PY 372- EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
PY 372- EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE PY 372
Popular in PY 372 William Hart-Social Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 372 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William Hart in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 160 views. For similar materials see PY 372 William Hart-Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for PY 372- EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/14/16
***PY 372- EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE*** Random sampling (connection to external validity): drawing a sample where each individual has an equal chance of being included. SO (external validity) the results of a study can be generalized to the population of interest. Random assignment (connection to internal validity): assigning participant to different groups within an experiment. SO (internal validity) can trust the approximate truth about inferences regarding causal relationships. Psychology vs. common sense -Common sense is often faulty contradictions on same topics 1. Our common sense ideas are rarely critically analyzed 2. Claims are stated ambiguously and generally, therefore hard to disprove. 3. It’s sometimes outright wrong **Psychology uses the scientific method- common sense does not** Terms in connection to Research Methods: Theory: a statement that describes, predicts or explains behavior Hypothesis: specific, testable and disconfirmable statement about the theory we want to test Operationalization: the acting out of a theory o i.e. Physically venting frustration makes one feel better punching a pillow will result in a positive mood Construct: Physically venting frustration, feel better Construct validity: the appropriateness of inferences made on the basis of observations or measurements Control: observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the single independent variable what you test against Demand characteristics: the situation where the results of an experiment are biased because the experimenters' expectancies regarding the performance of the participants on a particular task create an implicit demand for the participants to perform as expected. Dv: the variable that experiences the effect Iv: the variable that affects Goals of science 1. To describe behavior 2. Be able to predict 3. Be able to explain Descriptive Research: Used to describe characteristics in a population. EX what percentage of people would follow silly rules? Self report (survey) Observational methods o Naturalistic they don’t know you're watching **Interpreting surveys can be complicated- People may lie You could ask people completely made up questions and they’d have answers -can learn a lot but answers are not always accurate or truthful Correlational Research Prediction: determine whether and how 2 pre-existing variables are related. EXhow does money relate to happiness? -can be POSITIVE or NEGATIVE relationship 2 things to consider: 1. Strength extent of the relationship 2. Directionality how the relationship looks **correlational coefficient: (r)- relations between variables quantified (-1 to +1) indicates strength ADVANTAGES: correlations help you predict important variables such as happiness, performance, violence, etc. !!Correlation does NOT equal Causation!!! **you can design a study to test causation ISSUES: Random assignment Groups must be treated equally Only manipulate one thing With experimentation: CAN conclude cause and effect Often not like real world Practical and ethical issues Study- descriptive, correlational Experiment- involves manipulation Fundamental attribution error: (actor- observer bias) The tendency for you to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional (internal) influences on others’ behavior hard to take others’ perspective Availability heuristic: If things come to mind easily, then they probably occur frequently Hindsight bias: the inclination, after an event has occurred, to see the event as having been predictable, despite there having been little or no objective basis for predicting it. Confirmation bias: tendency to search for info that confirms our ideas and neglect info that disconfirms them. Base rate fallacy : Tendency to ignore statistical information for personal accounts. -I knew someone who.. Optimistic bias: causes a person to believe that they are less at risk of experiencing a negative event compared to others. Representativeness heuristic: Things are placed into categories based on their resemblanceto typical category numbers. -categorization is usually socially negotiated False consensus effect: the tendency of people to overestimate the level to which other people share their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. False uniqueness effect: he tendency for people to underestimate the proportion of peers who share their desirable attributes and behaviors and to overestimate the proportion who share their undesirable attributes. Illusion of transparency: tendency for people to overestimate how well they understand others' personal mental states. Spotlight effect: the phenomenon in which people tend to believe they are noticed