Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide GOVT 2306
Popular in State and local government
Popular in History
verified elite notetaker
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amina Notetaker on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GOVT 2306 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Iliyan Rumenov Iliev in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see State and local government in History at University of Texas at Dallas.
Reviews for Exam 1 Study Guide
I had to miss class because of a doctors appointment and these notes were a LIFESAVER
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/14/16
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE!!! Politics and Government Friday, January 15, 2016 3:11 PM Politics o Whatever group of society is getting what stuff and how they will get it o Different from economics Why do we need government? o Enforce the things we want/preferences o Organization-has power of coercion o Solve problems that markets cannot or are not willing to solve o External force o Collective action Organization o Structure of government-people who carry out the functions o Independent of occupant Legitimacy o We are accepting to actions of government (whether we agree or not) o Systemic loyalty to government o Government can survive without legitimacy Examples: Syria and North Korea (by force) o Built how? Divine decree (whatever I say goes) Democratic Selection (Texas: selecting representatives) Reputation Coercion o Separates government from non-government Example: things we don't necessarily like Taxes Waging war, etc. Public and collective action o Government actions translate preferences into policy o Have to understand the preferences (of the people voting for you) What does government do? o Rules o Decision-making (rationality) o Security, protection of property o Public goods-water provided by governments How does government affect you? o Government regulations o School o FDA (toothpaste, etc) Can government fail? o Building chemical plant upstream-weren't prepared for the chemical spill o Government did not know enough about the chemical Social contracts o Government and the public interact through an organization o Problems Collective action problems Sometimes we do things that are rational on an individual level but not for the whole of society National defense Jury duty Public health o Cost of providing assistance to public good is of low benefit But if one person benefits then the public as a whole benefits-public goods o Restrict people's preferences o Social norms/restrictions o Social contract between members of society Federalism Friday, January 22, 2016 1:53 PM Supremacy clause Benefits? Creates multiple republics Evolving concept Origin of the idea of federalism o Federalists 9 and 39 (origins from federalist papers) o Advances in study of politics Fed. 9 o Science of politics o Distribution of power into specific departments o No one single person has ultimate territory o Legislative power in checks and balances Governor doesn’t want them to do then our judiciary or executive can do something about it o Lessening the bad things that might occur Hamilton on Federalism o Lower factions-not controlled in a positive way Different factions fighting against each other o Order o Looking at interests of large and small groups Water policy (small group) Canadians (big group) State and local government o States have agreed to this system-rules in our constitution Madison on Federal Government o 3 aspects Character of government Government that shares power Authority of constitutional convention Comes from the states-give authority Federal government created from bottom-->up Duty of convention of government Evidence of "federal character" o Started from bottom and then moved to top o Not selecting president on a national vote o Selecting representatives that vote for us o State level o Don’t have nationwide representation o National security, healthcare-government powers Shifts in federalism o Everything nowadays is held by federalism Employment rules Police systems Building production o Expansion 1920's-new deal-Great depression=great shift in power o "top-down" approach Federal government telling state government what to do-what policies to adopt "bottom-up" State government to federal government Examples Healthcare acts-changing things Legalizing marijuana Same sex marriage Rise of federal government o 1929-1945 o Franklin Roosevelts election led to a shift Great Depression o Stock market crash in 1929 o Unemployment o Failure in businesses The New Deal o Social security (Still have today) o More assistance to states using federal money o Changes in banking, agriculture o Money is insured if bank goes bankrupt o Congress gave authority to president (Roosevelt) Delegation: someone giving power to someone else Problem: not willing to give back Roosevelt and supreme Court o Not ok with the changes^ (of the New Deal) o FDR pushed supreme court and told them if you do not support it then I will put my men into supreme court and changes decisions Congress can expand the supreme court o Supreme court agreed to accept the New Deal Constitutional revolution of 1937 Social Security o Establishes power to federal government o Social security Act of 1935 Developments in federalism o National Security o International and interstate commerce o Large scale capital projects Creating major infrastructure Federalism Nowadays o Public safety police o Education School districts that are small but still have power No child left behind o Social welfare Social security unemployment o Roads States deal with Federal government can impose changes o Public improvements Federal level Unemployment compensation o