BMS260StudyGuide.pdf BMS 260
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Popular in Biomedical Sciences
This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mikaela Maldonado on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 260 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Russell Anthony in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Biomedical Sciences in Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Wednesday Notes Lecture 1: Introduction and Cells Microscopic: ATOMS make up MOLECULES that make up PROTEIN FILAMENTS or ORGANELLES that make up CELLS that make up TISSUES that make up ORGANS Gross levels: ORGANS make up BODILY ORGAN SYSTEMS such as: Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive All of this makes the ORGANISM The cell cycle has 4 main parts: G -1S->G ->2->G 1 Biosynthetic: simple things are made into bigger things like macromolecules G 1hase: (aka “growth” phase) Makes stuff for the components of DNA to be synthesized in S phase 5 hours long Anti-metabolites can stop the cells from making the stuff to build into DNA G 2hase: (guess what? A growth phase) Makes stuff for cell division 3 hours long microtubule inhibitors stop things from being made here S phase: DNA synthesis aka replication 7 hours Agents that bind to DNA can stop replication NOT biosynthetic M phase: The cell divides 1 hour Most of the cells go to rest in o phase but some pass back into G1 Cannot be stopped Plasma Membrane Dynamic regulatory barrier – can change and adapts to regulate homeokinesis (almost like homeostasis but actually is “achievement of equilibrium in body functions by dynamic process” (taken from the medical dictionary online through the freedictionary.com). Composed of a phospholipid bilayer Fluid mosaic model – goes back to dynamic regulatory barrier Singer and nickolson, 1972 The model was proposed to describe the structure of cell membranes as the fluid mosaic model The membrane contains lots of things Proteins, cholesterol, channels etc. Polar head groups – hyrophillic and charged Non polar tails (fatty acid chains) – hydrophobic Fatty acids: Saturated fatty acids – no double bonds in structure Unsaturated fatty acids – double bonds in structure- makes the membrane more fluid – why? Structure can be more loosely packed allowing more movement This is the double bond right here> Proteins: Integral proteins – anchored in plasma membrane Peripheral proteins – not anchored directly into the plasma membrane allows for cells to interact and receive signals from outside the cell Desmosomes Cadherins interact between the cells Gap between cells is 20 nm space that allows movement between cells Paracellular movement can occur between the cells Strong attachments Tight junctions – gut epithelium Touching but not actually locked together Transcellular has to go inside the cell to pass to the other side Gap junctions 1.5 nm diameter channels that join the cytosol of cells side by side communicate and coordinate between cells typically smooth or heart cells Transport Diffusion Movement from high concentration to low concentration Facilitated diffusion Movement from high to low concentration with the assistance of a protein for example Active transport Solutes move from low to high concentration, requires energy and requires something to make the movement possible Friday: CHECK OUT CANVAS FOR GUEST SPEAKER LECTURE ~ too good to even try to copy Transport Passive Diffusion Movement from high concentration to low concentration Facilitated diffusion Movement from high to low concentration with the assistance of a protein for example Osmosis – movement of a solvent (typically water) across a plasma membrane Active transport Solutes move from low to high concentration, requires energy and requires something to make the movement possible Diffusion equilibrium – over time solutes will evenly disperse themselves throughout a solution; movement of a solute to reach equilibrium Net flux – addition of solute movement in both directions of movement to gain knowledge about where the majority of motion ends up (ex: 2 moving right and one moving left = net flux of 1 moving to the right) Rate of Diffusion 4 factors kinetic energy (temperature) membrane permeability concentration gradient difference of electrical charge (membranes have polarity; negative on the inside and positive on the extracellular surface) Facilitated Diffusion Solute acts as a ligand that binds to the transporter protein and then changes conformation to the protein to be released on the other side Depends on 2 factors: Concentration gradient of the element to be transported Number of carrier proteins available EX: aquaporins, GLUT’s (side notes: GLUT 4 is insulin dependent) Active Transport Movement against a concentration gradient that requires energy in the form of ATP Typically a membrane protein serves as a pump Sets up the polarity of the plasma membrane Na+/K+ ATPase Pump Mechanism: 1). 