more than they really are. Being that one is constantly in the center of one's own world, an accurate evaluation of how much one is noticed by others has shown to be uncommon. Theories of purpose for Self-esteem 1. Terror management theory: people don’t really strive for self esteem, really tring to get over the fact that we’re all goig to die. 2. Sociometer theory: people don’t strive for self esteem, evolutionary purpose, protects against isolation; measure of social inclusion/exclusion 3. Self-affirmation theory: we do strive for self esteem- it is a buffer against daily stress and keep progressing toward goals. Lewin’s equation: B= f(P,E) behavior is a function of the person and the environment Rosenthal’s study of expectancy effects (self-fulfilling prophecy): prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior. Dependent variable- what is measured in an experiment Independent variable – what is manipulated in an experiment Kelley’s attribution theory: deals with how the social perceiver uses information to arrive at causal explanations for events. It examines what information is gathered and how it is combined to form a causal judgment Regression toward the mean: misunderstanding the statistical tendency for extreme behavior to return toward one’s average. Illusory correlation: the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables (typically people, events, or behaviors) even when no such relationship exists. Self-serving biases (e.g., attributing more responsibility to the self for positive behaviors than negative behaviors. We are not so kind to others, however) 2 General Categories or Causes of behavior: 1. External Attributions: situational causes, all causes are external to the person 2. Internal Attributions: dispositional causes, all causes are internal to the person. Self-handicapping: a cognitive strategy by which people avoid effort in the hopes of keeping potential failure from hurting self- esteem. Self-presentation: The need to maintain a desired self image. Self-monitoring: a personality trait that refers to an ability to regulate behavior to accommodate social situations. People who closely monitor themselves are categorized as high self- monitors and often behave in a manner that is highly responsive to social cues and their situational context. Self-reference effect: tendency for people to encode information differently depending on the level on which the self is implicated in the information. When people are asked to remember information when it is related in some way to the self, the recall rate can be improved. Counterfactual thinking: involves the human tendency to create possible alternatives to life events that have already occurred; something that is contrary to what actually happened. Belief perseverance: Persistence of one’s initial beliefs even in the face of discrediting evidence. Learned helplessness: behavior typical of an organism (human or animal) that has endured repeated painful or otherwise aversive stimuli which it was unable to escape or avoid. After such experience, the organism often fails to learn escape or avoidance in new situations where such behavior would be effective. When people feel that they have no control over their situation, they may also begin to behave in a helpless manner. This inaction can lead people to overlook opportunities for relief or change. Bracing for the worst: Tendency to get pessimistic right before learning about an important outcome. EX when you are about to check a test grade Planning fallacy: a phenomenon in which predictions about how much time will be needed to complete a future task display an optimism bias (underestimate the time needed ). Langer and Rodin’s famous nursing home study This study was on the effects of allowing personal decision making among nurshing home residents (in the care of a plant). "The ability to sustain a sense of personal control in old age may be greatly influenced by societal factors, and this in turn may affect one's physical well being" "more successful aging -- occurs when a individual feels a sense of usefulness and purpose" A feeling of helplessness may contribute to psychological withdrawal, disease, and death. Procedure They selected two floors of a nursing home. One group was told the staff was there to help them. Despite the care, 71% got worse in only 3 weeks. In the other floor where they were encouraged to make decisions for themselves, the residents actually improved. They were more active and happier. They were more mentally alert and more active in activities. Upward and downward social comparison: upward comparisons, or comparing ourselves to others who are better than we are, and downward comparisons, or comparing ourselves to those who are not as proficient as we are at a given task. Four qualities of automaticity: 1. UN-Controllable: inability to stop or alter it 2. UN-intentional: you don’t intend to do it 3. Lack of awareness: you don’t know its happening 4. Efficiency: you don’t have to think consciously to do it Theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen): predicts that behavioral intent is created or caused by two factors: our attitudes and our subjective norms. When will an attitude predict behavior? 