Intro to Sociology Exam 1 Study Guide
Intro to Sociology Exam 1 Study Guide Soc 100
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordan Pimental on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 100 at Indiana University taught by Professor Felicia Helvey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 268 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Intro To Sociology Instructor: Felicia Helvey Exam 1 Study Guide Study Guide by: Jordan Pimental Week One I. Lecture 1 (1/13/16) A. Culture & Society: What are they? a. Society: A complex pattern of social relationships bounded in space & persisting over time. i. Ferdinand Toennies: developed two different type of societies Both Gemeinschaft & Gesellschaft are ideal types. In the real world, aspects of both exist in all societies. ii. Gemeinschaft: Traditional society characterized by face-to-face relations Families, rural villages, small towns Relationships are valued for their intrinsic qualities iii. Gesellschaft: Modern society characterized by impersonal, distant, and limited social relations. Value relationships for what they might gain from it iv. Talcot Parsons Structural-functionalist Positive view of macro-level societies Concerned with major structures of societies such as: economy, political system, systems responsible for transmitting cultural norms & values (Schools), and the legal system. v. Ulrich Beck Argues that a move has taken place from an Industrial Society to a Risk Society vi. Industrial Society Key Issue: Wealth & even distribution Concerned with equality Solidarity came from people joining together for positive goal of creating a more equal society vii. Risk Society Key Issue: How to prevent, minimalize, and channel risk Concerned with how to stay safe in the face of increasing risk Solidarity comes from largely negative and defensive goal of being spared from danger b. Culture: The ideas, values, practices, and material objects that allow a group of people, even an entire society to carry out their collective lives in relative order & harmony B. Elements of Culture a. Values: general & abstract standards defining what a group or society as a whole considers good, desirable, right or important. b. Norms: informal rules that guide what people do and how they live i. Norms are not official sanctioned, but people still abide by them. ii. Sanctions: a reaction to either the observation or the violation of a norm. c. Material Culture: Material objects that have Cultural Significance i. Shapes larger culture d. Symbolic Culture & Language i. Symbolic Culture: includes nonmaterial & intangible aspects of culture-such as values and norms. No clear line between material & nonmaterial aspects of culture, because material aspects of culture often carry symbolic meaning. ii. Language: a set of meaningful symbols that enables communication Allows for storage & development of culture Written language is most effective in achieving this end Language makes communication between cultures easier if they share a mother tongue Language facilitates communication within a culture. C. Internal & External Changes a. Internal: Age population within that group & gender composition. Example: Younger generations are more favorable toward same-sex marriage. The Cultural fix to this change is that same-sex marriage was debated & legalized nationally b. External: Technological innovations. This is an external change because it has little to do with individual choice, and more with outside factors. c. When changes occur in a culture they need addressed in order for the culture to grow and thrive. D. Cultural Differences & Conflict a. Ideal Culture VS Real Culture i. Ideal Culture: What norms & values of society lead us to think people should believe & do ii. What people actually think and do in their everyday lives iii. Ideology: A set of shared beliefs that explains the social world & guides peoples’ actions Meritocracy: dominant ideology in US involving the widely shared belief that all people have an equal chance of succeeding economically based on their hard work & skills Not all ideologies are true b. Subculture: groups of people who accept much of dominant culture but are set apart form it by one or more culturally significant characteristics. (Examples: Hipsters, Greek Life, LGBT) i. These groups arise in consumption in the form of “brand communities,” such as Harley Davidson bikers or Apple product enthusiasts. c. Countercultures: groups that not only differ from dominant culture but also adhere to norms & values that may be incompatible with those of the dominant culture. (Examples: Amish, Anonymous) d. Culture Wars: A conflict pitting a subculture or counterculture against the dominant culture or a conflict between dominant groups in a society Example: hippies against unthinking patriotism) e. Multiculturalism & Assimilation i. Multiculturalism: an environment in which cultural differences are accepted & appreciated both by state and by the majority group. ii. Assimilation: integrating the minority group into the mainstream f. Identity Politics i. Minority groups assert their right to retain their distinctive cultures and their right not to assimilate. ii. Identity Politics: Using their power to strengthen the position of the cultural groups with which they identify. The goal: creation of a truly multicultural society g. Cultural Relativism & Ethnocentrism i. Cultural Relativism: the idea that aspects of a culture such as norms & values need to be understood within the context of that