Ed Psych Exam 1 Study Guide
Ed Psych Exam 1 Study Guide EIPT 3473
Popular in Educational Psychology of Childhood and Adolescent Development
Popular in Education and Teacher Studies
EDAH 2963 - 001
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Crystal Neill on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EIPT 3473 at University of Oklahoma taught by Ben Heddy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 192 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology of Childhood and Adolescent Development in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Blue is for examples Green is for memory tricks Basic Issues in Developmental Psych Nature: the way genetics affect our traits ◦ Ex. Hair color, height, genes that can affect mental health ◦ Think: Nature has given me these genes Nurture: the way our environment affects our traits ◦ Ex. Malnutrition may stunt growth, parents talking to kids helps develop vocabulary, pollution may cause deformation ◦ Think: traits are nurtured by parents and outside factors Universality: some developmental trends occur in (almost) everyone ◦ Ex. Learning to speak, walk, growing taller ◦ Think: happens all over the universe Diversity: some developmental traits only happen to some people or happen in different ways ◦ Ex. Heights vary, intelligence levels vary and grow at different rates ◦ Think: people are diverse in these developments Qualitative: changes that happen suddenly ◦ Ex. Learning to jump, run ◦ Think: you suddenly have this quality Quantitative: changes that happen gradually ◦ Ex. Learning to control emotions, learning English, growing taller ◦ Think: a quantity that grows over time Developmental Periods Infancy: birth to 2 years Early Childhood: 2 to 6 Middle Childhood: 6 to 10 Early Adolescence: 10 to 14 Late Adolescence: 14 to 18 Think: after infancy, it's 4 year periods Theory: an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior that has strong evidence to back it up ◦ A good theory explains a lot and incorporates previous theories. ◦ Why do we need theories for education? ‣ It's so complex • Home life, classroom dynamics, friend groups, neighborhood, body, state: all affect learning and development ‣ Teachers use developmentally appropriate practice by applying theories to the way they instruct and relate to students ‣ Ex. Mrs. Brown knows that her 16 year old students are testing their boundaries by eating in class because asserting independence is a characteristic of late adolescence, not because they just don't like her Family Structures • Two parent families ◦ Living together (cohabiting)/not ◦ Married/not ◦ First marriage/not • Single parent ◦ Always single ◦ Separated/divorced ◦ Other parent gone • Others ◦ Adoptive/fostered/grandparents (extended)/unofﬁcial caretakers • All can involve different sexual orientation Culture and Community Culture: context that a social group gives to life ◦ Brings meaning to events ◦ Exposes children to intellectual work of a society ◦ Routines and rituals ◦ Division of responsibility ◦ Social practices ◦ Ex. Quinceñera celebration, diet, marriage practices, art Community: a child's neighborhood and the surrounding area ◦ Resources of a community affect development ◦ Ex. Mentors that give advice to children, playgrounds they can exercise on, safety in their neighborhood can affect well-being Parenting styles Authoritarian: Controlling but warm ◦ Expect maturity and talk about reasonable natural consequences ◦ Ex. John throws a baseball through the neighbor's window, parents have him go ask the neighbor what work he can do for them to pay for it Authoritative: "Dictators" ◦ Value obeying and conforming, reject deviance ◦ Harsh punishment: spankings, yelling ◦ Not much back and forth conversation ◦ Ex. John throws a baseball through the neighbor's window and his parents yell, give him a spanking and don't let him play outside for a week Permissive: Warm and lots of conversation ◦ "Best friend" ◦ Too much tolerance and freedom for own decision making ◦ Ex. "You can watch TV, just please try to get some sleep eventually!" Uninvolved: undemanding and not warm ◦ In extreme cases, this is criminal neglect ◦ Aren't really caregivers and don't meet needs of children ◦ Often care more about their own worries ◦ Ex. Doesn't notice or doesn't care that John hasn't done his homework and doesn't have a warm coat to wear Reciprocal inﬂuences: kids and parents both affect each other and the home environment • Ex. Babies cry to attract parents' attention, smile when parent picks them up, older children talking about politics might cause parents to think more about politics • Communication especially: parents are kind in exchanges, kids respond with warmth. Parents intensify demands and get angry, so do kids (and vice versa) • Think: emotions are reciprocated Parental co-regulation: parents respond to children's growth by giving them more freedom over time as they mature • Optimal: parent gives child an allowance and asks them periodically how they are spending their money • Non-optimal: parent gives child unlimited funds for shopping and doesn't monitor how they are spending it • Non-optimal: parent requires a high-schooler to ask for exactly how much money they need every time they want to buy something 4 types of maltreatment • Neglect: caregivers don't provide for needs and don't provide enough supervision ◦ Ex. Parent doesn't notice or care that child is playing in the street • Physical abuse: intentionally causing physical harm ◦ Ex. Punching, kicking, shaking a child • Emotional abuse: consistently scaring, rejecting, ignoring, or putting down a child, or inﬂuencing a child to abuse substances or commit crimes ◦ Ex. Name-calling, pushing to try drugs • Sexual abuse: seeking sexual gratiﬁcation from children ◦ Ex. Taking