3 Na+ molecules bind to the ATPase pump 2) ATP binds the pump and phosphorylates the pump to stimulate the movement of Na+ outside of the cell and the release of ADP from the pump. 3). 2K+ binds to the new opening outside of the cell and is brought back inside the cell 4). Inorganic phosphate is released from the pump and then is bound to ADP to create ATP which can rebind with the pump and stimulate the movement of 3Na+ molecules back across. Secondary Active Transport o Glucose in epithelial cells o Coupling of an ion moving against concentration gradients with something that is moving down one o Glucose or amino acids moving up the gradient o Ex: SGLT 1+2 -. Glucose is transported out of gut lumen to the blood Endocytosis (Phagocytosis) o Movement of large particle across the PM o Phagocytosis is primarily bacteria, debris, and microorganisms o White blood cells Macrophage – white blood cell that cleans debris out Kuppfer cells – modified macrophages anchored in the liver to clean out debris taken from the blood in the gut Pinocytosis (aka cell drinking) o Non specific uptake o Small endocytosed materials Receptor – mediated endocytosis o Receptor on PM and material to be ingested creates invagination of the cell wall to allow things in o Provides for small, regulated, very specific amounts of endocytosis Exocytosis o Spitting stuff back out o Constitutive – secretion is continuous and unregulated Mucus, steroid hormones o Regulated – secretion directed by hormone or neural signals Neurotransmitters, insulin, proteinaceous hormones Dependent on a specific stimulus o Transported through the Golgi (cis, medial, and then trans) out of the cell in carrier vesicles Cellular Organelles Nucleus – site of DNA replication, RNA transcription, and RNA processing Nuclues – light blue Nucleolus – dark blue Chromatin - line Nuclear pores -> DNA Base – (glycoside bond) – deoxyribose sugar – phosphate group [___________________________________] ^ ^ nucleotide typically three until broken up to build helixes Nucleotides Purines – adenine and guanine Pyrimidines – cytosine, uracil, thymine (PYRamids CUT ;) ) Binding: A binds T (or U in RNA) G binds C Double Helix There will be a hydrogen bond between the nitrogenous bases in the ladder Adjacent bases in the ladder will exhibit hydrophobic interactions While building DNA triphosphates are broken down to monophosphates and form a 3’ to 5’ phosphodiester bridge that has connections to carbon that bridge the sugars There are 10 base pairs per turn of the helix ****distinctive difference between transcription and replication Transcription of DNA to mRNA 1. RNA = single stranded, ribose sugar 2. DNA template is read 3’ to 5’ and the RNA transcript is built 5’ to 3’ 3. DNA has intervening sequencing points called introns **RNA does NOT need introns in its template for primary RNA has introns but mRNA does not mRNA processing splice out introns 7 methyl guanosine cap is placed on 5’ end that allows for recognition in ribosomes and protection of the RNA material add polyadenylated tail to 3’ end that regulations the half life of the mRNA 5’ end of mRNA aminoterminus start of RNA is the amine group 3’ end of mRNA carboxyterminus end of the sequence is carboxyl group codon – triplet code for amino acid placement in protein Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth steroid synthesis calcium storage glycogen storage Rough protein translation and processing secretory proteins membrane proteins membrane bound organelles (lysosomes) Signal sequence/leader peptide N – linked glycosylation- added sugar resides to a protein add core N – linked oligosaccharide chains only if Asparagine – X – serine or threonine codon not all that have this sequence have a glucose added or can link plasma membrane lipid and proteins to create peripheral associations **side note – integral membrane proteins are 1 pass or 7 pass all of the material taken in… goes to to the Golgi will package into membrane bound vesicles further process proteins generated by the rough ER O linked glycosylation Serine/threonine residues Sugars are added one at a time and provide recognition for receptors Lysosome Has a low pH Known as the garbage disposal Filled with hydrolases – enzymes specific to a low pH N linked glycoproteins Contain manose 6 phosphate residues Link to say something is destined for a lysosome Mitochondria Double membrane structure Generates NRG specifically ATP Contains its own DNA (circular) and RNA Replicates itself based on metabolism of all of cell (ex: more mitochondria = faster metabolism) Research Integrity 1. Ethical Considerations a. Important for everyone in the lab to be aware b. Do coursework c. Appropriate advising d. Help other students e. Represent CSU accurately and fairly 2. Issues to protect a. You b. Environment