PY 413 Exam 1 Study Guide
PY 413 Exam 1 Study Guide PY 413
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlin Owens on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 413 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Gable in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 347 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCH EXAM 1 INTRO THE MAJOR ISSUES • Mind-body problem • Tenants of evolution • Basics of genetics CHAPTER 1 NERVE CELLS & IMPULSES ANATOMY of NEURONS & GLIA • Human nervous system(NS) cells: o Neurons~86 billion-only 20% in cortex of brain, many in cerebellum o Glia~86 billion • Santiago Ramon y Cajal o Lived in late 1800s-Spaniard, individual cells comprise nervous system • Neurons & glia like other cells in the bodyàmembrane, nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, ER o Distinctive shape makes them different o Major neuron components: dendrites, soma, axon, presynaptic terminals DENDRITES • Dendritic spines-information receptors o Related to Autism-failure to trim synapses as they develop, too many connections kept that are not most efficient; 1/3 of those with autism have epilepsy • Form follows function EFFERENT àEXIT; AFFERENT àACCEPT • Exception-interneurons operate independently GLIA “glue” • Astrocytes: synchronize activity of axon, removes waste • Microglia: remove waste & viruses-like immune system of brain • Oligodendrocytes(CNS only): build myelin sheath around axon o Called Schwann cells in PNS • Radial: important in development, guide migration of axons & dendrites BLOOD -BRAIN BARRIER (Gandalf “you shall not pass”) • Barrier: endothelial cells-tightly packed to prevent most chemicals from entering the brain o Meningitis invades normal tissue-bad because neurons do not regenerate • Exceptions to barrier: oxygen, CO 2 fat soluble molecules, glucose(energy for brain), certain amino acids, active transport systems, small/uncharged molecules [NEURONS ] *polarization: difference in electric charge inside vs. outside ROLE of CHEMICALS(sodium, potassium, Ca, Cl) • At rest: sodium (+) channels closed, potassium (+) channels partially open • Concentration gradient: atoms move from areas of higher to lower concentration • Sodium-potassium pump: actively transporting sodium out & potassium ions in (3 Na+ out, 2K+ in) ACTION POTENTIAL • Rapid depolarization of the neuron • All or nothing principle-action potentials all go at same rate • Sodium floods in, potassium flows out as action potential proceeds down the neuron o Novocain, xylocaine, cocaine-anesthetics that stop action potential by closing sodium channels o Scorpion venom causes channel to stay open causing extreme pain MYELIN SHEATH & SALTATORY CONDUCTION • Action potential jumps from node of Ranvier to node of Ranvier • 20x faster with an axon that is myelinated • oligodendrocytes & Schwann cells create myelin sheaths AFTER ACTION POTENTIAL • must restore balance-hyperpolarization • absolute refractory period-neuron will not fire • relative refractory period-it takes a strong stimulation to get neuron to refire o if neuron fires in absolute refractory period it is very dangerous to cell-caused by some drugs & stroke-toxic amount of sodium builds up LOCAL NEURONS • very small, not well studied • small axon, communicates only with neurons around it • can produce graded potentials-large or small action potentials • found in CNS CHAPTER 2 SYNAPSES PERSONALITY OF NEURONS • Can’t do math…sum is greater/less than its partsàtemporal/spatial • Spontaneous-periodic action potentials without input EXOCYTOSIS • Process where neurotransmitter is released from terminal button into synaptic cleft • Calcium stimulates vesicles to move toward terminal membraneàvesicles fuse & release neurotransmitters • Each neuron has about 1,000 synapses SYNAPTIC CLEFT/GAP • 20-30 nmàneurotransmitters pass 0.1us(fast); cross gap quickly so effects occur quickly • Neurotransmitters can be… o Broken down § Ex. MAO (monoamine oxidase) breaks down neurotransmitters, specifically serotonin o Recycled-reuptake like a vacuum § Ex. Ach(acetylcholine)-predominant for muscle stimulation; needs to be cleaned out quickly to prevent unwanted muscle contraction o Diffusion-neurotransmitters diffuse out of synaptic cleft DISCOVERING THE SYNAPSE • Otto Loewi (rhymes with “doughy”) • Frog heart experiment: 2 beating frog hearts, one heart electrically stimulated, fluid taken from that heart placed on second heart, caused inhibited (slow) heart rate NEUROTRANSMITTER SYNTHESIS • From diet RECEPTORS • Ionotropic-direct & quick • Metabotropic-indirect & longer lasting; releases intracellular second messenger G-protein; can cause greater variety • Neuropeptides-can be released in different parts of the neuron o Autoreceptors-found on presynaptic neuron; act as feedback sensor; regulates amount of neurotransmitter released into synaptic cleft GAP JUNCTION • Two neurons acting as if they were one(3.5 nm gapàvery small) • Linked by specialized protein channels • Electrical synapse whereas most are chemical synapses o Ex. heart-allows heart to beat in systematic pattern POTENTIALS • Excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP) o Graded depolarization-allows sodium ions to enter cell • Inhibitory post-synaptic potential (IPSP) o Graded hyperpolarization-opens potassium gates & allows chloride ions to enter post- synaptic cell • Work in conflict against each other STRENGTHS • Affinity: strength of attachment • Efficacy: strength of effect SYNAPSES, DRUGS, ADDICTION • Drugs mimic neurochemistry o Agonist: enhances effect of particular drug/neurotransmitter § Ex. nicotine, black widow venom o Antagonist: fight against/block certain neurotransmitter reducing effectiveness § Ex. curare & botulin (Botox) block Ach REWARD&ADDICTION • Affect dopamine and norepinephrine synapses • Olds & Milner (1954)-input electrode on nucleus accumbens in brain, Skinner box-every time rat pressed lever dopamine response happened; rat pressed lever at expense of eating, sleeping, drinking, and died o Power of addictive response DRUGS • Stimulant drugs-inc alertness, movement o Amphetamine, cocaine § Depletes dopamine stores, causes excessive release § Inc risk of stroke, epilepsy o Ritalin-for ADHD, inc dopamine gradually • Nicotine o Mimics Ach receptor-located on neurons that release dopamine causing addictive response o Becomes more rewarding over time o Withdraw effect-psychological but powerful • Opiates (ex. morphine) o Dec pain, inc relaxation o Endorphins-endogenous morphines-cause relief of pain o Pleasurable effects-dopamine release o Heroine-more addictive than morphine § “rush”-crosses blood brain barrier rapidly, morphine does but slowly • Hallucinogens o Distorted perception-resemble serotonin, sensory stimulation at inappropriate times or longer duration o Can also release dopamine o LSD(lysergic acid diethylamide)-CIA wanted a truth serum o MDMA(causes dump of serotonin-lethargy & depression after), ecstasy, X(can raise body temp to dangerous levels) • Tetrahydocannabinol aka Marijuana (THC) o Receptors prominent in many areas of brain-perception of time, movement, memory o Inhibits release of glutamate-internal time clock o Addictive or habit forming??-indirect release of dopamine • Alcohol o Enhances response to GABA receptors & inhibits release of glutamate o Depressant of nervous system (ex. anxiety-calming effect) o Inc dopamine activity o Metabolism-toxin, prevents glucose metabolism(energy) o Moderate amounts=relaxing effect; large amounts=impairs judgment & damages liver o Most abused & dangerous drug § Involved in more than ½ of fatal car accidents, 1/3 of homicides, risky sexual behavior § Most costly-rehab, medical cost, lawsuit, lost work days, etc. CHAPTER 3 ANATOMY CNS -brain & spinal cord PNS -everything outside CNS • Somatic nervous system-voluntary muscle movement, sense organs • Autonomic nervous system-involuntary, 2 components… o Sympathetic NS(SNS): “fight or flight”, heart rate & breathing inc, relies on norepinephrine o Parasympathetic NS(PNS): rest & digest, influenced by Ach receptors o Competing influences on the body DIRECTIONAL TERMS • Dorsal-toward the back • Ventral-toward the stomach • Anterior-forward, toward the front • Posterior-toward the back • Superior-above • Inferior-below • Medial-toward the midline • Lateral-toward the side away from the midline • Ipsolateral-on the same side • Contralateral-on the opposite side • Slicing: coronal (crown), sagittal (side), horizontal (horizon) MENINGES • Membranes surrounding brain & spinal cord • Layers: dura materàarachnoidàpia mater • No pain receptors in brain-inflammation of meninges causes pain CEREBROSPINAL FLUID • Cushioning of the brain • Reservoir for hormones & nutrition • Ventricles (4)-lateral on each side produces CSF & flows out • 120mL produced per day(x3)-blockage causes pressure & hydrocephalus (blockage in flow that inc pressure, common in babies because of development of nervous system BRAIN’S BLOOD SUPPLY • supplied through carotid and vertebral arteries • if brain is cut off from oxygen for 