pornographic pictures of children, genital contact Ethnicity, Culture, and Race Ethnicity: membership in a group that shares your values, beliefs, language, and behaviors ◦ Hispanic people share traditions, languages and values Culture: see def on last page ◦ People in an ethnic group share culture, but a culture may contain many different ethnic identities ◦ American culture has many different ethnic groups contained within it Race: physical similarities ◦ Ethnicity has more to do with cultural similarities ◦ Light hair and skin are associated with being white, but white people don't all share an ethnicity Immigration effects Acculturation: the way people adjust and adapt to a new culture 4 forms: • Assimilation: high commitment to adopted culture, low commitment to old culture, totally accept new values and customs (melting pot) • Rejection: low commitment to adopted culture, high commitment to old culture, take on no new customs or values ◦ Often happens when person is somewhat isolated from society • Selective adoption: high commitment to both, take on new customs of new culture but keep some of their own • Bicultural orientation: high commitment to both, keep old and take on new almost completely, adjust their behavior by the situation and context they are in Advantages and disadvantages of different types of communities • Urban ◦ Advantages: access to ongoing events, the arts, different cultures ◦ Disadvantages: not all may be able to afford these, dangerous neighborhoods, unsuccessful schools, racial segregation • Rural ◦ Advantages: cooperative spirit and strong work ethic, community members help each other out ◦ Disadvantages: may have to travel long distance to school, maybe no extracurriculars, most school funds go toward transportation instead of technology and professional development • Suburban ◦ Advantages: higher incomes, good quality schools, safe, access to cultural experiences in the city ◦ Disadvantages: wealth not distributed evenly, kids more likely to use drugs or drink Principles of physical development • Different parts of the body mature at their own rates ◦ Head stops growing long before reproductive organs • Functioning becomes more differentiated ◦ Although all cells contain same content, each follows a different part of those instructions ◦ Over time, right brain and left brain function more and more differently • Functioning becomes more integrated ◦ Body parts work together ◦ Finger dexterity, coordination improves • Children's bodies function as dynamic, changing systems ◦ Systems within each other and affecting each other ◦ Myelination helps the learning system to become more efﬁcient • Children's health is affected by their involvement in numerous environments ◦ Video games v. playing outside, junk food v. healthy food Parts of the brain Hindbrain: controls basic, life-sustaining processes like breathing, sleep, balance, blood pressure, and movement Midbrain: controls communication between hindbrain and forebrain, prioritizes alerts Forebrain: controls complex thinking, motivation, and emotional responses, allows learning and personality development (contains cortex that controls executive functions) Right brain: controls non-verbal communication, visual patterns, arts like drawing and music, sense of humor, and reading emotions Left brain: controls analysis, speaking and interpreting language, reading, writing, math skills Synaptogenesis: bunch of synapses forming quickly ◦ Helps children mentally prepare for different adult situations ◦ Happens during infancy and a smaller second wave during adolescence Synaptic pruning: The more often you use a synapse, the stronger it gets, but if one isn't used for a long time, it may be pruned off ◦ Ex. Kids who start learning English may lose synapses for hearing sounds not in our language Myelination: fatty sheath grows around neurons which speeds up thinking and processing power ◦ Starts in infancy and doesn't ﬁnish until early adulthood Key developmental changes in the brain by age • Prenatal: neuron production and movement, form circuits for basic survival processes ◦ Sensitive period: why women have to stay healthy throughout pregnancy • Infancy and Early Childhood: synaptogenesis, synaptic pruning, myelination starts ◦ Still sensitive period: need learning experiences • Middle Childhood: more synaptic pruning, cortex develops (executive functions: able to make decisions and plan), lateralization (right brain does something different than the left brain) develops • Adolescence: more cortex development for planning and reasoning, gray matter (speeds up processing), second wave of synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning that causes risky behavior Obesity: condition of being seriously overweight ◦ 95th percentile of BMI for someone of same age and sex ◦ Can lead to diabetes, heart problems, or asthma ◦ Caused by processed food, restricted exercise, eating too much, and sometimes genetics Anorexia nervosa: eating little to nothing Bulimia: eating a lot of food and then purging your body with laxatives or throwing up • Both of these are eating disorders, which cause people to have distorted body images and can cause pubertal growth to slow down and sometimes heart failure Need for sleep • Recovery period for body and brain • Infants ◦ Need 16–18 hours a day ◦ Don't put them on their stomach ‣ Linked to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome • Early Childhood and Adolescence ◦ Need less sleep ◦ Nightmares start popping up 3-6 ◦ Adolescents need around 8.5 to 10 hours a night but usually get less • Lack of sleep ◦ More irritable ◦ Hard to focus ◦ Decline in academics ◦ Weight gain ◦ Weakened immune system ◦ Depression (hormones don't ﬂow right because of a lack of sleep)
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