culture; there are no cultural universals or universally accepted norms & values ii. Ethnocentrism: belief that norms, values, traditions, and material and symbolic aspects of one’s own culture are better than those of another Week 2 II. Lecture 2 (1/20/16) A. The Sociological Imagination a. C. Wright Mills “Being able to look at the social world from different, imaginative perspectives, a scientific approach to ‘putting yourself in someone else’s shoes’ or looking at your own life from a different perspective.” b. Promise of Sociology: We’re able to use tools to understand the social world- from a scientific standpoint B. Personal Trouble VS Public Issues a. Sociological Imagination bridges gap between Personal Trouble & Public Issues b. Personal Troubles: things that people go through- issues that people face as individuals. c. Public Issues: problems on a societal level-numerous people are affected. C. The Micro-Macro Link a. Sociological research lies in the realm of micro| (meso) | Macro b. Micro: Small-Scale Social Phenomena; Individuals & their thoughts & actions c. Macro: Large-scale social phenomena; groups, organizations, cultures, society and relationships d. Structure: constraints within which individuals live their daily lives e. Agency: an individual’s capacity to think & make decisions within a social structure III. Accompanying Reading for Lecture 2 (Was not covered in class) A. Emerging Issues in Culture a. Globalization of Values i. There are global values, such as egalitarianism & liberalization of sexuality, but there is no global value system. ii. These emerging values are not a reality for all countries-especially underdeveloped parts of the world b. Cultural Imperialism i. Cultural Imperialism: the imposition of one dominant culture on other cultures- tends to destroy local cultures. ii. Americanization: the importation by other countries of a variety of cultural elements that are closely associated with the United States iii. Anti-Americanism: an aversion to the US in general, as well as to the influence of its culture abroad iv. Cultural Imperialism needs examined in the context of the counter reactions to it, counter flows from elsewhere in the world, and the combination of global and local influences to produce unique cultural elements. c. Consumer Culture i. Conspicuous consumption: focused on the wealthy & their desire to demonstrate their wealth ii. Consumption is highly valued in the United States iii. Consumer Culture: one in which the core ideas and material objects relate to consumption and in which consumption is a primary source of meaning in life. iv. Meaning is found: in goods & services bought, in the process of buying them, in social aspects of consumption, and settings in which consumption takes place. There are also norms for consumption. d. Children in a Consumer Culture i. In Consumer Culture: it’s important that kids be socialized into & become actively involved in consuming ii. Consumption by children used to have strong norms against it- viewing children as incapable of making informed decisions & more susceptible to exploitation iii. This changed with the addition of children sections to department stores. Soon after baby and children stores became separate of department stores and media began to market towards children e. Nontraditional Setting for Consumption i. Consumer culture has spread beyond economy to other aspects of culture. Example: Higher education. Students were once passive recipients of what educational systems had to offer. Now they’re active consumers of education, shopping for the best choice school ii. New key site of consumption is the Internet iii. Contextual Advertising: advertisements are woven seamlessly into the content of internet sites & many websites carry targeted pop-up ads. B. Post-Consumer Culture? a. The effects of the great recession are still being felt, resulting in consumers losing their ability or desire to consume b. Consumers also have become “social conscious & embarrassed by flashy shows of wealth” c. Less consumption is indicative of a decline in consumer culture, even if only temporary d. Postconsumer Culture i. Consumers buy less & save more ii. Consumers rent items rather than buying them iii. Consumers take pride in buying less expensive and/or recycled items iv. Consumers buy less showy brands v. Consumers begin dining more at home & less at restaurants vi. Consumers are showing greater concern for environment with what we do and don’t buy C. Culture Jamming a. Culture Jamming: radically transforms mass media messages, often turning them on their heads completely, a form of social protest aimed at revealing underlying realities b. Hope Behind it: once people are made aware via Culture Jamming, they will change their behaviors or perhaps band together to change those underlying realities D. Cyber Culture a. Cyber Culture: the internet as a whole has the characteristics of all culture, including distinctive values & norms: i. Openness ii. Knowledge sharing iii. Access b. Norms: i. Not hacking ii. Not spamming iii. Not unleash viruses Week 3 IV. Lecture 3 (1/25/16) A. What is Sociological Theory? And Who are the big 3? a. Sociological Theory is like piecing together a puzzle to understand the world- it’s a framework for understanding how the world works B. Standing on the Shoulders of Giants a. Karl Marx, Max Weber, Emile Durkheim are the big 3 of classical sociological theory C. Marx & The Market System a. Marx argued that the relationship between Capitalists & Proletariat