Study Guide for EXAM 1 of Cog. Dev.
Study Guide for EXAM 1 of Cog. Dev. CLDP 3362.001
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by erika Notetaker on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLDP 3362.001 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Candice Mills in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 100 views.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Cognitive Development PSY 3362, Spring 2016 Study Guide for Exam 1 Exam 1 will cover class lectures, your textbook, and the assigned reading. This guide is designed to help you actively review the material for Exam 1. Please note that it is possible that there will be items from your lecture notes that aren’t mentioned in the study guide but may be considered for inclusion on a test. Course Overview and Introduction: The Six Big Questions - What does it mean for a quality to be innate? - What do constructivists believe about innate capabilities? How do associationists’ beliefs differ? What does the competent infant perspective suggest? Is there evidence to support any of these perspectives? - What is the difference between stagelike and continuous theories of cognitive development? - How does change occur through assimilation? Accommodation? Automatization? - Why do we study “normals” and individual differences? - Provide an example from the research presented in class that demonstrates how our social world contributes to development (e.g., Mayan mothers). Theory, Measurement, and Ethics - How do people sometimes view psychology? In your response discuss the developmental research presented in class indicating that even children sometimes view psychology as easier than other sciences (by Frank Keil and colleagues). - What did the pop article claim about television and toddlers? What has been found by Christakis and colleagues related to the relationship between TV viewing as toddlers and later development? What about between TV viewing and language exposure? What is the video deficit? - What are the steps of the scientific method? - After forming a research question, why is it important to consider your hypothesis? - What does it mean to operationalize a research question? - Explain the descriptive method, correlational method, and experimental method. What are the pros and cons to each method? - What is a quasi-experiment? - Be able to interpret a description of a correlation. For instance, if you are told that the correlation between self-esteem and extroversion is found to be 0.4, what does that mean? - What is an independent variable (IV)? What is a dependent variable (DV)? You should be able to identify these variables in experimental studies. - We discussed two developmental designs in class. What were they? What are the advantages and disadvantages to these methods? - Some terms to know and be able to apply: operationalize, independent variable, naturalistic observation, quasi-experimental variable, reliability, validity, variance/variability, longitudinal study, cross-sectional design, microgenetic study, primary source, secondary source. Piaget - Know Piaget’s proposed stages of cognitive development and the substages for infancy including the milestones reached at each stage as well as the approximate age ranges. - What are the habituation and preferential looking paradigms? What can they tell us about infants? - What are primary circular reactions? Secondary circular reactions? Tertiary circular reactions? How do these relate to Piaget’s substages? - What is the importance of representational thought? How do pretend play and deferred imitation relate? - How did Piaget underestimate infants’ understanding of object permanence? Provide an example from the research presented in class. Do recent findings about infant’s understanding of object permanence suggest gradual understanding or sudden change? - Are findings related to the A not B error consistent with gradual understanding or sudden change? (Text pages 46 – 48.) - Piaget suggested that infants did not demonstrate deferred imitation until 18-24 months. Describe the study that found differently. - Define Piaget’s views about egocentrism, conservation, and class inclusion. How did Piaget test these abilities? - What evidence suggests that children were not as egocentric as Piaget proposed? - How can performance on conservation tasks be improved? - According to Piaget, how do children struggle with abstract thinking during the concrete operational stage? - Is there evidence that Piaget’s description of the formal operation stage may not tell the whole story? - What were Piaget’s major contributions to cognitive development? Sociocultural Theories - What is social scaffolding? How do adults vary in the scaffolding they provide, and how do these variations influence children’s learning? - Define intersubjectivity, contingent interactions, and joint attention. At what age do children begin to show joint attention? - What variables influence the quality of children’s collaborative interactions? - What is guided participation? - What is the zone of proximal development? Give an example. - What are cultural tools? How do they help us? Give an example (i.e., sign-assisted memory study conducted by Vygotsky). - What developmental differences are seen in how children interact with peers? Adults? - Support and critique Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis. - What are the similarities and differences between Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory and Piaget’s Theory? - What was the purpose of the study conducted by Weisleder & Fernald (2013) in the reading for Learning Activity 1? Does this research indicate that parents from lower SES families rarely speak to their children? Why do researchers think that hearing child- directed speech relates to better language-processing efficiency? Infancy: Perception - How do we study visual acuity in infants? - What evidence supports that infants control their own attention (as opposed to us capturing their attention)? - How do we know that infants prefer “moderate stimulation” and information that is “moderately discrepant” from what they already know? - What is cross-modal perception? Are infants able to integrate this type of information? - Provide evidence that infants have memory for objects (shapes, toys), events, and associations/contingencies (kicking mobile, toy train, in utero). - What is a “full object concept”? Describe research using the violation of expectations paradigm that has examined the “full object concept” in terms of spatial relations, occlusion, and containment. How does the neurological evidence support or contradict behavioral findings? - Why is the finding that infants imitate facial expressions both controversial and important? - What is the A-not-B task? What are the possible/plausible explanations for young infants failing the task? What about dogs? - Be familiar with the visual preference paradigm, habituation/dishabituation, paradigms that require active responding (e.g., sucking), and violation of expectations paradigm.
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