o Instinct theory: behavior is motivated by fixed inborn patterns of behavior that are specific to members of a particular species § Unlearned, simply hardwired into their brain § Birds build nests and salmon swim upstream because that’s what they do o Problems: list of instincts grew too long to be useful, instincts describe but do not explain behavior, human behavior is too variable and flexible, what about the roles of culture and learning • Drive theory o Maintain that we are motivated by drives that arise from biological needs that demand satisfaction o Need: state of deprivation or deficiency o Drive: a state of bodily tension, such as hunger or thirst, arising from an unmet need o Drive reduction: satisfaction of a drive o Homeostasis: tendency to maintain steady internal state o Types of drives: § Primary drives: innate drives, such as hunger, thirst, and sexual desire, arising from basic biological needs § Secondary drives: drives that are learned or acquired through experience, such as the drive to achieve monetary wealth • Arousal theory o We have innate, biological based need for exploration and activity § Stimulus motives: internal states prompting exploratory behavior o Arousal theory: organisms have a basic biologically-based need to maintain stimulation at an optimal level o Needs for stimulation vary § We seek ways to maintain our optimal level of arousal § Strong needs for high levels of sensation (sensation seeking) appears to have a strong genetic component • Incentive theory o Incentives: the pull side of motivation § Rewards or other stimuli that motivate us to act; incentives motivate us by exerting a pull on our behavior o Incentive theory: the belief that our attraction to particular goals or objects motivates much of our behavior § Focuses on the psychological sources of motivation § Holds that motivation is influenced by rewarding goal-related stimuli o Incentive value: the strength of the pull of a goal or reward • Psychosocial needs o Needs that reflect interpersonal aspects of motivation, such as the need for friendship or achievement o Need for achievement: the need to excel in one’s endeavors § Extrinsic motivation: reflects a desire for external rewards (money) § Intrinsic motivation: reflects a desire for internal gratification (makes you feel good) o Primary motivation § Achievement motivation: the motive or desire to achieve success § Avoidance motivation: the motive or desire to avoid failure • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: concept that there is an order to human needs, which starts with basic biological needs and progresses to self actualization o Also known as the Humanistic Theory of Motivation o People move up the hierarchy of needs triangle once each set of needs are met self actualization: fulfillment of individual potential esteem: achievement, respect, prestige, status, approval emotional intimacy, friendships, social connections safe and secure housing, protection from crime and harsh weather hunger, thirst, avoidance of pain, sexual gratification, elimination Hunger and Eating • The hypothalamus o Lateral hypothalamus: involved in initiating eating o Ventromedial hypothalamus: signals when to stop eating o Neurotransmitters and hormones also play important roles o Neuropeptide Y: stimulates appetite and eating o Leptin: released by fat cells to curb appetite • Obesity o In the US 2/3 of adults are overweight and 1/3 are obese o In the US 1/3 of children are overweight or obese o Why is obesity on the rise: § Too many calories § Too little exercise o Increases a risk for: heart disease, cancer, strokes, hypertension, respiratory disorder, diabetes, gout, strokes, gallbladder disease o Casual factors: § Behavioral patterns (eating too fast or too large of portions; adopting unhealthy eating diet, eating fast food too often) § Genetics § Basal metabolic rate § Set point theory: the belief that the brain mechanisms regulate body weight around a genetically predetermined “set point” • Heredity influences body type and set point and our bodies also regulate by controlling food input and energy output • Reducing energy expenditure drops basal metabolic rate: the rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions when the body is at rest § Number of fat cells in the body o Environmental factors: exposure to food related cues, use of modern energy- saving conveniences o Emotional states: eating in anger, to quell anxiety, boredom, etc. o Suggestions for maintaining a healthy weight § Limit fat intake § Control portion size § Slow down the pace of eating § Beware of hidden calories § Make physical activity a part of your lifestyle • Eating disorders o Anorexia: self starvation resulting in an unhealthy low body weight § Intense fear of becoming fat, most have extremely low body weight § Distorted body image § Occurs most often in young women § Comes with serious medical problems, can even cause early death o Bulimia nervosa: characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging § Obsessed with weight § Unhappy with body § Maintains a normal body weight § Harder to recognize or diagnose o Cause of eating disorders § Sociocultural factors: thinness and attractiveness § Psychological