c. Vulnerable subjects d. Integrity of science e. Research f. Scholarship 3. IACUC – institutional animal care use committee a. Animal well being 4. Notebooks a. Owned by CSU b. STAY IN LAB c. You are entitled to everything that you do d. PI is a notebook steward e. Should not be discarded f. Know the difference between primary and analyzed data g. Lots of reviews at any time h. Back everything up 5. Authorship a. ICMJE i. Design, acquisition, or interpretation of data ii. Helped write the paper iii. Approved final, submitted manuscript 6. Misconduct does not include honest error or differences in interpretation Nervous System-General The nervous and the endocrine systems are the two main regulatory systems in the body Central Nervous System o Brain, spinal cord, interneurons o Where cells originate and their function tells actually what system things are a part of o Forebrain Cerebrum, diencephalon Diencephalon – thalamus, hypothalamus o Thalamus – synaptic relay station info from cerebrum to hypothalamus, cerebellum, brainstem o Hypothalamus – regulation of water balance, diet, sex; regulated the pituitary gland (master gland of the endocrine system o Midbrain Connection from forebrain to brainstem o Hindbrain Cerebellum, pons, midbrain, medulla oblongata o Gray and white matter in the brain Gray (dendrites) is not myelinated and white (axons) is myelinated (fat) inside Peripheral Nervous System o Autonomic Involuntary Enteric Parasympathetic/sympathetic systems o Somatic Voluntary Afferent o Transmit info towards the CNS Efferent o Transmit information from the CNS to motor neurons Interneurons o CNS; relexes, integrators and signal changes Neuron – nerve cell Nerve – bundle of nerve processes within the peripheral nervous system Tracts of fasciculi – bundles of nerve processes in the CNS Group of nerve cell bodies in PNS – ganglia Group of nerve cell bodies in CNS – nuclei Moving neurotransmitters Along the length of the axon of a neuron neurotransmitter can be carried to the locations where they can be put into effect. The center of the axon is filled with microtubules along with DYNEIN and KINESIN “walk” Dynein – walks towards the cell body and carries recycled membrane vesicles; molecular motor protein that move endocytotic vesicles to nerve cell body Kinesin – walks towards the axon terminal carrying secretory vesicles; molecular motor protein that moves exocytosis vesicles to axon terminals Myelinated neurons Support cells of the nervous system CNS – oligodendrocytes PNS – schwann cells Both of these cells are filled with myelin (fatty material) Gaps are known as Nodes of Ranvier -> to speed up conduction of impulses – jumping of the electrical current aka salutatory conduction Somatic motor nerve – myelinated (thick) – thicker the myelination the faster the speed of conduction Glial cells Support cells (90% of the cell numbers in the CNS and about 50% of the mass) Oligodendrocytes Microglia – macrophage – like in function – immune support especially for the CNS Astrocytes – provide gap junctions with neurons attached to blood vessels – nutrient support to the nerve cells Astrocytes contribute to the blood brain barrier – protect nerve cells – nutrients through capillaries taken in and distributes by the astrocytes Ependymal cells – line fluid cavities of the CNS and contribute to cerebral spinal fluid Limbic system Learning, emotion, appetite (visceral functions), sex Cerebellum – coordinated movement, close proximity with the brainstem so does need to travel through the brain for access Brainstem – relay info, regulated and coordinated involuntary bodily functions Vertebrae Dorsal white cord proprioceptive information from joints, etc. to tell the brain where you are afferent only messages travel up the spinal cord Lateral white cord to and from cerebellum functions in coordination, locomotion, pain afferent and efferent tracts Ventral white cord efferent only; involved in voluntary movement Peripheral Nervous System Somatic/spinal nerves/motor neurons myelinated single neuron between the Central Nervous System and the skeletal muscle cells innervated skeletal muscle involved primarily with muscle excitation Autonomic 2 neuron chain (linked by synapses) between CNS and effector organ innervated smooth and cardiac muscle, glands, GI neurons can be excitatory or inhibitory sympathetic o thoracic and lumbar outflow parasympathetic o cranial and sacral outflow enteric systems ^all three systems above work against each other for regulation purposes Spinal Nerve Proper mixed nerve ventral root – efferent dorsal root – afferent dorsal root ganglion – where cell bodies reside; not actually within the spinal cord Cranial Nerves (parasympathetic) (12 total nerves) Parasympathetic stimulate digestion (vegetative “calm”) long myelinated preganglionic fibers short myelinated post ganglionic fibers ganglion – group of