3+ mins, significant damage can occur • blood leaves through subarachnoid space & sinus venous cavity • subdural or subarachnoid hematoma-leakage of blood BELL -MAGENDIE LAW • Sensory information comes in the spinal column through the dorsal route, motor response comes out through the ventral route Ganglion-cluster of cell bodies in the CNS Nerve-cluster of cell axons Matter • Gray matter-clusters of cell bodies and dendrites • White matter-made of axons that are myelinated MAJOR DIVISIONS OF BRAIN (hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain ) • Brainstem-hindbrain, midbrain, & other central structures • Hindbrain-medulla, pons, cerebellum o Medulla: responsible for vital reflexes; “superman” part of brain; contains cranial nerves which control sensory and motor areas on the head and neck o Pons: reticular formation; mobilizes arousal and readiness o Cerebellum: motor movement, balance, and coordination; shifting attention between sounds and sight; first area affected by alcohols • Midbrain o Superior/inferior colliculus-orienting body for stimuli (sight/sound) o Periaqueductal gray-pain perception o Substantia nigra-critical for motor processes; degenerative diseases • Forebrain o Outer cerebral cortex o Inner subcortex subcortical regions o Cerebral hemispheres • Limbic System o Border around brainstem o Thalamus-sensory switchboard, biggest form of sensory input into the brain, controls hypothalamus o Hypothalamus- controls pituitary gland (releases hormones that regulate the body) o Basal ganglia-composed of caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus; involved in motor movement-muscles don’t have “memory” but basal ganglia does o Hippocampus-means seahorse because of curved shape; involved in claritive memory not memory storage, close to olfactory bulb-smells and memories closely related o Cingular cortex § Anterior (ACC)-critical for psychological function (decision making, etc.) § Posterior(PCC)- movements, spatial orientation, first area affected by Alzheimer’s CEREBRAL CORTEX • Outer wrinkly bit o Sulci-sulking, sunk o Gyri-ridges • Hemispheres connected by corpus callosum(white matter) LOBES • Frontal-planning of movements, recent memory, emotions • Temporal-hearing, advanced visual processing • Occipital-vision • Parietal-body sensations, somatosensory areas Central sulcus-runs from top to bottom of brain Precentral gyrus-primary motor cortex Postcentral gyrus-primary somatosensory cortex Pre-frontal cortex- advanced cognitive function • Phineas Gage-train rod went through his skull and blew out part of prefrontal cortex; became impulsive & rude HOW WE STUDY TH E BRAIN 1. Take it out and look at it 2. Effects of injury or disease 3. Surgical, drug, or magnetic lesion a. Surgical-epilepsy, frontal lobotomy b. Drug-put hemispheres of the brain to sleep c. Electromagnetic-current stimulation to disrupt certain processes of the brain; transcrannial magnetic stimulation, transcrannial direct current stimulation 4. Measure blood flow activity a. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) b. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) i. Powerful magnet, hydrogen atoms align, disrupt spin, then realign ii. BOLD-blood oxygen level dependent-deoxy blood vs. oxy blood iii. Down sides-slow signal, veins aren’t brains, huge & expensive 1. MRI-anatomy-one image-high resolution 2. fMRI-function-multiple images-low resolution 5. Measure electrical activity a. Electroencephalogram (EEG) i. Scalp voltage-post synaptic potentials ii. Millisecond timing accuracy iii. noninvasive CHAPTER 4 DEVELOPMENT MATURATION • Starts as neural tube around 2 weeks after conception • Weight: at birth around 350g, first year around 1000g, adult brain around 1200-1400g 1. Proliferation-new cells; humans proliferate longer than any other species 2. Migration-movement of cells; radial glial cells help this process 3. Differentiation-forming of the neuron; axon then dendrite 4. Myelination-glia produce sheath 5. Synaptogenesis-formation of the synapses GROWING BRAIN • Stem cells-start in interior of brain and migrate to differentiate • Hippocampus & olfactory receptors constantly generate new neurons-for memory in hippocampus; olfactory receptors get destroyed by toxins in environment so they need to regenerate CELL LIFESPAN • Epidermis cells are youngest-6 weeks • Bone cells about 15 years old • Heart & brain cells lifelong NEUROCIDE • Neurotropin-chemical that promotes survival of neurons; NGF(nerve growth factor)-protein released by postsynaptic cell-negative