factors: anxiety and depression § Biological factors: problems with hypothalamus Emotions • Feeling states that psychologists view as having physiological, cognitive, and behavioral components • Basic components of emotions o Bodily arousal: nervous system activation o Cognition: subjective experience of the feeling o Expressed behavior: outward expression of emotions • Six basic emotional expressions o Anger o Fear § The James-Lange theory proposes that emotions follow bodily reactions to triggering stimuli • Perception of stimulus⇒ arousal⇒ emotion § The Cannon-Bard theory proposes that the subjective experience of an emotion and the bodily reactions associated with it occur virtually simultaneously • Perception of stimulus⇒ arousal and emotion § The two-factor model proposes that the combination of physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal (labeling) of the source of the arousal produces the specific emotional state • Perception of stimulus⇒ arousal and “I’m afraid” ⇒emotion § The dual pathway model suggests two pathways for processing fear stimuli in the brain • A high road: the slower path leading to the cerebral cortex • A low road: the faster path leading to the amygdala o Disgust o Sadness o Happiness § Positive psychology: promoting happiness by focusing on strengths and virtues § Emergence of positive psychology focuses renewed attention on human happiness § Two factors seem to predict happiness: having friends, religion • To increase personal happiness: gratitude visits, three blessings, one door closes and another opens, savoring § Three types of happiness: pleasure of doing things, gratification, meaning o Surprise • Display rules: socially and culturally related customs regarding the extent to which one outwardly expresses their emotions, vary from culture to culture • Facial feedback hypothesis o Belief that mimicking facial movements will induce the corresponding emotion o Duchenne smile: a genuine smile that involves contraction of a particular set of facial muscles § Not all smiles are the same • The brain o Emotions are regulated by different areas of the brain o The limbic system (including the amygdala and hippocampus) are involved in the fear response o There are hemispheric differences in the processing of emotions • They polygraph o Device used to detect whether people are lying o Measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion § Perspiration § Cardiovascular § Breathing changes o Criticisms: § Lying does not produce any distinctive physiological pattern § One can lie without any telltale physiological reaction Developmental Psychology • The branch of psychology that explores physical, emotional, cognitive, and social aspects of development • Maturation: the biological unfolding of the organism according to the underlying genetic code • Issue o How do genetic inheritance o Nature/Nurture (our nature) and experience (the nurture received) influence our behavior? o Is development a gradual, o Continuity/Stages continuous process or a sequence of separate stages? o Do our early personality o Stability/Change traits persist through life, or do we become different • Details persons as we age? • Cross sectional study: a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another • Longitudinal study: a study in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period Prenatal Stages • Conception: fertilization of the female egg by the male sperm, this union creates a new cell called a zygote o Zygote: contains 46 chromosomes, 23 from each parent • Identical twins: develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms • Fraternal twins: develop from separate eggs 1. Ovulation: the release of an egg cell (ovum) from the ovary 2. Ovaries: the female gonads, which secrete the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone and produce mature egg cells 3. Fallopian tube: a straw-like tube between an ovary and the uterus through which an ovum passes after ovulation • Prenatal development is divided into 3 stages o Germinal stage: from fertilization to implantation in call of uterus § Period from fertilization to implantation in wall of uterus (about 14 days) § Organism is called a zygote which is a dividing mass of cells § The zygote slowly migrates up the mother’s fallopian tube to the uterine cavity § The placenta is formed th o Embryonic stage: from implantation to about the 8 week of pregnancy § 2 weeks or implantation to 8 week § Organism is now called an embryo § Most of the vital organs and bodily systems begin to form • Also known as the critical period § Development follows two general trends o Fetal stage: begins around 9 week and continues until birth § 8 weeks to birth § Organism is called a fetus § Early in this stage, muscles and bones begin to form § By the end of the 3 month, gender can be determined and organ systems have thrmed § And by the 7 month all of the major organs are functional • Environmental Factors o Teratogens: any agent that causes birth defects § Chemicals or viruses that can enter the placenta and harm the developing fetus • Possible diseases: rubella (causes heart disease, deafness, and mental retardation) and AIDS (a mother can infect the infant 3 ways) o Maternal nutrition: poor nutrition can cause low birth weight, premature birth, less developed brain, may cause the child to be more vulnerable to diseases, and can lead to spinal bifida o X-ray: prenatal exposure to X rays can disrupt the migration of brain cells, causing mental retardation o Smoking: increased risk for reduced attention span, hyperactivity, childhood asthma, lower IQ, and SIDS o Drugs: virtually all drugs can be harmful to the developing embryo and fetus, with sedatives, narcotics, and cocaine being dangerous o Alcohol: (fetal alcohol syndrome) a cluster of abnormalities that appear in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy, characterized by deformities of the heart, face and fingers, and defective limbs § These children are slower in motor development, lower in intelligence, and possible retardation Infant Development • Sensory abilities in infants o Vision: blurry but can recognize mom’s face, preferences for face-like patterns, by 1 month can visually track a moving object, basic color vision develops by about 2 months, depth perception develops by around 6 months o Hearing: particularly sensitive to sounds within frequency of human voice, can discern mother’s voice from other voices, just hours after birth can differentiate sounds in native language from those in a foreign tongue, by several months can discriminate between various speech sounds o Smell: at 5-6 days can detect mother’s odor, react appropriately to repulsive scents o Taste: can discriminate among different tastes, show preferences for sweetness • Perceptual learning ability in infants o Infants may seem to do little more than sleep, eat, and excrete, but they have more perceptual and learning abilities than many people recognize o Perceptual ability § Not blooming, buzzing confusion of meaningless stimuli at birth § Can begin to make meaningful discriminations among stimuli shortly after birth § By 4-6 months can discriminate among different facial expressions o Learning ability § Able to learn simple responses § Able to retain memories of learned responses § Show memory of faces at 6-7 months • Motor development o Reflexes slowly replaces with voluntary purposive movements § Ex: bringing objects to the mouth, grasping objects o Major landmarks in motor development in the first year: § By about 2 months: able to lift chin § By about 5 months: able to roll over § By about 9 months: sits without support § By about 1 year: stands without support Development in Childhood • Temperament: the “how” of behavior o Three general types § Easy children § Difficult children § Slow-to-warm-up children o Predicts later differences in adjustment o Shaped by both nature and nurture • Attachment: a close, emotional bond between child and caregiver o Does not form immediately after birth o Not the same as “bonding” o Is seen in many animal species, when imprinting occurs o Theories of attachment § Imprinting: the formation of a strong bond of the newborn animal to the first moving object seen after birth § Harlow’s surrogate mother experiments: monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother; pointing to a strong attachment and need for contact comfort § Mary Ainsworth: secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-resistant, disorganized/disoriented • Child rearing influences o Many factors influence a child’s development, including peers, parents, siblings, authority figures, and genetics o The important influence of fathers o Cultural differences in parenting • Keys to becoming an authoritative parent o Rely on reason, not force o Show warmth o Listen to children’s opinions o Set mature but reasonable expectations • Stages of personality o Erik Erikson proposed a stage theory of psychosocial development § Stage theories assume that individuals progress through specified stages in a particular order because each stage builds on the previous one § They also assume that progress through the stages is strongly related to age and that development is marked by major discontinuities or abrupt shifts that bring about dramatic changes in behavior Cognitive Development • Jean Piaget developed a theory • Sensorimotor stage o Object permanence: the recognition that objects continue to exist even if they have disappeared from sight • Conservation: the ability to recognize that the quantity or amount of an object remains constant despite superficial changes in its outward appearance o Conservation tasks: used to evaluate whether a child developed the principle of conservation • Assimilation: the process of incorporating new objects or situations into existing schemas • Accommodation: the process of creating new schemas or modifying existing ones to account for new objects or experiences Adolescence • The period of life beginning at puberty and ending with early adulthood • Puberty: the stage of development at which individuals become physiologically capable of reproducing • Menarche: the first occurrence of menstruation • Physical development o Primary sex characteristic: body structures that make sexual reproduction possible o Secondary sexual characteristics: the non-reproductive traits also develop § Breasts and hips in girls, facial hair and deepening of voice in boys • Effect