nerve cell bodies in PNS cranial and sacral nerves Sympathetic fight or flight (inhibit vegetative response) short preganglionic myelinated fibers long postganglionic unmyelinated fibers prevertebral ganglion on ventral side on spinal cord (row of ganglions) thoracic and lumbar Action Potential “all or none” electrical activity sequence of changes in membrane potential due to operation of voltage gated Na+/K+ channels o Na+ high on outside o K+ high on inside o Net + charge on the outside of the cell membrane Resting membrane potential (-70 mV) Threshold potential o Has to be crossed to get an action potential o ~20-30 mV (more positive as compared to resting potential) o depolarization moving sodium into the cell in comparison to resting membrane potential voltage gated sodium channels open Na+ into cells o Plateau +30 mV amount of Na+ moving into the cell stops maximum plateau is +60mV o repolarization K+ channels open and K+ moves to the outside o Hyperpolarization Close K+ channels But Na+/K+ ATPase pump activated to help balance things out again ATPase pump uses 40% of the ATP produced by the cell Polarization of the membrane occurs… o Negatively charged anions (proteins, etc) on the inside of the PM set up most of the polarity All or non action potential – can’t make half or 3/4ths, all will end up plateauing at the same point, at same speed until it reaches the end Sodium is greater and quicker than potassium movement o Takes longer to repolarize o Nerve is refracted during that time – refractory period Guest Lecture on Veterinary Medicine CSU is ranked 3 in the country Research and medicine, world renowned facilities and knowledge base Head of student support is Ashley Stokes Scholarships - $1 million per year but $4000/ student average Combined programs offered – MBA, MPH, PHD The school is looking for o Strong academic performance o Upper division science o Manage a robust workload Credit load can be a lot ~ 24 credits rd th 3 year half time in clinics, 4 year full time clinics spring of 3 year is when track is selected Study a little bit for each class each day o Good vet qualities Leadership Communication Outward/society focus Maturity o Unique experience and contribution resilience Total number of applicants = 1587 o 148 of those are admitted o 3.6 average GPA o 154 verbal, 154 quantitative o 1000-2000 hours of veterinary experience o 1000-2000 hours of animal experience o 82% female o 20% underrepresented minority students o 25 is the average age fees o ~$110,000 instate o ~$170,000 average total debt at graduation o $70,000 average starting salary o scholarships (Chad Jones, banking major, HUGE financial resource) Banfield o Clinical skills can be taught o Communication CAN’T Healer’s art o Deal with emotional success in medicine o Taking care of yourself during the program Refractory Period Depolarization is much quicker than repolarization Action potential moves in one direction but at a site on an axon fiber cannot be restimulated right away Absolute refractory period During depolarization and repolarization another action potential cannot be created o Forces action potential to move in one direction, speed will be the same from one end to the other o After refractory period action potentials can be regenerated Relative Refractory Period nd Start 2 action potential but the stimulus threshold has to be greater than the first Towards the end of repolarization or after hyperpolarization Slow conduction nerve will have a longer refractory period Cardiac nerves o Long refractory period to allow for relaxation Skeletal muscle nerves o Short refractory period allows to be held Conduction Velocities Constant for a give nerve fiber Types (myelination/not) of fiber Diameter – impacted by myelination Salutatory Conduction Action potentials jump from one node to the next as they propagate along a myelinated axon Nodes of Ranvier o Gap in myelin o Each of these are essentially cells with cell membrane that cover the “wires” (axon) in the nervous system o Action potentials jump from one node to the next Ex: Somatic nerve o Myelinated and spinal o Diameter 20 micrometers o 130 m/s or 250 mph o alpha fiber postganglionic fiber o parasympathetic o not myelinated o 0.5 microns in diameter o 0.5 m/s ~ 20 inches per second Synapses axons have a synaptic knob between 2 nerve cells, nerve/gland, nerve/tissue electrical energy transformed into chemical energy can be like telephone poles and attach to any pars of another nerve cell dendodendrites (named for what attaches where) are super rare and typically occur in the cerebellum Type I o Excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP) o Acetyl choline, epinephrine, norepinephrine o Depolarize membrane o Increase Na influx Type II o Inhibitory post synaptic potential (IPSP) o Glycine, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) o Hyperpolarize the membrane