1. When we assess a true attitude rather than a fake attitude a. Bogus pipeline- fake lie detector 2. When attention is focused on our attitudes duringaction a. Private refelction 3. When the attitude is formed by active experience and is personally relevant. a. Sleeping on a cot study 4. When the cognitive and affective components of the attitude match. a. Attitude toward love interest. When will a behavior cause an attitude? Foot in the door effect: people are more likely to agree to a large-ish request after initially agreeing to a small request. Low-Ball technique: After ‘making a deal’, people keep their commitment to the deal, even if it is adjusted so that it becomes slightly worse Cognitive dissonance (Festinger): People have a need to avoid inconsistency in their thoughts, feelings, behaviors; dissonance is unsettling. Self-perception theory (Bem): we simply infer our attitudes from our behavior. -and to other people -happens when attitudes are not very strong to begin with Self-affirmation theory: the need to asser our own self- adequacy. we don’t want to feel like an idiot maintaining self-esteem is key Door-in-the-face technique: The persuader attempts to convince the respondent to comply by making a large request that the respondent will most likely turn down, much like a metaphorical slamming of a door in the persuader's face. then ask for something smaller so more likely to receive (opposite of foot in the door) ABC’s of attitudes Affect (feelings) Behavior Cognition (thoughts) Asch’s conformity research Line test Normative social influence 37% conform in this situation (which is actually a lot AND 1 person can change the conformity) Sherif’s work on establishing group norms Sherif put subjects in a dark room and told them to watch a pinpoint of light and report how far it moved. Psychologists had previously discovered that a small, unmoving light in a dark room often appeared to be moving. This was labeled the autokinetic effect.The autokinetic effect is an illusion because the light does not actually move. However, people almost always believe that it does. Sherif decided to study how people were influenced by other people's opinions when given many opportunities (trials) to judge the movement of the light, they settled on a distance of 2-6 inches and became consistent in making this judgment from trial to trial In the next phase of the experiment, groups of subjects were put in the dark room, 2 or 3 at a time, and asked to agree on a judgment. Now Sherif noted a tendency to compromise. People who usually made an estimate like 6 inches soon made smaller judgments like 4 inches. Those who saw less movement, such as 2 inches, soon increased their judgments to about 4 inches. People changed to more resemble the others in the group. When will people conform? Group Size: larger= greater amount of conformity Unanimity o To what extent is a response unanimous o If everyone does it, your chance of conforming goes up o With even 1 dissenter, conformity decreases substantially Cohesion: greater conformity in tight knit groups Status o High status people set low status follow o People of high status conform less non-conformity linked to status Public response: people conform more when they must respond publicly Public commitment: having people commit publicly strengthens view less likely to cave Reactance: a motivational reaction to offers, persons, rules, or regulations that threaten or eliminate specific behavioral freedoms. Reactance occurs when a person feels that someone or something is taking away his or her choices or limiting the range of alternatives. Distinguish between: 1. Conformity- A change in behavior or beliefs to agree with others 2. Compliance- yielding to a request for certain behaviors. 3. Obedience- A change in behavior or beliefs as a result of the commands of others. Understand the Milgram studies on obedience an experiment focusing on the conflict between obedience to authority and personal conscience. He examined justifications for acts of genocide offered by those accused at the World War II, Nuremberg War Criminal trials. Their defense often was based on "obedience" that they were just following orders from their superiors. Zimbardo’s simulated prison experiment – what did this famous study suggest about human behavior? To investigate how readily people would conform to the roles of guard and prisoner in a role-playing exercise that simulated prison life. To study the roles people play in prison situations, Zimbardo converted a basement of the Stanford University psychology building into a mock prison. Prisoners were treated like every other criminal, being arrested at their own homes, without warning, and taken to the local police station. Within a very short time both guards and prisoners were settling into their new roles, with the guards adopting theirs quickly and easily. Within hours of beginning the experiment some guards began to harass prisoners. They behaved in a brutal and sadistic manner, apparently enjoying it. Other guards joined in, and other prisoners were also tormented. The power structure and procedure became real for the participants.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'