New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

HIST 278 EXAM ONE Study Guide

by: Lynde Wangler

HIST 278 EXAM ONE Study Guide HIST 278

Lynde Wangler
GPA 3.836

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This covers all lectures and includes some of the important readings and discussion section topics.
History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade
Lisa Lindsay
Study Guide
History of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
50 ?




Popular in History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

Popular in History

This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lynde Wangler on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 278 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Lisa Lindsay in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 207 views. For similar materials see History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in History at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.

Similar to HIST 278 at UNC

Popular in History


Reviews for HIST 278 EXAM ONE Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/14/16
HIST 278 – The History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade Week 1 Notes Northrup pp. 81-86, The Achievements of the “Numbers Game”  Philip Curtain’s book (The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census) was the catalyst that sparked an era of modern research in Europe, Africa, and the Americas  Modern capabilities in research: tracking slave activities on an annual basis; embarkation/disembarkation on a port-by-port basis; link ports across the Atlantic and study changes over time; compute estimated mortality and study causal factors  Major emphasis has been placed on reconciling differences between number estimated to have arrived in the Americas and number estimated to have left Africa we have discovered some reasons behind this observation: losses of ships due to weather, pirates, privateers, and slave revolts; intra-American movement of slaves (largest was by land to Brazil); the TSTD2 (Transatlantic Slave Trade Database) can help scholars eliminate many uncertainties in regard to this conundrum  Nations’ Involvement: o Portuguese vessels thought to have accounted for the most traffic o British arrived late and left early with the abolition act of 1807 but dominated the northern wind while Portuguese dominated the southern traffic o Spanish were opposite of Britain in that they started strong but then reverted to little involvement in the 18 century only to reenter and dominate the north after the British took their leave o French involvement was largely dependent on war but similar to the Brits except they carried on for another ¼ century o Dutch were most heavily involved in the 17 century before British decimated its merchant marine  Destinations of TST 1519-1868(most to least): Brazil, British Caribbean, Spanish America, French Caribbean, Dutch/Danish Caribbean, British North America, Europe/Africa Lecture 1/14  Estimates: historians wondered about factual basis of numbers; people thought that Philip Curtain’s numbers were highly debatable when he used shipping records to arrive at the numbers (9.6 million arrived in Americas) and 11.2 (brought from Africa)  Other historians were then motivated to research this topic more in depth; 1999 Atlantic Slave Trade Database: international collaboration; were able to procure information such as ship’s name, captain’s name, owners, where slaves were taken from and where they were taken to, etc.  Information gathered from commercial and shipping records, as well as other sources including captain’s logs, slave/owner diaries, newspaper accounts, tax records, etc.  Modern Computed Numbers: 12.5 million departures from Africa; 10.7 million arrivals in the Americas (higher than Curtin’s est. but quite close)  Volumthof the Slave Trade Over Time (ppt. slide): peak period in second half of 18 century but also very high in period after  Where did slaves come from & where did they go? o 8 regions in Africa that can be clustered into 3  Upper Guinea  Lower Guinea  West Central Africa ***most slaves sent; largest region o Greatest to least – Brazil, Caribbean (British, French, Dutch/Danish), South America, Mainland NA (CHARLESTON), Africa o Major NA destinations – Chesapeake Bay, Georgia/South Carolina, Mississippi River Delta, New England (everywhere)  European Participants:th th o Portuguese (17 century) then British (peak 18 century) and then Portugal/Brazil again near the end – UK dominated when both Brits and Portuguese were actively involved o Also involvement from French, Dutch, Danish, Spanish, and United States HIST 278 WEEK 2 Readings: Curtin Ch. 1  The Mediterranean Origins: o During the crusades, Europeans encountered sugar for the first time in the eastern Mediterranean o Rise of Islam in 700 A.D. marked the rise of closer communications between Asian and southern Mediterranean via Indian Ocean  brought in a whole range of new crops including rice, coconuts, sorrel, sour oranges, lemons and limes, sugarcane, plantains, bananas, and mangoes  major influence on the economic geography of the area o Eventually these crops mthe their way to Europe via Cyprus, Sicily, Spain, and Portugal (15 /16 centuries)  Sugar Planting: o Europeans initial source of sugar was honey so the discovery of sugarcane during the crusades was revolutionary o First imported sugar came from the Levant & in early 11 and 12 th centuries Europe gained control of some territory in the region where sugar production already flourished o Sugar production is labor intensive – one worker to one acre; unlike wheat or maize, harvested sugar cane is extremely heavy and bulky making transportation difficult and costly  because of this factor, each farm had to have its own factory to concentrate the product (by converting the cane to crystalline sugar or molasses) before shipping o Sugar has a high value-to-bulk ration after this process and was therefore a superb candidate for long-distance trade but did not provide necessary nutrients (was only used as a supplement/luxury item) and so wathused sparingly in local areas o In the early 12 century Venetians took their claimed territories and utilized the land for sugar production followed by crusaders who began to set up plantations and then by the Normans who moved in to Sicily th th to establish an industry which failed (in the 13 and 14 centuries) but was reinstated in the latter half of the 15 century and became the center for production  Cyprus: o 13 -15 centuries, Cyprus was the center of production for the sugar consumed in Europe; Levantine plantations served Muslim