o Increase K influx and Cl influx Synaptic integration o You will have both Type I and II o Skeletal and somatic cells are the only ones with 1:1 action potentials Conduction neurotransmitter molecules are synthesized and packaged in vesicles an action potential arrives at the pre synaptic terminal voltage gated Ca channels open and Ca ions enter o smooth ER stores Ca o the influx of Na switches to Ca at the synaptic knob o increase in Ca concentration, increases migration in exocytosis or secretion of neurotransmitter vesicles rise in Ca triggers fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane transmitter molecules diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to specific receptors on the post synaptic cell bound receptors activate post synaptic cell neurotransmitter breaks down is take up by presynaptic terminal or other cells or diffuses away from the synapse Transmission one direction synapse provides for modification of transmission speed not at 1:1 ration between pre and post synaptic action potentials neurotransmitters o excite or inhibit action of the postsynaptic cell Peripheral nervous System Synapses acetylcholine o abundant o nicotinic receptors – Ionotropic o muscarinic receptors – metabotropic norepinephrine and epinephrine o action through adrenergic receptor o metabotropic in nature Ionotropic Receptor acetylcholine is released into the synapse Na+ and acetylcholine driven co transport through ion channels into both the pre and post synaptic knobs Nicotinic Ach receptor channel is activated Membrane is depolarized Action potential is excited Muscle contraction results Results in a fast, rapid response Pores allow the ion through Metabotropic Receptor nd 2 messenger system is what opens the ion channel acetylcholine is released into the synapse Na+ and acetylcholine driven co transport through ion channels into the pre synaptic knob Acetylcholine binds to G protein couple receptor o Beta and gamma subunits release to activate the movement of K+ back outside of the cell Alpha subunit releases and activates muscarinic Ach receptor Membrane is hyperpolarized through release of K+ ions out of the cell that causes a decrease in heart rate Slow and sustained response Voluntary control CNS -> nicotinic receptor that responds to acetyl choline -> skeletal muscle activation Involves one neuron Involuntary Control Involves 2 neurons Rest and Digest o Parasympathetic o Long preganglionic neuron o Acetyl choline and muscarinic receptor Fight or Flight o Sympathetic o Short preganglionic neuron o Adrenergic receptors Endocrine System Hormone o Excite or inhibit something o Travels in blood o Chemical compounds o Adapt responses from neurons o Neurohormones Regulatory Secreted by neuroendocrine transducers Electrical energy Hormonal response conversion Ex: Pituitary Posterior – nervous tissue Anterior – secretes hormones Endocrine o Regulate rather than initiate o Stores hormones o Not the same rate of secretion o Secretion into the blood is ductless o Hormones secreted into the blood do 4 things Excretion in urine or feces Inactivated through metabolism Activated through metabolism Bind to a receptor on target cells and produce a cellular response o Signaling Endocrine – through the blood over large distances Paracrine – neighboring cells Autocrine – cells that activate themselves Exocrine o Secretion onto a surface from the blood o Involves ducts o Outward bound 4 Types of Endocrine Hormones o steroids derived from cholesterol intracellular receptors complex acts as transcription factor and increase mRNA expression and transcription testosterone, cortisol o biogenic amines – more soluble when it is not nonpolar uses surface receptors thyroid hormone, catecholamines o prostenoids – fatty acid derivatives pathway for creation through CDX1 and 2 and fatty acids o protein hormones peptide (oxytocin, ADH) <polypeptide (relaxin, insulin) <protein (prolactin, GH)<glycoprotein (LH and FSH) Membrane-Bound Receptors o Ion channels, G protein couple receptors, kinase pathway receptors, 7 pass alpha helix structure, intrinsic enzymatic activity, enzyme associated receptor o Activate intracellular signaling cascades that affect cell function o Activate downstream mediators that activate DNA transcription and also effect other parts in the cell o Faster than a lipid, steroid receptor, but is less sustained nd o Polar, hydrophilic, rapid, 2 messengers, temporary o NE, E, Oxytocin, ADH Lipid Soluble Messengers o Diffuse through the plasma membrane o Intracellular receptors o Bind directly to recognized sequences in DNA and alter transcription o Slow but sustained o Non polar, intracellular, hydrophobic, slower, more permanent o Steroids and thyroid hormone Water Soluble Messengers nd o Kinase, receptor tyrosine, cascades, G proteins, 2 messenger ion channels, amplification Pituitary Posterior o Hormones