is exploitive because of the nature of capitalism. i. The goal is maximum profit: The capitalist will pay the bare minimum ii. The proletariat is doing all the work for the capitalist to reap all benefits iii. Marx Predicts one day the proletariat group will gain class consciousness and forma Utopia Communist Society b. Marx argued that workers experienced alienation under Capitalism i. The work they do is repetitive and not a natural expression of human skills, abilities, and creativity ii. They have little or no connection to the finished product iii. Instead of working harmoniously with fellow workers they have little to no contact with them and are likely to be in competition or outright conflict with them over who keeps or loses their jobs. iv. What defines people as human beings is denied to workers in capitalism c. Marx hypothesized the need for a change in consciousness among the Proletariats i. Proletariat suffered from false consciousness: The workers did not truly understand capitalism and may have even believed, erroneously that the system operated to their benefit ii. Marx thought that proletariats could develop class consciousness: with which they could understand capitalism, their collective role, and their relationship to one another & capitalists D. Max Weber & Connecting Social Institutions a. Weber Analyzed the relationship between economy & religion i. Believed, unlike Marx, that religion held a central role in the Western world’s economic development ii. Protestantism & Calvinism lead to the rise of capitalism in the West and not in other areas of the world iii. Calvinists: believed people were predestined to go to Heaven or Hell and they couldn’t change that- they could only uncover signs that indicated whether or not they were “saved”. Economic Success was one of the signs that an individual was going to heaven. Believed in hard work & being frugal. b. Rationalization: the process by which social structures are increasingly characterized by the most direct and efficient means to their ends. i. Rationalization leads to an “Iron Cage,” making it increasingly difficult to escape the process. ii. Iron Cage: limits individual choices and freedom iii. Weber felt that communism would not eliminate or prevent the iron cage from enveloping us E. Emile Durkheim & Social Order a. Durkheim focused on the macro end of the continuum & had generally positive view of macro structures b. Believes the major concern of sociology is to study social facts i. Social Facts: These are macro-level phenomena, such as social structures and cultural norms and values, that stand apart from people and, more important, impose themselves on people ii. Durkheim felt that structures & constraints were necessary & highly desirable c. Durkheim had a negative view of individuals as being slaves to their passions. Believed that people’s passions should be limited, and that social facts need to be put in place that are capable of limiting and controlling their passions d. Collective Conscience: The set of beliefs shared by people throughout society i. Believed CC was a good thing ii. Suicide Study: Durkheim studied why middle-aged white males had a higher rate or suicides than others-Suicide threatens the individual and the society because it goes against the collective conscience iii. Anomie: People’s feelings that they do not know what is expected of them in society- the feeling of being adrift in society without any clear or secure moorings. –This occurs when society’s regulation over individual is low and their passions are allowed to run wild V. Lecture 4 (1/27/16) A. Sociological Theory B. Structural/Functional Theories a. These theories have evolved out of the observation and analysis of large-scale phenomena b. Functionalism: Society as an organism c. Society works like an organism & everything has a purpose d. There are 2 major theories under this heading: Structural-functionalism & Structuralism i. Structural Functionalism: looks at both social structures and their functions ii. Is a conservative theory because if a structure exists and it is functional, it ought to be retained and conserved iii. Robert Merton Functions: Observable, positive consequences of a structure that help it survive, adapt and adjust. Manifest Functions: positive consequences that are brought consciously and purposely Latent Functions: unintended positive consequences Dysfunctions: Observable consequences that negatively affect the ability of a given system to survive, adapt, or adjust e. Structuralism i. Structuralism concerns itself solely with social structures, without concern for their functions ii. Interested in hidden or underlying structures such as global economic order or gender relations iii. This theory adopts the view that hidden structures determine what transpires on the surface of the social world iv. Friedrich Engels looked at relationships between women and men and theorized that structures of capitalism and patriarchy kept women subordinated to men Engels assumed family structure followed an evolutionary path from primitive to modern Engel’s Mistaken idea: There was an early communistic society, with multiple sexual pairings that gave women power in family and society. Property passed from mother to child Wealth accumulated, men gained control & claimed more status To guarantee wife’s fidelity & paternity of children, system evolved so wife was subjugated to male power & men sought to claim women as property Monogamy eventually led to even more restricted marriage bond