world; Cyprus was captured by Christians during the Second Crusade and the man who received the reigns (Guy de Lusignan) and his successors became feudal lords under Western control sugar production began to develop institutional forms (served as a precedent for later developments) o Feudal class was military – not agricultural estate managers; agriculture was organized by village but not in detail and not by anyone or body in particular; villagers (serfs and free) worked the land according to traditions/customs (which had the force of law) important point: lord of manor does NOT own the land and cannot use the land for any use of his choosing – he only owned a set of restricted customary rights o These restrictions did not apply to the feudal lords who came as crusaders and conquered land; slavery existed in the Mediterranean basin; both Christians and Muslims took prisoners of war as slaves rarely used for agricultural purposes but use of slaves (though minimal) in sugar production set the stage for their later use on plantation complexes across the Atlantic o Further development came with the Italians – the trading cities of Italy had been rewarded with fiefs for their involvement in transporting Crusaders and their supplies; Italian bourgeois tenants (who were originally business men) applied managerial practices to agriculture some of these practices/attitudes were transmitted to the initial feudal lords o Rulers of feudal and bourgeois origins had children who intermarried to eventually create a new class of overlords o Cornaro family – worked territory with a capitalist fervor; bought slaves from Arabia and Syria for labor purposes; became social equals with Lusignan family and eventually intermarried o The industry spread throughout the nation by feudal grants given for smaller tracts of land to individuals; grew capital and management from several Christian states; most important investors were Venetians and the state bank of Genoa  The Mediterranean Slave Trade: o Need for labor – the slave trade provided a way to find immigrants to work in burgeoning industries; most plantation workers were not slaves; mining operations also required large labor forces o Slavery remathed minor component of the economy in Mediterranean until the 18 century; slaves rowed the galleys (primary war vessels); young boys and girls would serve as prostitutes in harems; others served as domestic servants; reinstatement of slavery in agricultural was a product of the sugar industry o Sources of slaves: Muslim and Christian war captives (mostly for ransom, not labor); early 13 century Venice and Genoa set up trading posts on northern and eastern coasts of Black Sea where slave trading activities boomed; Tartars from regions north of the Black Sea; Mongols, Russians, and Ukrainians only the minority ended up working on plantations o Important Points: this trade did not discriminate (no distinction for races, colors, or religions); Christians are not supposed to enslave other Christians but it happened regardless; ***The first plantation slaves were not black or African;thfricans did not appear in the Mediterranean until the mid-14 century; came from Sahara into the Muslim slave markets of N. Africa and then were sold (or captured and taken) into the Christian trade o When Turks captured Constantinople, Christians had a harder time accessing slave ports north of the Black Sea; at around the same time, the Portuguese made contact with sub-Saharan ports Lagos and Lisbon became the main source of slaves for the Mediterranean  The Mature Plantation Complex: o Historical Models: Jamaica, Barbados, or Saint Domingue (present day Haiti) – 18 century; Brazil – 17 century; and Mauritius in the early th 19 o Place Distinctions: the labor was forced; most were slaves; population was not self-sustaining – constant stream of immigration was needed to maintain population; existence of large-scale capitalist plantations; plantations still maintained certain feudal characteristics (owner controlled slaves while at work and had legal jurisdiction); plantations catered to specific long-distance market (first for sugar, then for coffee and cotton) economy depended on long-distance trade to an unprecedented extent; the base of political control was on another continent, much further than previous historical occurrences (control varied – Portugal, Spain, Holland, England, France, Brandenburg, Sweden, Denmark, and Kurland (present day Latvia) were involved the tropical Atlantic plantations were clearly set apart from others  Forms of Cultural Encounter: o Trade diaspora of merchants – these merchants would conduct trade between people of their own society and people of their host societies; became culturally adept by necessity; intense cross-cultural experience o Fifteenth century Maritime Revolution – Europe could now navigate to almost anywhere in the world; trade diasporas began to change started as peaceful, solely commercial voyages and became militarized trading posts (between Europe and Asia), armed and fortified, they served th a link between Asia and the developing plantation complex o Mid-16 century, Europe began its imperialist phase overseas & conquered the highland South and Middle America; “territorial/true empire” – govern whole area, not just trading posts though local communities remained intact and kept cultural aspects (natives were many/ immigrants were few) o “settlement empire/ true colonization” – natives were few and immigrants were many (US is model) o Plantation Complex (4 type of demographic) – Europeans conquered and replaced natives with settlers from Africa and Asia; “pleural societies” in which peoples of two distinct cultures coexist in an area did exist in several parts of Africa, Algeria, Tunisia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, also Asia, Israel, and the USSR; requires varying degrees of cultural integration Lecture 1/19  Slavery in the Western World Before 1492 o Spartacus and the Third Servile War, 73-71 BC trained gladiators escaped facilities and fled to Mount Vesuvius eventually becoming a mobile army of about 70.000 escaped men and women; In 71 BC, 8 legions of the Roman Army and combined forces finally defeated Spartacus and his army he was captured and executed and about 60.000 of his men were crucified  Important General Points: o 1: slavery is a very old institution; its existence in various forms was pervasive in history around the world; slavery as an institution was not questioned until relatively recently o 2: Until the rise of African slavery in the Western hemisphere, slavery was not racialized; “race” as we know it today did not really exist; no