of timing of puberty: boys o Early maturation: athletic advantages, more positive self-esteem o Later maturation: less popular, subject of ridicule or becoming socially ostracized, more likely to engage in deviant social behavior • Effects of early maturation tend to affect boys and girls differently • Effect of timing of puberty: girls o Early maturation: unwelcome sexual attention, feels that no longer “fits in” with peers, lower self-esteem, more negative body image, more emotional and substance-abuse problems • Cognitive development o Piaget’s formal operations stage o Adolescent egocentrism § Imaginary audience § Personal fable Personality • The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics and behavior patterns that make us unique as individuals • Helps account for the consistency in our behavior over time • The study of personality involves attempts to describe and explain the factors that make us unique • Freud’s psychoanalytic theory o Freud’s theory of personality that holds that personality and behavior are shaped by unconscious forces and conflicts o In his clinical practice, Freud encountered patients suffering from nervous disorders; their complaints could not be explained in terms of purely physical causes • Freud’s 3 levels of consciousness o Conscious: the part of the mind corresponding to the state of present awareness o Preconscious: the part of the mind whose contents can be brought into awareness through focused attention o Unconscious: the part of the mind that lies outside the range of ordinary awareness and that holds troubling or unacceptable urges, impulses, memories, and ideas • Structure of personality o Id: pleasure principle § The psychic structure existing in the unconscious that contains our basic animal drives and instinctual impulses o Ego: reality principle § The psychic structure that attempts to balance the instinctual demands of the id with social realities and expectations o Superego: moral principle § The psychic structure that corresponds to an internal moral guardian or conscious • Conflict o Ego holds the urges in check with reality o Id gratifies urges immediately o Superego holds urges in check with morality • Anxiety and defense mechanisms o Defense mechanisms: the reality-distorting strategies of the ego to prevent awareness of anxiety-evoking or troubling ideas or impulses o Major defense mechanisms: § Repression: burying distressing or unacceptable impulses and wishes in the unconscious (motivated forgetting of anxiety-evoking material) • Ex: a young girl forgets that she was sexually abused by her uncle as a child § Denial: the failure to recognize a threatening impulse or urge • Ex: substance abusers admitting they have a problem § Reaction formation: behaving in a way that is the opposite of one’s true wishes or desires in order to keep these repressed • Ex: a woman who fears her sexual urges, becomes a religious zealot § Rationalization: the use of self-justification to explain unacceptable behavior, impulses, or ideas • Ex: a woman explains she ate the entire chocolate cake so that it wouldn’t spoil in the summer heat § Projection: the projection of one’s own unacceptable impulses, wishes, or urges onto another person • Ex: a man with a strong desire to have an extramarital accuses his wife of having one § Sublimation: the channeling of unacceptable impulses into socially sanctioned behaviors or interests • Ex: a man with strong sexual urges becomes an artist who paints nudes § Regression: an individual, usually under high levels of stress, reverts into a behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development • Ex: a woman returns home to mother every time she has a big argument with her husband § Displacement: unacceptable sexual or aggressive impulse is transferred to an object or person that is safer or less threatening than the original object of the impulse • Ex: a man redirects anger from his boss to his wife and children • Freud’s psychoanalytic theory o Erogenous zones: parts of the child’s body that brings physical and psychological pleasure when stimulated o Fixation: occurs when one becomes “stuck” at one of the stages before moving on to the next one, failing to fully resolve a stage can lead to later-life personality characteristics associated with the stage of fixation o Oral stage: birth to 18 months old § Erogenous zone is the mouth (sucking/biting) § Conflict is weaning from breast or bottle § Too little/much gratification can lead to oral fixations o Anal stage: 18-36 months § Erogenous zone is anal activity § Sexual pleasure through the ability to control elimination § Conflict arises over issue of toilet training § Anal-retentive vs. anal-expulsive personality o Phallic stage: age 3-6 years § Erogenous zone is the phallic region § Core conflict is the Oedipus complex § Freud’s followers called female version of conflict the Electra complex § Boys develop castration anxiety § Girls experience penis envy o Latency stage: age 6-12 years § Sexual impulses remain dormant o Genital stage: puberty to adulthood § Attraction to opposite gender § Sexual energies expressed through sexual intercourse, marriage, child bearing
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