Regulation of commerce and workplaces Changes in New Deal o Occupational safety and Health Administration (OSHA) safety in buildings o Securities and Exchange commission (SEC) Federal level Interstate vs intrastate Congress between states o Food and Drug Administration Food Electronics o Merit based bureaucracy Ability to perform tasks o Racism perceptions-moved away from states Top-down policy o Federal government impose powers on state government o Federal government comes up with a guideline o State government administer the problems Picket-fence federalism Minimum requirement for eligibility for social welfare Benefits Alliances between state and federal bureaucrats Policy specialization Problems different in different locations-the way they are dealt with Drawbacks Unfunded mandates Federal government applies guidelines that you have to follow but won't give money to help Problem for states Budgets are slim Delegation and monitoring Have to monitor federal government Monitor state government-expected to Examples No child left behind US and State departments of Agriculture working together-cooperating Transportation policy Unemployment insurance Policy instruments o Positive inducements o Negative inducements o Example Drinking age o All about collective actions-how the government gets the states to cooperate o Include Fiscal inducements Social security Medicare Subsidies (Businesses are subsidized) Tax incentives Educational policy-student loan deduction Positive Regulations Benefit certain types of states American-style federalism o Where money is coming from, regulations coming from o Division between state and federal governments How we are in Texas o Elect judges, governors, senators, etc o In Confederalism we are only voting for one level of government o Countries in Europe use a unitary system whom vote for parliament Qualifications of federal system? o Geography Needs to govern same people and territory o Independence Constitution needs to protect both levels of government (State and federal) o Mutual influence Can influences each other: state can influence federal government and vice versa Split between national and state governments o Have shared federalism Tax Borrow money o Federal Coining of money Common currency Regulate commerce (pesticides, etc.) war o State Run elections Intrastate commerce Up to supreme court to put limit Dual-shared federalism o Used to have this o Mutually exclusive shared powers Nationalization o Political considerations o Fed government helps solve collective action problems Prisoner's dilemmas Pollution Minimum wage laws Foreign trade policy o Paths Dual>shared>beyond We have more complex problems now that require different types of solutions Policy in the hand of government Food safety standards Constitution and federalism o Voting directly for senators o Supremacy clause-federal law over state law Supreme court sides with federal government over state government Cooperative federalism o Regulated federalism States do something against constitution then federal government takes action o Preemption o Unfunded mandates Rules applied but with no funding New federalism o Nixon o Reagan o Clinton Welfare reforms Federal funds are a major part of Texas o 60-70% of budget in federal funds Political culture Wednesday, January 27, 2016 2:06 PM Political culture o Beliefs and attitudes Texas political culture o Bad experiences with government in the beginning which shapes the way we govern o One of the longest state constitutions o Attitudes toward market place(open or business?) o Who should participate o What are our roles Types of political culture o Moralistic About the common good in that specific state/society Want many people to participate Business activity (provide subsidies, taxes, oil businesses, etc.) CA, WA, WT (States we see this type of culture at) o Individualistic Commercial success Provide order and protect property We don’t want that much bureaucracy-want smaller government Not interested in mass participation Minimal government Allows marketplace to work on its own o Traditionalistic We have elites that are important Not interested in mass participation Preserving social hierarchy Southern states-driven by tradition Texas? o Mixed political culture o Moralistic Promotional in its actions o Individualistic Value strong economy Not that interest in big government but we have some of moralistic culture o Traditionalistic o Mores o traditionalistic-moralistic mix o Big state-why we have a mixed culture o Low taxes and social service provision o Business interests dominate policies Very important for the state o Large cities that are similar to each other and border cities that are different Different preferences and expectations o One party state/preference Democratic party dominated Texas for a while but has realigned towards Republican views GOP dominates Texas politics Most support comes from the larger cities (Democratic support) o Business and government views Business friendly environment No unions Different set of policy priorities More of a traditionalistic type of state towards businesses Education has a separate section in constitution=importance Our education is limited compared to other states o We have had multiple influences from multiple countries/constitutions Spain, France, Mexico, republic of Texas, confederacy, United states o Economy High-tech industry Medical research Economy is booming o Cotton Used to be largest producer in the world Business-orientated Economic dependency o Bad experiences=shaping our government o Oil Replaced agriculture Still important-helped nation as a whole Transportation Gas o Texas Railroad Commission One of the most important Nothing to do with railroads Regulates oil and natural gas