connection existed between race and slavery slaves were “other” (captives of wars, mostly, and immigrants) o 3: Slave revolts, or threat thereof, were a constant historical factor; many times put down with brutal resistance; Roman – “all slaves are enemies”  Definition(s) of Slavery: o Slavery was one form of exploitation  Slaves were considered chattel – that is, they could be bought and sold much like property; their rights could be transferred from one individual to another commodification  Coercion could be used at will; labor forced by master; location determined by master  Slaves were “outsiders;” usually no close kin or familiarity with the place of enslavement (making it harder to escape)  Slaves had no rights to sexuality or reproductive rights  Status was generally inherited  Societies with Slaves: (ex. Classical Greece 6 -5 centuries BC) o Main productive processes were not dependent on slaves o There were many other forms of labor besides slavery o Not all of the propertied elite had slaves  Slave Societies (Roman Empire C. 12 century BC) o Slavery was an essential component in economic production o Slavery was a major source of labor o Ruling class was slave owners  Decline of Roman Empire – slavery became less pervasive; did not disappear but was vastly reduced slaves became status symbols and served as domestic servants  Slavery in Europe During the Middle Ages: o Rise of serfdom o Viking and Italian slave trade o “slav” slave (people were taken from areas Bulgaria, Serbia, Macedonia, etc.)  Expansion of Islam: o Spread with military conquest; largely societies with slaves; most slaves were captives of war; Islamic trade networks  into slave markets (slaves also came from trade in small numbers mostly) o Arab slave trading with Africa in Middle Ages (7 century on)  The Crusades and European Slavery: hthy wars – Christians v. Muslims fought over holy land beginning in the 11 century; Christians saw land that was occupied by Muslim peoples as “rightfully” theirs economic, political, and ideological clashes  Important Points !! o Crusades introduced Europeans to sugar (their only source of sweetness was honey); sugar was a luxury – some even thought it was medicinal and invested extra meaning because it was such a rarity o Sugar – preference for sweetness is deeply engrained in humanity; sugar presented a big potential for profit because of its high value-to- bulk ration; sugar soon became a long-distance product sugar is then sold in Mediterranean trading networks and then slowly introduced into European markets through Cyprus  laid the foundations for institutional mechanisms o Who worked plantations?  war captives and other trafficked slaves; sugar production was very arduous and labor intensive and there was high potential for dangerous accidents to occur (no one would willingly volunteer to do that work, even for pay) so demand for slave labor gained ground o New Ideology – Christians should not enslave other Christian (there were always loopholes); same concept applied to Muslims (with an aspect of apprenticeship)  basis of European justification for enslaving many other people o Slave trading was viewed as a resource  Crusades Summary: o 1453 Constantinople was retaken by the Ottoman Turks – European traders lost access to Black Sea ports and Slavic sources of slaves got pushed out of Holy lands as well, except for Cyrus o By the End of the Middle Ages  Slavery sharply declined in Europe WHILE…  Sugar production was burgeoning in Cyprus, BUT…  The supply of Slavic slaves was cut off Chapter 3 Curtin: Africa and the Slave Trade  From 16 -19 centuries, African slaves were the most frequent in Western- controlled territories  Slaves in the medieval period were typically slavs – people from the Black Sea trading posts  African Isolation: o Sub-Saharan West Africa had made some contact with Mediterranean societies (800-1000 B.C.) o Knowledge of smelting iron and certain crops (ex. sesame seeds) crossed from north to south o Intercommunicating zones – societies used to be primarily self- sustaining but changes that came with the Agricultural Revolution made it possible for regions to create surpluses  this led to division and specialization, which created an ideal climate for trade between developing cities o Isolated cultural areas became more homogenous in the intercommunicating zones that overtook all of the Mediterranean basin o 2500 B.C. climate changes created a new dynamic – last glaciers retreated in Europe and in Africa the creation of the Sahara  After this point, Egypt and N.W. Africa became more closely related to the Mediterranean world - new technology and discoveries were quickly dispersed o Isolation in Africa disappeared in stages; factors that contributed to this occurrence were increasing long-distance trade, introduction of camels (domesticated in Arabia) this development allowed for cheap transportation through the desert  Political Forms South of the Sahara: o Africans in southern sahel developed trading states with a complex organization (most well-known were Takrur, Ghana, Kanem, Songhai, Mali) o Formation of states in tropical Africa was not always due to developing trade relations (Kingdom of Kongo) o “stateless societies” – many regions where kinship patterns settled conflicts and no one individual was in charge or had a monopoly over ability to use force over other individuals in society; historians considered these regions to be “primitive” or “less developed” but they are now considered to have been a better option; these societies often had advanced agricultural techniques but states were sometimes required to fight off enemy forces and preserve long-distance trade relations  The Trans-Sahara Trade: o Kola nuts and foodstuffs were traded from the forest and savanna o West Africa imported salt and exported gold to the south o Internal West African trade – kola nuts, shea butter, salts, textiles, iron and iron tools, and some slaves (mostly war prisoners sold to passing traders) o Exports to the North – gold, peppers, shea butter, dried meat and hides, ivory, and some slaves o When Europeans arrived at the coast, they were able to utilize existing trade networks  Disease and Isolation: o West African diseases were as fatal to the Europeans as European diseases were to the Amerindians, equally as dangerous to North African traders who didn’t live there for extended periods of time o Yaws, Guinea worm, trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), onchocerciasis (river blindness), and liver flukes as well as smallpox and measles (only diseases that were worse in Europe were tuberculosis and pneumonia) o Yellow fever and plasmodium