Engels believed female oppression to be rooted in underlying structure of private property rights in capitalism PRIMITIVE COMMUNISM NEVER EXISTED C. Conflict & Critical Theories a. Conflict Theory: Has its roots in Marx’s theories- an inversion of structural- functionalism, which conflict was designed to compete with and to counteract. Focuses on society’s negative aspects i. To a conflict theorist, society is held together by coercion. Those adversely affected would rebel if not for coercive forces like police, courts and military ii. Conflict theorists see the ever-present possibility of change They see dissension & conflict everywhere, stress the coercion and power that holds together an otherwise fractious society They see two sides to society: consensus and conflict and they believe both are needed. Therefore society needs 2 theories: Conflict theory & “consensus” (structural-functionalism) theory b. Critical Theory i. Shifts from economy to culture ii. Culture Industry: consists of rationalized and bureaucratized structures that control modern culture iii. Mass Culture: cultural elements that are administered by organizations, lack spontaneity, and are phony. Two features of mass culture are of concern to critical theorists Falseness: True culture should emanate from the people- but mass culture involves prepackaged sets of ideas that falsify reality Repressiveness: Critical theorists feel that the masses need to be informed about things like the falseness of culture so that they can develop a clear sense of society’s failings and the need to rebel against them. D. Inter/Actionist Theories a. Two closely related sets of theories. i. The first: consists of those theories that deal mainly with the interaction of two or more people (symbolic interactionism, ethnomethodology & exchange theory) ii. The second: comprises those that focus more on the actions of individuals (Rational choice theory) iii. Common facto: focus on the micro level of individuals & groups b. Symbolic Interactionism: The Basics i. Symbolic Interactionism can be thought of as a 3 step process 1. People act toward things based on the meaning things have for them 2. These meanings are derived through social interactions 3. These meanings are modified through interpretation ii. Subjective meaning: people behave the way they do because of the meanings they bring to a situation, not because of an objective reality iii. Definition of the situation: What people use to know what is expected of them in a particular situation iv. Symbolic interactionism is concerned with the interaction of two or more people through the use of symbols v. Symbolic Interactionists frame thinking as people’s ability to interact with themselves: in that interaction people are able to alter symbolic meanings & examine various courses of action open to them in given situations and to choose among them vi. It’s the pattern of these choices that is the basis for groups a. Ethnomethodology: Another inter/actionist theory focusing on what people do rather than on what they think. Studies the way people organize everyday life. i. Those who study ethnomethodology regard people’s lives and social worlds as practical accomplishments that are quite extraordinary ii. These theorists also take a different view of large-scale social structures than do structural-functionalists; they argue that the view of people and their actions as being highly constrained by those structures tells us very little about what really goes on within structures iii. These theorists believe that rather than being constrained, people act within these structures and go about much of their business using common sense rather than official procedures. b. Exchange Theory: argues that instead of studying large-scale structures, sociologists should study the “elementary forms of social life” i. These theorists are interested in the behavior itself and the rewards and costs associated with it ii. See people as rational profit seekers iii. Concerned with how elementary forms of social behavior lead to more complex social situations iv. Exchange relationships rarely develop in isolation from other exchange relationships. They can become so highly interconnected that they become a single network structure c. Rational Choice Theory: people are regarded as rational, but the focus is not exchange, rewards, and costs i. Basic principle is that people act intentionally in order to achieve goals ii. People choose among available means to achieve their goals on a rational basis. iii. Two important constraints on the ability to act rationally 1. Access to scarce resources: it’s relatively easy for those with access to lots of resources to act rationally and reach their goals 2. Requirements of social structures: the structures in which people find themselves often have rules restricting actions available within the structures. Week 4 VI. Lecture 5 (2/3/16) A. Sociological Research a. Sociology is a science b. Empiricism: gathering information and evidence using their sense c. Development of Scientific Knowledge i. Scientific knowledge develops gradually & cumulatively as one set of empirical findings builds on another ii. Thomas Kuhn: philosopher of science who proposed a different model of scientific development that focuses on the role of scientific breakthroughs. 1. What defines science is the existence of a paradigm: A general model of the world that is accepted by most practitioners in the field. 