feedback to keep neurons alive • Apoptosis-pre-programmed cell suicide-if no feedback signal from NGF cell will kill itself • Body overproduces neurons and kills off unsuccessful neurons to keep successful onesàonly strong connections persist NECROSIS • Caused by physical injury or bacterial toxin • Can cause inflammation & damage to nearby tissue when cell erupts • Apoptosis preferred because it does not damage other cells NEURAL DARWINISM • Strong connections survive-kill off the weak/bad • Problems: no mutation or reproduction • What does visual cortex look like in visually impaired? Thick-less stimulation so no “survival of the fittest” VULNERABLE BRAIN • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder o Decreased alertness, hyperactivity, intellectual disabilities, motor problems, heart defects, abnormal facial features o Influences apoptosis-overkills brain neurons-reduces glutamate, enhances GABA o Not receiving NGF so neurons die-seen as shorter dendrites and fewer connections • Cigarettes/Cocaine-higher risk of ADHD, lower IQ • Anti-depressants-increased chance of heart risk; if mom is depressed during development, child more likely to develop depression • Stress-can influence stress on infant • Anesthetics can cause cell apoptosis in infants EPIGENETICS (which genes get expressed) • Nature Neuroscience (2013) o Study carried out on mice; trained mice to fear cherry blossom odor; offspring showed a fear of cherry blossom odor • Fine tuning by experience o Lifetime reorganization-synapses change over time o Relates to learning o Reorganization problems-brain likes to specialize, can cause problems when 2 functions try to control one area § Focal hand dystonia-“musicians cramp”-caused by extensive practice-motor neurons form around each other and fingers cannot separate movements • Professional musicians vs. nonmusicians o 30% larger temporal lobe (more gray matter) o Thicker brain matter in motor cortex o Earlier beginnings result in larger growth • Play an instrument o Journal of Neuroscience reported on September 2, 2014 that children who play an instrument are better at hearing sounds and reading o Benefits last into late adulthood o Steady beats related to happiness & higher intelligence o Drummer’s brains have inc pain tolerance • Learn to read o Adults who learn to read as kids have more gray matter & thicker corpus callosum • Exercise o Physical activity enhances neural connections; NGF released by muscles which inc neural innervation PLASTICITY -brain more malleable at younger age BRAIN DAMAGE • Exposure to toxic substances • Tumors • Infections • Degenerative diseases • Closed head injuries CONCUSSI ONS • What happens to the brain during a concussion? Bruises (disrupt local functioning), coup- countercoup, epidural hematoma • In football, helmets protect from skull fractures but not internal problems-shearing from rough force STROKES • Ischemia-blockage of blood vessels, lack of blood flow o Most common, clot or plaque obstruction, loss of oxygen & glucose supply to neurons • Hemorrhage o Aneurysms fall in this category, less common, ruptured artery, neurons are flooded with excess blood, calcium, oxygen, & other chemicals • Secondary stroke damage o Edema-accumulation of fluid on the brain, increased pressure on the brain, increased risk of further strokes o Disruption of sodium potassium pump-accumulation of potassium inside neurons o Excessive excitatory glutamate-causes overstimulation, excessive sodium ions cause neurons to keep firing through absolute refractory periodàblocks metabolism & kills neuron o Piaschisis-understimulating neuron, decreased activity of surviving neurons, lack of stimulation from damaged areas, stimulants administered to treat this to inc activity Signs of a stroke- FASTà Face is uneven, Arm is weak, Speech is strange, Time to call 911 IMMEDIATE TREATMENT • Tissue plasminogen activator(TPA)-used to bust clots for ischemic strokes • Glutamate antagonists • Lower brain temp to 29°-37°C within 30 minutes after ischemic episode • Preventatives-diet&exercise, blood thinners, cannabinoids(minimize cell loss after stroke, anti-inflammatory effects, most effective BEFORE stroke) • Later mechanisms of recovery-destroyed cell bodies cannot be replaced, inc activity or reorganization AXON REGROWTH • Damaged axons in periphery may grow back-follow myelinated axon • Regeneration is minimal in mature CNS • Scar tissue physically blocks regrowth by glial cells • Opioids hinder growth
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