falciparum, the most fatal form of malaria; two most effective insect vectors for malaria in the world made matters worse; believed to have originated in West Africa o This form of malaria is often fatal to both children and adults but survivors can develop immunity without symptoms (if infected with the same strain); most, if not all, children fight a life and death battle before the age of five o Yellow fever is more often fatal for adults who have not encountered the disease before; children who are infected and survive develop immunity (of every ten men sent to Africa, on average only two returned to Britain after being discharged) For this reason, Europeans could not commit to African campaigns  African, Muslim, and European Slavery : o “slave” – a person whose rights have been transferred to another; slavery in the American plantation was different  slave was a unit of labor; normally in agriculture o Slavery in the Muslim world was different in theory and practice – slave became a part of the master’s household and received tutelage in learning Islam; subordinate aliens – they served in service occupations (concubine or harem guard) o Ottoman Empire – the bureaucracy was staffed by slaves; slaves were also recruited for slave armies in the Muslim world o South of the Sahara – occupations of slaves was more various; the way for a group to increase power and wealth was by recruiting people and the fastest way to do this was to buy people; slaves were introduced as members of the kinship – just subordinate members; subordination was transitional and slaves had the opportunity to rise in society and (generally) many even earned freedom in one generation (this situation was only feasible for settled slaves)*** o Trade Slaves – captured slaves and condemned criminals had no rights and his master could do with him what he pleased; usually, however, the slave would be sold to North or West Africans or Europeans far from home where he could gain a position in society and earn protection by laws  The Beginning of the Atlantic Trade: o During the first two centuries of maritime contact, the trading of slaves was relatively unimportant; Portuguese mariners were in the market for gold and just happened upon this development o Portuguese attention was focused on specific regions of the West African coast (the gold fields of Bure and Bambuhu); second point of coastal contact was the Akan gold fields – the Portuguese entered the coastal slave trade to facilitate trading of slaves for gold o After 1550, political disturbance of Kongo increased supply of trade while Brazilian production of sugar increased demand Lecture 1/21: Introduction to (West) Africa  54 counties, couple thousand languages, many cultures/religions/lifestyles great diversity (very large – China/Europe/USA fit in its borders)  Ibn Battuta in West Africa (1352-1352); Marco Polo’s contemporary; travelled extensively and wrote accounts; commissioned by the Sultan of Morocco to travel and document his journey south across the Sahara  he travelled on camel  Trade (on camel back): West Africans south of the Sahara exchanged gold for salt from the North; West African sources of gold – Akan, Bure, and Bambuk gold fields)  gold was used in Europe and Middle East for minting coins  3 Big States – Ghana, Songhai, Mali (Kingdom of Mali very well-known source of gold)  taxed traders/imports/exports  Mansa Musa emperor of Mali; rich and powerful (richest person in history); made pilgrimage to Mecca, which implies that he was a Muslim; when he travelled through Cairo, it was said that he “flooded the city with gold” and destabilized the monetary system  Islam in Africa: traders converted caravan trading cultures; Islam was advantageous as it led to fluency in Arabic; traders/soldiers/travelers without roots were most frequently converted peaceful coexistence; created pockets of Islam  1600s marked the start of decentralization; former constituent parts began to act with autonomy (desert, savanna, and forest); state formation was much smaller in the forest (clusters of small villages with strong kinship ties)  3 Clusters of States (Forest Societies in West Africa): o Akan settlements (later centralized into Asante Empire) o Yoruba city states (including Ife and Oye) o Kingdom of Benin (by 1400s most centralized but still small) o West Central African forests were mostly villages in the Congo; it was very hard to create large-scale settlements/ political units  Patterns/Commonalities/Generalizations: o Plenty of land with not enough people – mostly underpopulated o Survival depended on people working together – soil was old and rotten; disease environment was horrible it was hard to accumulate people o Sociological Implications: more people = more people to make food and help generate wealth; Polygyny – multiple wives in order to increase fertility and have more children; there existed various types of client-based services and big men competed for followers o Big Men: they were leaders of kinship groups, not tyrants; there was a social contract in which leadership and resources were exchanged for services and membership in the group to gain power  if people became dissatisfied, then they could just leave o Extent of Slavery in Africa (before the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade): slavery was a way of enlarging a group; there were mostly only societies with slaves but slavery definitely existed o **Slavery was a way to acquire a labor force, which became a source of wealth; purchased captives became slaves and more slaves = economic growth  What do we mean by “slavery”? o No reproductive rights; considered chattel; rights can be transferred from one person/group to another o HOWEVER: status could change over time; status was not necessarily hereditary; no stark dichotomy between slavery and freedom (existed on a continuum)  Other Forms of Dependency/Exploitation: clientship, pawnship (person’s labor was often used for interest), marriage (“bride wealth”), debt can lead to dependency  Key Points From Lecture: o African societies and structures were diverse but consistent theme was importance of people in order to build the wealth o There was pre-existing slavery across the Sahara, as well as other forms of exploitation/dependency o Individual status could change over time; opportunity for societal mobility HIST 278 Week 3 Notes from Lecture The Maritime Revolution, or Christopher Columbus goes to Africa  Introduction: Ceuta, 1415 o Prince Henry, “The Navigator” (1394-1460): leader of expedition the Portuguese crossed the Straight of Gibraltar to Ceuta in search of GOLD trade network developed from that point forward; the