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AU / English / ENGL 1120 / What does an explicit argument mean?

What does an explicit argument mean?

What does an explicit argument mean?


School: Auburn University
Department: English
Course: English Composition II
Professor: Marvyn petrucci
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: english
Cost: 50
Name: english ch.1-5
Description: english study guide
Uploaded: 02/14/2016
4 Pages 40 Views 2 Unlocks

Ch. 1 notes

What does an explicit argument mean?

∙ Arguing is not ‘anger’ or ‘hostility’ rather it is quite pleasurable ∙ Argument entails a desire for truth

∙ It aims to find the best solutions to complex problem

∙ Explicit argument – directly states its controversial claim & supports  with reason and evidence

∙ Implicit argument – may not look like an argument

o Bumper sticker, billboard, poster

∙ Features of an argument

o Requires justification of its claims

 Child saying they’ll be home at 2am, mom says no – not an argument yet

 Child says “but I’m 16!” – now its an argument because the child offered a reason

 Two necessary conditions – set of 2+ conflicting assertions  and the attempt to resolve the conflict through an appeal  

What does an argument mean?

to reason

 “to argue” = to clarify

∙ Child: “I should be allowed to stay out until 2 on a  

trial basis because I need enough freedom to  

demonstrate my maturity and show you I wont get  

into trouble”

o Argument is a process and a product

 Process – two or more parties seek the best solution to a  question or problem

 Product – any person’s contribution to the conversation o Argument combines truth seeking and persuasion

 Propaganda obliterates truth seeking – it will do anything  including distorting assertions and flat-out lying to  If you want to learn more check out What is the most appropriate accuracy measure in situations where you need to compare forecasting methods for different time periods?

convince an audience

 Take why people say ‘you’re wrong’ in order to prove  We also discuss several other topics like Do people always act in their own self interest?

you’re right through your argument

What does an implicit argument mean?

∙ Sophists

o Professional rhetoricians who specialized in training orators to  win arguments {lawyers}

o Sophistry became synonymous with trickery in an argument o Stakeholders – forge a personal stance based on your  

examination of all the evidence and your articulation of values  that you can make public and defend If you want to learn more check out What is the function of the muscular system?

Ch. 2

∙ We focus on inquiry as the entry point into argumentative  conversations

∙ Ways to explore

o Freewriting – fingers to the keyboard/pen to paper and just  rapidly writing nonstop

o Idea mapping – draw a circle and write a trigger idea in the  center, then record ideas on branches extending from the circle o Believing and doubting game – critical thinking strategy  As a believer, be wholly sympathetic to an idea

 As a doubter, be judgmental and critical by finding fault  with every idea

∙ Genres – reoccurring types or patterns of arguments

o Ex) letters to the editor

o Helps shape an argument

∙ Empathy – temporarily adopt the author’s beliefs and values, suspend  your skepticism and biases in order to hear what the author is saying ∙ Summary writing as a way of reading to believe (empathy) o Read the argument for general meaning

o Reread the article slowly and write brief ‘does’ and ‘says’  statements for each paragraph to summarize the function and  content

o Examine the ‘does’ and ‘says’ to determine the major sections of the argument

o Turn the list into a prose summary We also discuss several other topics like How many of the following postulates of dalton's atomic theory are still scientifically accepted?

o Revise your summary until it is sufficiently clear and concise ∙ Dialectic

o Thesis followed by a

o Antithesis which

o Conflicts between these two cause a synthesis that incorporates  aspects of both views

Ch. 3

∙ Structure of an argument

o Introduction (thesis)

o Presentation of writer’s position (main body)

o Summary of opposing views & response to opposing views  (shows weaknesses of opposing views)

o Conclusion

∙ Classical appeals

o Logos

 “word”

 focuses on the quality of the message

 an argument’s logical structure, the strength of an  

argument’s support and internal consistency

o Ethos

 “character”

 focuses on the writer’s character as projected through the  message

o Pathos

 “suffering” or “experience”

 focuses on the values and beliefs of the audience We also discuss several other topics like Why do enzyme systems important?

 appeals to the audience’s imaginative sympathies, their  capacity to feel and see what the writer feels and sees

o Kairos

 “right time” or “opportunity”

 suggests that for an argument to be persuasive, its timing  must be effectively chosen

∙ frame of an argument

o issue question – any question that provokes disagreement about  the best answer Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three central coordinates problems?

o claim – positon you want your audience to accept

 thesis – one sentence summary answer to your issue  


 support with reasons

∙ reason – a claim used to support another claim

∙ because, therefore, since, for, thus, so

Ch. 4

∙ enthymeme – core of an argument

o root the speaker’s argument in an audiences’ assumptions,  beliefs, or values

o to complete an effective enthymeme, an audience must willingly  supply a missing premise

o “en” (in) and “thumos” (mind)

 listeners/readers must have in mind an assumption, belief,  or value that lets them willingly supply the missing premise ∙ successful arguments require: a claim, a reason, and grounds o grounds – supporting evidence that causes an audience to  accept your reason

 grounds are the “blood and muscle that flesh the skeletal  frame of your enthymeme”

 facts, data, statistics, testimonies, examples

o backing – the argument that supports the reason (aka the  warrant)

Ch. 5

∙ evidence – all the verifiable data and information a writer might use as  support for an argument

o evidence is part of the ‘grounds’ and ‘backing’ of an argument o ex) personal experience, observation/field research, interviews,  questionnaires, surveys, library/internet research, testimony,

statistical data, hypothetical examples & cases, sequences of  ideas


o Sufficiency: is there enough evidence?

o Typicality: is the evidence representative and typical? o Accuracy: is the evidence accurate and up-to-date? o Relevance: is the evidence relevant to the claim?

∙ Angle of vision

o a perspective, bias, lens, filter, frame, or screen that helps  determine what a writer sees or doesn’t see

o determines and reveals the writer’s view of what’s important and significant, and which can be ignored

∙ {7} rhetorical strategies for framing evidence

o controlling the space given to supporting vs. contrary evidence o emphasizing a detailed story vs. presenting lots of facts and  statistics

o providing contextual and interpretive comments when presenting data

o putting contrary evidence in subordinate positions

o choosing labels and names that guide the reader’s response to  data

o using images to guide the reader’s response to data

o revealing the value system that determines the writer’s selection and framing of data

∙ {4} strategies for framing statistical evidence

o raw numbers vs. percentages

o median vs. mean

o unadjusted vs. adjusted numbers

o base point for statistical comparisons

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