2. Researched expands on paradigms and it is fleshed out 3. Some research does not support the dominant paradigm & serious questions arise 4. If these questions aren’t answered, the paradigm collapses and is replaced by a new paradigm iii. Sociology is a “Multiple-paradigm science” a. No single paradigm is powerful enough to unify the discipline b. Research occurs within each sociological paradigm d. Each research follows a basic scientific design 1. Define the research problem: What are you studying? 2. Review the literature: Go through relevant literature to gather knowledge on your topic. 3. Form a hypothesis: based on what you know after reviewing literature, develop an idea/guess about the topic 4. Select a research design: The type of design chosen should be informed by the questions the you are attempting to answer 5. Carry out the research: Collect & record data 6. Interpret the results: Was the hypothesis supported? What are the implications of the data? 7. Report the findings B. Research Methods: Diverse methods of investigation to gather empirical material a. Quantitative Methods: Involves the analysis of numerical data usually derived from surveys and experiments. Can help to describe and better to understand important observable social realities i. Descriptive; describing a process & the meaning behind it or its meaning to others ii. Exploratory; tries to learn something new iii. Data collected is quantifiable: statistical research iv. Means of Research: 1. Surveys a. Surveys: questionnaires that are administered to the population being studied. Survey information can be generalized to bigger populations b. Descriptive Survey: designed to gather accurate information about members of a certain group, people in the geographic area, or people in a particular organization c. Explanatory Survey: seeks to uncover potential cuases of the data that descriptive surveys only describe d. Population: the people who are the focus of social research e. Sample: A small portion of a larger population that is hopefully representative of the entire population f. Generalizability: The extent to which research findings from a sample can be extended to the population from which they came g. Random Sampling/Selection: A sampling method in which a sample is chosen so that every member of the population has the same probability of being chosen h. Advantages of Survey Research i. Easily quantifiable ii. Can study large numbers of people iii. Allows for comparisons to be made iv. Provides generalizable statistics v. Highlights Patterns i. Disadvantages i. Superficial Analysis ii. Respondents may not really tell you what they believe b. Qualitative Methods: consists of studies done in natural settings that produce in- depth, descriptive information about the social world i. Ata collected is not used for quantitative purposes but used to give insight to individual experiences ii. Highlights processes and the meanings of those processes iii. Means of research: Ethnography 1. Ethnography: First hand study of people using participant observation or interviewing a. Participant Observation: A method of research used in sociology and anthropology in which the researcher takes part in the activities of the group or community being studied i. The presence of the researcher should always be considered in ethnographic research, as characteristics of the researcher may also play a role in how respondents react to them and answer questions b. Observation: consists of systematically watching, listening to, and recording what takes place within a natural social setting over some, usually extended, period of time i. Key dimensions to observation in sociology 1. Degree to which those being observed are aware that they are being observed 2. Degree to which the presence of the observer affects the actions of those being observed 3. Degree to which the process is structured c. Advantages of Ethnographic Research i. Provides detailed information on how individuals, groups, and communities understand their behavior ii. Gives insight into processes d. Disadvantages of Ethnographic Research i. Can only study small groups ii. Cannot generalize your findings outside that group iii. May lose perspective as a researcher iv. Difficulty in getting access to a group of participants e. Nonparticipant Observation: sociologist plays little or no role in what is being observed f. Interviews i. Prestructured Interviews are attractive when a researcher wants to avoid unanticipated reactions or responses. In these interviews, the interviewer attempts to 1. Behave in the same way in each interview 2. Ask the same questions using the same exact words in the same sequence 3. Ask closed-ended questions that the participant must answer by choosing from a set of preselected responses 4. Offer the same explanations when they are requested by respondents 5. Not show any kind of reaction to the answers, no matter what they might be ii. Unstructured interviews: Interviewer begins with a general idea of topics to be covered and the direction to be taken in the interview. Answers offer a good understanding of the respondents and what the issues under study mean to them 1. Problems with this: May yield so much diverse info that it is hard to offer a coherent summary and interpretation of the results c. Experiments: Research method in which variables can be analyzed in a controlled and systematic way i. Independent variable: the condition that was manipulated by the researcher ii. Dependent variable: the characteristic or measurement that resulted form the manipulation iii. Experimental group: receives