Portuguese wanted in on the existing sub-Saharan Africa trade network  Henry was a patron of navigation and expansion but not a likely heir to the throne so he asserted himself elsewhere  created a “think tank” to pool expertise and devise a way to access trans- Saharan trade  Problem: Portuguese mariners did not know how to get back because there were only southward winds and their ships were too weak to tack against these winds  Problem solved  1) expertise: Portuguese used Arabic and Viking ship and sail designs, resulting in the creation of a vessel called the Caravel that was strong enough to persevere through the winds & 2) accidental luck: sailed far enough west that they found winds that would take them back north (mid-1400s)  Began to sail down the African coast (1440s) and to tap into the sub-Saharan trading networks  First Contact Zone Senegambia (gave Portuguese access to the Bambuhu and Bure gold fields); they then tried to get into the slave trade by stealing people while there o Portuguese sometimes got themselves captured and killed for this…but eventually became peaceful trade of gold and there were very few people used as domestic servants (this was a status symbol of luxury)  The Gold Coast – producers started to trade directly with the south, cutting out the middle men; Portuguese sent a delegation to set up a fortified base on coast to store the gold that was sold to them  Caramansa (leader of the African community where the Portuguese were) viewed this as an economic opportunity for growth o El Mina (name of the fort, 1480s) in Ghana served as a holding place for gold for about 2 centuries and eventually became a fort for the slave trade in exchange for the GOLD, Caramansa needed slaves to work the gold mines, so the Portuguese for into a carrying trade in which **they began bringing in slaves and out gold  The Kingdom of Benin: centralized kingdom; contact made in 1480s; did not have a goal – could trade slaves or goods; Oba of Benin sent his own delegation to Portugal to check it out & learn some more about Portugal  Oba established a gov. trade (traded some spicy peppers, some slaves, etc.); Benin wanted metal (Benin Bronzes are well-known)  Kingdom of Kongo: Portuguese explorers came in 1482; Kingdom sent a delegation to Portugal (and decided that they were good potential allies); accepted Christian missionaries and bought more goods in exchange for slaves  the Portuguese would sell these slaves to Sao Tome and some back to El Mina (they developed a carrier trade) o All the while…relentless increase in demand for labor force for sugar  Plantation Complex: o Characteristics of the Plantation Complex – large-scale enterprises, served foreign markets (part of international networks), most of the workers were slaves (there were overseers who enforced labor; generally not self-sustaining the need for new supply of labor was constant and relentless), specialized product sold to distant markets, political control remained on another continent The Plantation Complex Comes to the Americas: Why African Slaves(?)  Discovering the New World: o 1492 – Columbus thought he had discovered India (hence Indians) in actuality, it was Hispaniola; 1498 – Columbus led an expedition that ended up in South America o 1493 – seized people on island of Hispaniola and tried to impose slavery on sugar plantations PROBLEM: Native American populations were vulnerable to European diseases (tuberculosis, small pox, etc.) and combined with brutality on plantations affected a high death rate…  This leads Spanish to turn to Africans brought in by Portuguese 1526 Asiento: license from the Spanish government to ship slaves to Spanish possessions  Why African Slaves??? o High demand for labor; because they could – Africans were easily accessible; natives did not live long enough due to disease but Africans had prior exposure to European diseases and were not as affected o Slaves were imported to the Spanish Caribbean but the sugar industry languished (in the early years) because the cost did not outweigh the benefits Spanish left for another interest: colonization of the South American mainland, mining gold and silver (Incas, Aztecs, etc.)  Armies of conquistadors descendants of African slaves had been assimilated into European culture in waves but slavery = social marginality and as such, slaves made good soldiers, bureaucrats, and political administrators (allegiance was to their masters and unwavering) they were granted feudal estates for being war heroes… o This created a need for labor and made possible importation of Africans o S.A. gold was the initial draw but silver became the money-load – it was sent to Spain to send to China to pay off debts (1540s) o Who Would Mine? – Natives because they were there and easy to exploit; “justifiable” because the natives were not Christians   The Ecomienda – labor control system using natives; grant of land and the labor upon it; parallels the feudalism in many ways but with Indians who were not considered chattel but served a serf-like role  Bartolome de Las Casas: wrote a series of descriptions (1450s) of the brutality of the system prompting Spain to pass regulatory laws enslavement of Indians was prohibited and the encomienda system was greatly reduced  *** meanwhile, the economy is taking off o Demographic Catastrophe – massive population decline in the 1500s and early 1600s  Lima, Peru and Mexico were able to afford slaves; Lima was the “jewel” of the Spanish empire bringing in so many slaves that by 1590, about half of the population were slaves (had to be marched over land) o Conditions were bad and Filipe Guaman Poma de Ayala (1535-1616) wrote an extensive manuscript depicting the atrocities committed in Peru and sent it to the Spanish court (statement being “look, this is what you have done”) o Peru was a society with slaves because had the slaves not been forced into labor, the silver would certainly have been mined by other means  Portuguese laid claim to Brazil: they did not find the metals that they had been hoping for; in the 1530s, they got the idea to establish sugar manufacture in northern Brazil This endeavor TOOK OFF! By the mid-1500a (and definitely by the 1600s), Brazil was the sugar production capital of the Western world o The question of who would fill the labor demand existed… initially locals BUT the Indians could resist by running into the forest that was not accessible to outsiders and disease also drastically decreased the population o Portuguese recalled prior experiences with producing and shipping sugar and importing labor from outside sources  this led to importation of slaves (mostly) from West Central Africa to Brazil  African Slavery in N.E. Brazil: African slaves came to Brazil in the 2dhalf of the 1500s/ by the 1600s, there were almost all African slaves (replacing the Indians as the labor supply)  Main Reasons for African Slaves  Portuguese already have access  Africans cannot run away into the forests (they are not familiar with the area and natives would capture and kill them; where would they go?)  