industries Pricing of gas and oil Market stability-price stability Smooth production Significant power-important to economy NAFTA o Free trade zone between US, Canada Mexico o Increased exports from Texas to Mexico-$10 billion o Economic implications is that we are conducting trade with neighbors Demography o Significant to economy and political significance with the population growth o Important why? Demographics are changing Helps Texas with representation in Congress (based on population) Shapes our voting public Changes everything towards our political growth Economic growth o Jim Crow laws Civil rights Texas has a lot of racial diversity Urban vs rural Increase in labor force in Texas o More people paying taxes o More people voting Employment growth o Differences in education, economic growth, etc. over the state of Texas State Constitutions Monday, February 1, 2016 2:07 PM Preferences as a society into a document Texas o Differs from other state constitutions Social contracts o Giving some powers to our governor/legislator to solve problems that we have o Rules and framework o Federal level Not many details in that contract o Texas A lot of details Constitution o Needs to solve problems and answer questions on actions, benefits, individual actions, exercise of power, etc. Democracy o Elections o Selection of policy o Norms, rights, and liberties Articles of confederations o Decentralized government with state control o Each state had one vote in Congress o Major legislation required unanimity votes Nothing would get done o Why did it fail? Coordination of Revolutionary war effort failed-national government had asked states for troops and supplies Disjointed fiscal policy-national government had debt but states were to pay it off No national currency New constitution o Virginia plan (large) Two chamber legislation based on population All power would mainly be in lower chamber o New Jersey plan (small) Single chamber legislation based on equal state representation Regulation of commerce Veto state legislation o Great compromise Two chamber legislature House of representatives--based on population Senate--equal for state o Compromise of needs for both large and small states o People to govern themselves o Common market Checks and balances o Veto power (checks) o No one branch can act alone (balances) Institutions are important o Defines everything First State Constitutions** Weakness of constitution o Length o Can end up with contradictions-the more we add to the length o Problem of substance-too many things added in there o Reform (1921) At state level Constitutional reform o Bicameralism vs. unicameralism (legislative branch) o Executive branch be centralized to office of governor o Local government-municipalities o Civil service needs to be merit based Goal of state constitution is to limit political power Questions o What should be in a constitution vs. what should just be a law? Influences of our current constitutions o 1837 Governor Edmund J. Davis was defeated Would not leave the Capitol Texas constitution micromanages-easy to amend and streamline o Provisions Pay, mileage reimbursement and per diem of legislators Have to bond authorizations for public works Max property tax rates Hospital districts are in the constitutions o Main principles Popular sovereignty We are voting for everyone in our government Limited government Separation of powers o Limitations on power Governors serve short terms State agencies are headed by elected officials who are voting for everyone in that agency Legislature will meet very rarely-140 days in odd years o Benefits Don’t have to interpret-everything is explicitly stated Not much debate on law Power of government is limited-intention-so we have the benefit o Drawbacks Does not adapt well under new circumstances-so we are not very good at adopting those principles Can be confusion-people take things a different way Texas constitution today o Really long o Many amendments and several local offices-executives-judges o Multiple courts that can hear a case o Have a bicameral legislation o Judiciary is fully elected o Very complicated system (the electorate) Weaknesses of Texas Constitution o Low pay and little support for legislature But interest groups are strong, providing a lot of information o Judicial independence Judges don't have to have a law degree, etc. o Education is not governed that much-is decentralized o Length=powers overlapping Not very efficient government Amendments o Most are proposed by state legislature and 60% of those are approved Texas Legislature Friday, February 5, 2016 2:16 PM Three functions o Policymaking o Representation o Oversight All state legislatures are bicameral o Upper and lower house (senate and House of representatives) Committee system o Consider various types of bills-some bills die o Standing Always there-deals with education, agriculture, etc. o Joint Join House and Senate o Conference Specific topic or issue that arrives and need to deal with at the moment o Interim Exists right now Bill becomes a law how? (introduced in the House) o Complex process especially for major bills o Governor can Sign the act Veto the bill Or pocket veto (like the president) Take no action^ Ideal legislature o Has to be functional Pass laws efficiently o Accountable Pay attention to what they are doing o Informed Have access to information o Independent from the other branches o Representative Relationship with executive branch o Divided government o Governors have advantage from the media-major power o Oversee the bureaucracy o Policy implementation legislation should review the actions of the bureaucracy Texas senate o Serve 4 year terms o No term limits o 31 senators
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'