Oxytocin -> uterine muscles, mammary glands Contraction of myoepithelial cells in mammary ADH -> kidney tubules Vasopressin Increase blood pressure Stimulate glycogenosis Reabsorption of water o Neurohypophysis Neural tissue o Hypothalamus Generates hormones Travel through nerve cells (axoplasmic transport) directly to posterior Stored until released to the blood Anterior o Gland tissue o Hypothalamus Releasing hormones Travel to anterior pituitary through portal vessels Stimulate release/inhibition of endocrine hormones o Hormones FSH -> testes or ovaries LH -> testes or ovaries TSH -> thyroid ACTH -> Adrenal cortex, secretes cortisol Prolactin -> mammary glands GH -> entire body Stimulates protein synthesis Anti insulin effects Increase fat and CHO metabolism and mobilization Mediated by IGFs in the liver Problems o Gigantism – too much GH prior to epiphyseal plate closure o Acromegaly – excess GH after epiphyseal plates close o Dwarfism – insensitivity to or a mutant GH receptor Hypothalamus o Hormones for regulation GnRH +FSH and LH GHRH + GH SS – GH TRH +TSH Dopamine – prolactin CRH + ACTH Thyroid o T4 and T3 follicular cells Increase O2 consumption and metabolism Normal growth and tissue differentiation Increase protein synthesis Increase glucose absorption Increase CHO absorption (intestine) Regulate lipid metabolism o Calcitonin – parafollicular cells (C cells) o Hypothyroidism Lack of T3/T4 production Sluggish, obese, hypertrophy, goiter, lack of iodine Hormones Specifically GH (Growth Hormone and thyroid horomones) Hypothalamus o Releasing hormones stimulated from the anterior pituitary Growth hormone releasing hormone is an example o Posterior pituitary also releases hormones o Anterior Pititary Growth hormone is released and goes to the body IGFs regulate GH released Stimulates growth o Thyroid Stimulating hormone Goes to the thyroid gland T3/T4 is released Calcitonin Growth hormone o Episodic (3-4 hrs) most at night o Produced by the anterior pituitary o Stimulated by the hypothalamus o Insulin like Increase synthesis of muscle protein o Anti-insulin Increase CHO metabolism Increased fat metabolism Thyroid Gland o Increased by TSH by the anterior pituitary o Follicular cells T4 – thyroxin – tetraiodothryonine T3 – triiodothyronine Synthesize tyrosine and Iodine o Parafollicular cells Synthesize calcitonin o Tyorsines + thyroglobulin + iodine -> thyroxine o Increased oxygen consumption o Increased growth rate o Maturation and cell differentiation o Turnover of vitamins o 2 lobes o behind the trachea in the neck Calcitonin o Parafollicular cells o Decrease blood calcium o Inhibit bone reabsorption o Decrease calcium release from bone deposits o Increase calcium excretion by kidneys o Building bones stops Ca reabsorption into the blood T3 and T4 o Metabolism by increasing oxygen consumption Calorgenic action Produces heat o Increase synthesis of proteins o Breakdown of fats Lipolytic effect o Use glucose for ATP production and absorption o Increase CHO absorption by intestines Pancreas o Exocrine Pancreatic Juices Into ducts Digestive enzymes Aid in digestion Amylase, lipase, protease o Endocrine Islets of Langerhans Islands of cells Alpha – glucagon Beta – release insulin o Insulin Increase glucose uptake into cells Anabolic Decreased blood sugar Increased storage Increased liver glycogen production Decreased glycogen breakdown Increased fatty acid synthesis Decreased breakdown of fatty acids to ketone bodies Increase amino acid to protein Insulin binds to receptors and signal transducers that signal exocytosis of GLUT -4 vesicles that exit the cell and stimulate the reopening of glucose pathways glucose into the cell o Glucagon Increase glucose release Catabolic Mobilize glucose, a.a. and fatty acids Increase blood sugar Increase glycogenolysis Increase glucogoneosis Increase lipolysis o Decrease glucagon release Liver o Increase in glycogen synthesis o Decrease glycogenolysis o Increase glycolysis Muscle o Increased glucose uptake o Increased glycogen synthesis Adipose o Increased glucose uptake o Decreased triglyceride breakdown Disorders Hypothyroidism Adult o Tired, decreased growth o Goiter – decreased iodine, increased thyroglobulin in follicles Child o Cretinism o Dwarf, mentally challenged Hyperthyroidism Increased T3/T4 Hyperactivity Weight loss, irritable, nervous Graves Disease – Antibodies against TSH receptor Exopthalamic goiter – hyperplastic condition Diabetes Type I o Beta cells are destroyed which stops insulin production Type II o Decrease insulin production o Results from beta cell burnout o Problem with the insulin receptor mechanism Decreased insulin Sugar in urine Increased protein and lipid catabolism o Ketosis and acidosis Coma o Acidosis, dehydration, hyperosmolarty Insulin shock o Excess insulin o Lack of blood sugar to the brain
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