Africans are less susceptible to European diseases because of prior exposure WEEK 4 Notes 2/2/16 Why Did Africans Sell Slaves? (to Europeans) Bad Explanations:  The Patronizing View – Africans were tricked and/or overpowered; thought to be inferior intellectually and militarily  The “blame the victim” View – they sold their own people and so brought slavery on themselves African Autonomy: (refutes first argument)  King of Benin with armed soldiers, 1680s  Trading developed instead of military conquest because Europeans realized that was the only way  There were only occasional raids (like the one depicted in the movie) John Hawkins:  1581 – English privateer (essentially a paid pirate); led several voyages from Europe to Africa  Cape Verde – tried to seize people but Africans used poisonous arrows  Sierra Leone – the king of this region asked for cooperation against another African group in exchange for ½ of the captured slaves  however, after they were assisted, the king fled with his people and all of those who were captured in the night (Hawkins was unsuccessful)  Europeans could not force their way into the slave trade  Windward coast  did not sell slaves Refuting the second argument:  People were of different tribes, ethnic groups, political factions, ideologies, and cultures – Africans of one group did not consider Africans of another group to be “the same”  African Identity – occupation, kin groups, villages, religions, languages never would have said “African” – the “African Identity” was established in the Americas  They did not sell their own people – that is an anachronistic assumption (sellers and victims were not the “same” people) Short Argument: Why did Africans Sell Slaves?  Powerful people do what is in their best interests selling Africans served their interests for many reasons  1) slavery was an accepted institution – convenient for captives of war  2) Benefitted the elites who were in control – politically and economically rational  Why were there so many wars? – same reasons as the rest of the world (resources, power, etc.)  Africa was unique in its acute political fragmentation  in this way it was predisposed to disputes; splintering of political units; when there were disagreements, people moved off into new places (however, there was always the possibility that a few generations later those same factions may end up fighting)  Wars – the goal was to capture people – not land like in Europe – people are the most important resource/commodity  they can be kept for labor or sold in exchange for goods, wealth, etc. o Africans were familiar with slavery  precedent set for capturing people during wars o The question was then to sell or not to sell … Early European/African Slave Trading Zones  Senegambia – horses exchanged for slaves sold to the north (horses were important for the army; cavalry)  Gold Coast – El Mina followed by many more forts; mining/holding gold; Africans were buying slaves to work the mines they were not for sale until the 1700s  Kingdom of Congo  Benin – Portuguese came and wanted to buy slaves for Gold Coast; Portuguese traded iron metals for spicy pepper and ivory and captives were kept in the Kingdom for the most part Benin administration decided Portuguese bronze was not worth their people ! Conclusion:  Africans traded for their own political and/or economic benefit, when it was advantageous to do so, and when they had access to potentially threatening excess war captives cost/benefit calculation 2/4/16 Review: Why did Africans sell slaves? – legit institution, effective way to get rid of war captives, served their interests, because they could/ had access Portuguese Mariners made contact:  Lunda (early states of the southern savanna)  Portuguese emmisaries to the th king of Kongo, Alfonzo Nzinga, 15 century o Used cultural bridges to cement ties with Portuguese o Quasi-spiritual  Portuguese claimed to have a god who was all- powerful (Catholicism); traded goods (access to exotic goods kept subordinates loyal by creating economic opportunities) Central African Hierarchies:  King (distributes goods to Lords for loyalty and service of some of their people) Provincial Lord (provides people for king in exchange for goods) Subjects (distributes goods to subjects in exchange for services – subjects serve in exchange for goods and protection)  *** “goods” referred to are primarily luxury items (textiles – Europe and India, nothing needed for survival, high fashion) ---Global Commerce  African/European elites get luxuries Strategies to Get Imports: Kongo (and elsewhere in Central Africa)  Sell goods (ivory, beeswax, etc.)  Sell “surplus” people already enslaved (only sold certain people)  Sell new war captives (related to military expansion); people from outside the Kingdom  they did not want to sell their own people o Kings begin to have to compete with the lords for the loyalty of the people as they begin selling slaves themselves (not through the king) subordinates were becoming more wealthy than the king  Eventually, turned on Kingdom’s population itself people who were convicted of crimes (and sometimes entire lineages); began taxing communities in slaves (people were given as a tribute)  Invasion – foreign warriors (Jaga); remnants of refugee armies invaded Kingdom of Kongo and terrified the people The king and his court fled to island on river and sent for help from the Portuguese ----took years of wars to push out invaders o Kings became increasingly dependent on Portuguese to keep them in power at the expense of local people o The Kingdom of Kongo was never as strong as it had been ever again – rival war lords emerged in what had formally been Kingdom of Kongo Why didn’t they just tell the Portuguese to leave (when they realized that their presence was undermining the power hierarchy in the kingdom)?  Greed, power struggle, hard to disengage, etc.  