some special attention or treatment based on the researcher’s theory that the control group does not receive iv. Advantages of Experimental Research 1. Control of experimental conditions- an unusual characteristic of sociological research v. Disadvantages of Experimental Research 1. Control of experimental conditions (may not reflect real life situations) 2. Difficult to generalize C. Issues in Social Research a. Trustworthiness i. Reliability: the degree to which a given question, or another kind of measure, produces the same results time after time ii. Validity: the degree to which a question, or another kind of measure, gets an accurate response b. Research Ethics i. Ethics: Concerned with issues of right and wrong, the choices that people make, and how they justify them. ii. Three main areas of concern 1. Physical & Psychological harm to participants a. Most sociological research is not likely to cause physical harm, but it can be an unintended consequence. b. Psychological harm is of greater concern. Even a questionnaire or interview studies can cause psychological harm by asking people about sensitive issues 2. Illegal acts by researchers a. Researchers must weigh sticky legal & ethical ramifications for participants 3. Deception & violation of participants’ trust a. There are several ways to violate a participants’ trust. i.e. accidentally divulging their identity when they were promised anonymity b. Possibility of exploitive relationships: can occur when there is real or perceived imbalance of power between researcher and participant Week 5 VII. Lecture 5 (2/8/26) a. Self & Social Interaction b. Socialization c. Identity i. -Self ID ii. -Social ID d. Roles e. Social Interaction i. Erving Goffman ii. G.H. Mead iii. Charles Cooley A. Why Study Social Interaction? a. -We learn about ourselves & our social lives b. Gain better insight into different perceptions of the social world as well as how humans shape reality c. Provides insight into larger social systems & institutions B. Socialization: the social process though which children develop an awareness of social norms and values and achieve a distinct sense of self a. It’s a life-long process b. Socialization leads to social reproduction 1. Parents aren’t only agents of socialization. Other agents are family peers, school, media, work c. Social Reproduction: process of perpetuating values, norms & social practices through socialization which leads to structural continuity over time. 1. Socialization occurs through social interaction d. -Consideration for what’s said in interactions, facial expressions, body language & laws e. Through the socialization process individuals develop their self-identities and learn how to fulfill their social obligations. C. Identity a. Identity: the distinctive characteristic of a persons or groups character that relate to who he is and what is meaningful to him. b. Some of the main sources of identity include gender, sexual orientation, nationality, ethnicity, and social class D. Self- Identity a. Sets us apart as distinct individuals b. Process of self-development through which we develop a unique sense of ourselves. c. Self Identity can be something like being a good friend E. Social Identity: characteristics attributed to an individual by others reflective of collective identities F. Social Roles a. Status: position within a social system that someone occupies b. Social Role: Behavior expectations of a given status c. Example: Status: College Instructor Social Role: To educate undergraduate students G.H. Mead Stages of Child Development Imitation: imitating the actions of others Play: the imitation of status positions and their roles; understanding symbols & what they represent Game: ability to act out several roles, understand relationship between different actors and their associated roles G. Self= Product of social interaction a. The “Self” is the “I” and the “me” b. Self-an object. What distinguishes us from animals is that we can step outside ourselves and evaluate. c. “Me”- Socialized part of the self. Represents attitudes & expectations of others. Also known as the “Generalized Other.” Self-consciousness develops from being able to stand outside of and examine yourself as an object. 1. The “Me” is the major instrument of social control d. “I”- The unsocialized & creative part of the self. It responds within the context of the “me.” The “I” exists with the present and can only be evaluated when the actions and attitudes enacted are part of the past, and hence part of the “me” H. Charles Cooley, The Looking Glass Self a. Self develops through social interaction b. Individuals imagine how they are perceived by others & subsequently react based on those imagined perceptions. 1. Essentially, what we believe others believe about us shapes our self- concepts I. Social Media a. How does social media impact our social identities and self-identities? 1. Multiplies & increases the audiences 2. Opportunity to really play up front stage 3. Share typical backstage things because of perceived anonymity J. Erving Goffman & the Dramaturgical Perspective a. Social life is played out by actors on a stage. How we act depends on the roles played at a given time b. Impression Management: Means through which individuals (actors) control the image they want to project; compel others to react to them in the ways they wish 1. Front stage and back stage in the performance (social interaction) refer to the relationship between the role actors are playing and the audience. 