Kongo (first, most dramatic) but also (mid-1600s) other areas of West Central Africa o Ngola – Portuguese instigated a war; launched invasion to conquer for silver disastrous results for them o Imbangala – military bands from the interiors; refugees/displaced people/roving men (reputation for being cannibals, anti-social, etc.) o Kilombo: Imbangala military camp/ small chiefdom Queen Nzinga of Ndonga and Metamba (migrated to get away from the Portuguese)  Allowed runaway slaves to take safe haven here; Portuguese tried to undermine her position with the continued interest in accruing slaves  Nzinga got an army together (impressive military strength); formed regional alliances and gained power over trade routes  Peace Treaty – Nzinga agreed to trade with Portuguese and provide slaves if the Portuguese would agree to stop sending raiders (1654-55)  Nzinga in negotiating with the Portuguese had to convert her kingdom into middlemen  she started conducting her own raids in other communities to bring in and sell slaves to the Portuguese in exchange for goods Readings – Thornton, Miers, Alfonzo I, and Ibn Batutta HIST 278 Week 5 Notes Beyond Pocahontas: The English Colonies in the 1600s I. Introduction: the first Africans come to Jamestown II. Profits and labor in Jamestown III. British and French colonies in the Caribbean IV. The Dutch change everything a. Attacks on Portuguese trade and colonies b. Influence on British and French Caribbean colonies c. Example of Barbados V. Other Europeans enter the slave trade a. Trading companies b. Effects in Virginia VI. Conclusions: Why African Slaves?  Early Colonial Spanish America and Brazil? o Portuguese needed slaves to work plantations in Brazil o Africans were less susceptible to illness and disease than the natives were o Portuguese already had access to African trade networks; slavery was a pre-existing institution o Supply and demand dictated that this route was a good choice  1619, first slaves brought to Jamestown century-long history in America before Africans got to VA o Only 20 Africans initially; landed by Dutch pirates and stolen from a Portuguese vessel landed African captives at English colony and traded them with colonists for provisions in return o At this point, colonists were struggling to survive they did not take advantage of any help that they could have gotten from the natives; they arrived during a time of drought and subsequently experienced famine (500 settlers quickly became 60) in response, VA co. sent more colonists o this was an isolated event there was no economy that had the demand or means to pay for slaves (that took most of the next century to become a reality) o Netherlands, France, Britain got involved in the 1600s  The Jamestown Fiasco o Tobacco saves VA; John Rolfe successfully crossbred native strains of tobacco with West Indian tobacco (married Pocahontas) turning a profit by the 1660s  Sources of Labor??? o Native peoples – NOT an option; the colonists were not strong enough to coerce/subdue them o English & Irish – indentured servants, mostly poor white people and debtors or kidnapped individuals, signed up to work for a period of time in exchange for passage to American colonies and IF they survived, they received land (about 50 acres) o Mortality rate was VERY high (indentured servants hardly ever lived out their indenture periods)  high risk, high reward  Curtin: semi-slavery their contracts/labor could be purchased and sold, even though they themselves are not considered chattel o In the 60s/70s, there was a booming tobacco economy but an absence of African slaves  Spanish “claimed” most of the islands of the Caribbean but… o In the early 1600s, French, Dutch, and English come and start settlements on the islands various Northern Europeans fought wars with Spain (during time period of the Protestant Reformation) o In the early 1600s people were sent to establish colonies on the periphery of Spanish and Portuguese empires just to agitate the Spanish  There were privateers and raiders served as constant nuisance  thought that might set the stage for a bigger conflict  The French and British people of these colonies grew tobacco, indigo, cotton, etc. and did not profit too much but still needed labor  turned to white indentured servants o Shift to slavery came with growing sugar economy in the British and French West Indies  Sugar cultivation in the Indies/Caribbean had to do with wars in Europe; Netherlands trying to break away from the Spanish empire and also fighting Portugal at the same time most effective way to fight was to attack Spanish and Portuguese colonial resources, which they did in three ways: o 1) Dutch West India Co. – empowered the company to undertake military ventures, to colonize, and essentially to do the government’s work; they were trying to steal supplies/goods/etc. o 2) Landed an expedition in N. Portuguese Brazil and fought the Portuguese on the ground; they were able to overcome P. forces and Pernambuco became a Dutch colony took over the sugar plantations as well, in the process o 3) Launched attacks on Portuguese ports in Africa (El mina and Angola) to stymy labor source; they established their own posts  they know had sources for trade in Africa after taking over the Portuguese business  Involvement in the slave trade: o Portuguese o Dutch – second Europeans to get involved in the slave trade  1600s, Dutch gains were reversed and they were expelled from the areas; no more colonies so… they sold their services to British colonists (offer to establish sugar industry effectively brought the sugar plantation complex to British colonies and established the sugar industry; also supplied British with slaves (this was when Br. Was running out of sources of labor because indentured servitude was unreliable to Barbados and Jamaica (people would go to VA instead); also people were dying too quickly  Dutch entrepreneurs became the answer to the problem because they had access to labor (Africans)  Barbados – easternmost of Caribbean islands o Very small; easier to get there from Africa; good soil for growing sugar (1640s took off) o Sugar was the principal crop o Most wealth and most populated of Britain’s colonies (in the 1680s)  Jamaica (was close behind) o 1680s – plantation complex had come to the Western Hemisphere  Dutch had broken the Spanish monopoly and then others wanted in (France, Britain, etc.)  Other Europeans Enter the Slave Trade: o French and British chartered companies  Dutch West India co.  French West Indies co.  Royal African co. (England)  English entered in 1676 and went all in; HUGE investment in the slave trade right from the start o Planters in VA now had the potential to buy slaves on the English colonial market o Conditions in VA were improving and people were living long enough to fulfill their indenture and earn plots of land o African slaves had previously been more expensive to purchase and transport but they became the more attractive option from an economical standpoint  For the plantation societies of the early Americas (NE Brazil, Barbados, and the Chesapeake), how did the planters meet their labor needs? o Why or why not slavery? o Why or why not Africans? Cultures of Slavery in the Charter Generations I. Generations of Slavery II. Atlantic Creoles a. Definition b. In Africa c. In American slavery III. Creolization IV. Examples a. Virginia b. Brazil V. Conclusions  Charter Generations: peoples who were the first arrivals, their children and sometimes their grandchildren o Brazil (mid-1500s) and VA (1600s) o Different from plantation generations – those forced to grow a profitable staple crop (required more slaves and was harder work) o Revolutionary generations – those who lived through great upheavals that offered the promise of freedom (but often served only to revitalize slavery) o Migration generation – descendants of Africans who faced their own forced migrations (after slavery had ended)  Recap  first slaves in Jamestown were stolen by the Dutch from a Portuguese vessel and traded for provisions; colonists baptized then, gave them each Christian names, and sent them to work  “Charter” Generations of Slavery: o Scope for gaining eventual freedom o Labor forces were mixed – enslaved Africans and indentured whites/others were working side by side  same working conditions and same living conditions o Flexibility of social categories and social interactions o Some autonomy; many types of work; considered a “society with slaves” NOT a slave society  Atlantic Creoles: o There were many Atlantic creoles (distinctive feature of early societies where slavery was being established) o A person of European descent born in the West Indies or Spanish America o A person of the Atlantic world who was familiar with multiple cultures considered cosmopolitans, drawing skills and cultural elements from multiple Atlantic societies  Poll: Where would you be most likely to find Atlantic Creoles? o Answer: all of the above (Portugal, Spain, Barbados, etc.) o People had to learn how to communicate o Had to learn the culture and the etiquette o Became culturally worldly o Also Portugal and Spain  cultural hybrids  Societies around Kingdoms: (Kongo and Ndongo) o Christianity spread and with it knowledge and awareness of Portugal presence affected increased worldliness and cosmopolitan peoples o Creoles were prevalent in the Americas during the charter period o Africans may have maintained some of their background cultures but did have to adapt rapidly  “Creolization” vs. “Retention” interpretations: o Process of cultural mixing/assimilation vs. retention of culture o One Argument – African cultures barely survived the middle passage; African slaves had various, dissimilar backgrounds; cultural change was most significant; creolization was rapid due to trauma of voyage and heterogeneity o Second Argument – (Thornton) distinct African cultures did survive the middle passage; most African slaves in any given area came from the same or similar places in Africa; cultural continuity was significant; Creolization occurred fairly slowly o They were a minority so they did have to adapt very quickly o African origins (primarily West Central Africa) in the first two centuries  Northeastern Brazil  Northeastern Brazil ex.: o Mid-1500s began to import slaves to produce sugar; the vast majority were West Central Africans (very large number in the 17 century)  Formed a cultural “block” retained language and cultural customs o Ritual Retained: Kilundu (in Brazil) most prevalent healing ritual from W.C. Africa in Brazil at this time (music and dancing)call down spirit to possess spiritual leader who could then cure illnesses and provide divine solutions/interventions for any problem; this ritual happened frequently (missionaries hated it soooo…they kept very good notes on it) o The problem they were facing was enslavement – divine intervention was necessary (also for physical ailments, bad masters, social issues, etc. o Reciprocity of creolization demonstrated by white nuns who performed the ritual ; they didn’t believe in it but they still knew of it well enough to performth replica of Kilundu o By the 19 century “Kilundu” became known as a song and dance  Process of Creolization in VA: o Small group of Africans had to adapt to a larger group of Europeans o “Portrait of a Negro” c. 1630 (drawing)  Anthony Johnson – arrived in VA in 1621; 1622, Indians staged an attack and killed many colonists but he survived; several years later, he married a woman named Mary who was brought to his plantation and they married and eventually purchased themselves and some land  He was one of about 20 freed Africans at the time; 1650s, he had amassed a 250 acre estate staggeringly large and impressive In 1665 he sold his land and bought land to move to on the eastern shore of Maryland  They were largely successful in life – they had their own slaves, used the legal system, and left their heirs sizeable estates  This is a demonstration of rapid creolization Both Anthony and his wife had to adapt quickly in order for all of this to happen  Much different context from N.E. Brazil – How would you expect the lives of African descended people in VA to change with the expansion of plantation slavery? Discussion #3 Davis  FOUR cultural preconditions for enslaving Africans:  Slavery is an accepted institution  Arab precedent set for enslaving and transporting slaves via ship from Africa  Trade network expanded from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic and across to the Americas  Racist stereotypes  biblical interpretation transmitted from Muslims to Christians  Negative connotations and symbolism of the color black  Greco-Roman precedent for slavery  Slavery was institutionalized early on and in succession (Mediterranean to Atlantic to Americas) Williams  Economic argument  Indentured servitude slavery because it filled the labor gap  Rise of the plantation complex  Forced labor was needed for sugar because it was grueling work that no one would voluntarily do (even for pay) racism is a justifying ideology  Africans are easily identifiable as outsiders Eltis  Europeans were less likely to enslave other Europeans  Common identity – even basest members of society were not considered for slavery  Cultural bias (read RRQ) Richard Ligone  Indentured servants were treated worse than slaves  “cultural prejudice” vs. “racism”  they didn’t really seem to think that there was anything inherently inferior about African peoples  Masters/slaves/servants: social classifications  Continuing debate about origin of racism  staunch progression from culturally different to inherently inferior (intellectually, physically, etc.)


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.