2. Front Stage: performance of role in society, open for observation by others 3. Back stage: where actors express themselves in ways that is hidden in front stage K. In addition to evaluating and redefining performances, actors can express themselves in ways that the audience would not approve of if they were observing at the time a. Humans have a fragile self that is vulnerable to embarrassment b. As a stage, social life is a collaborative effort among many actors who work together to make a scene work. c. Collaborative effort to make some interactions do not end in embarrassment Lecture 6 (2/10/16) VIII. Lecture 7 (2/10/16) Deviance & Stigma a. Norms: Rules of Conduct that specify appropriate behavior in a given range of social situations. A norm either prescribes a given type of behavior or forbids b. Deviance: Modes of actions that do not conform to the norms of values held by most numbers of a group or society i. Deviance is universal ii. No one conforms to all rules iii. What is thought of as deviant depends on the group, culture, and society iv. Deviance isn’t always something negative c. All social norms carry sanctions i. Sanctions: a mode of reward or punishment that reinforces socially expected forms of behavior. ii. Sanctions can be formal or informal d. Laws: rules of behaviors established by political authority and backed by state power i. Crime: Any actions that contravene the laws established by a political authority ii. Not all deviant actions are criminal in nature iii. Not all crimes are an act of deviance 1. Underage drinking is a crime, but is not socially deviant as a majority of minors consume alcohol. e. Functionalist Theories i. Crime & deviance result from structural tensions and a lack of moral integrations within society ii. Anomie: A situation in which social norms lose their hold over individual behavior 1. Anomie exists when there are no clear standards to guide behavior in a given area of social life iii. Durkheim 1. Believed anomie to be related to suicide 2. Considered the importance of religion as a social institution 3. Saw crime and deviance as inevitable functions of society 4. Since there is more room for individual choice, there is more room for nonconformity 5. Functions of deviance: Brings about change. Promotes boundaries maintenance iv. Merton 1. Believed anomie refers to the strain put on individuals behavior when accepted norms are conflicted with social reality 2. Deviance is a by-product of economic inequalities 3. Split people into 5 possible types on how they respond to the tensions between socially endorsed values and the limited means of achieving them a. Conformist: Still believe in the ideology despite evidence of its short comings and behave in ways that conform to those beliefs b. Ritualists: Still work toward their goals and follow the norms of the ideology, but the belief system isn’t necessarily there, they’re losing faith and going through the motions c. Innovators: they may still believe in the ideology, but they’ve found other means of reaching their goals because they’ve fallen short through normative means d. Retreatists: Go away from society to be alone and do their own thing as they no longer believe in the ideology e. Rebels: These people’s norms completely differ from the dominant ideology and won’t subvert to the system. These are protesters and the like f. Interactionist Theories on Deviance i. Look for the underlying causes of deviance 1. Learned Deviance: individuals have learned deviance from associating with those who are deviant 2. Labeling theory: Individuals are taking deviant action because they’ve bene labelled deviant 3. Conflict Theory: People commit deviance and crime to make a political or otherwise statement, usually to draw attention to social inequalities 4. Control theory: people are rational actors. There’s a level of control because people want to maximize their profit, but people are watching so they won’t perform deviance because others are around and it will be frowned upon, at the least. ii. Redefining Deviance a. If what is currently labeled as deviant is relabeled as normative, there will be less deviance b. It also potentially reduces stigma g. What is Stigma? i. In Greece, it used to signify a tattoo or a mark for religious purposes, to brand slaves, or criminals to indicate their transgressions 1. Mark of shame 2. Linking of a label to negative stereotypes 3. Propensity to exclude or discriminate ii. Stigma Process 1. Selection & labeling of salient characteristics 2. Labeled differences are evaluated with some labels being linked to negative stereotypes 3. Creates a distinction between “us” and “them” 4. The stigmatized pick up on the emotions and attitudes of stigmatizers 5. The stigmatized group experiences status loss and discrimination iii. Self Stigma a. In the case of mental illness, stigma causes more harm than the illness itself i. Mental illness stigma is in the media; dangerousness, loack of images of success b. Self-stigma or internalized stigma: internalization of stigma; devaluation of self i. Self-stigma can lead to treatment avoidance, reduced self-esteem, lower quality of life ii. Avoidance of illness disclosure due to stigma could lead to social isolation, reduced life opportunities, reduced opportunities for treatment c. Stigma persists due to perceived dangerousness d. Stigma exists to keep people down e. Stigma exists to enforce norms; the strong disapproval makes subsequent social transgressions less likely
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