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Philosophy 156 Study Guide

by: Breanab

Philosophy 156 Study Guide PHIL 156 002

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This study guide is a very detailed and long practice test with extra questions to make sure you are grasping all the concepts.
PHIL 156 008
Marcel Lebow
Study Guide
philosophy, unm
50 ?




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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Breanab on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 156 002 at University of New Mexico taught by Marcel Lebow in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see PHIL 156 008 in Foreign Language at University of New Mexico.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
Practice Test I Format the following sentences into their respective premise(s) and conclusion. Please note that you can/may need to reword some of the sentences. 1) My teacher said class is canceled today, so I’ll be able to make it to your birthday lunch. This is because your lunch was planned at 11AM and my cancelled class started then. 2) You won’t make it to your flight on time. It’s 120 miles to the airport without traffic. The speed limit is 60 mph. Your flight leaves in two hours and there’s traffic. 3) Methane produced by cow farts account for more greenhouse gas pollution than all forms of transportation combined. This is reason enough to become a vegan. Beyond this, studies have shown that frequent consumption of meat and cheese lead to an increase in stomach bacteria that cause inflammation and lead to stomach cancer. Also, animals are systematically terrorized from birth up until the point of their death. And you love animals. Indicate which of the following arguments are sound. If the argument is not sound then briefly explain why it is not, and what situation would make it sound. 1) Albuquerque is in California. California is the United States. Therefore, Albuquerque is in the United States. 2) All philosophers are old white dudes. Socrates was an old white dude, Kant was an old white dude, Nietzsche was an old white dude. 3) Our moon is small and our sun is big. The sun is hot and fiery and the moon is cold and frigid. Thus, all small things are cold and frigid, and all big things are hot and fiery. 4) Socrates loves Taco Bell. This is because Socrates is a grey alien from outer space. All grey aliens from outer space love Taco Bell. Briefly describe a context in which each of the statements would be considered the particular function of language specified. 1) “I do.” Considered performative. 2) “Exit through the gift shop.” Considered directive. 3) “Exit through the gift shop.” Considered persuasive. 4) “How could you do this to me?” Considered interrogative. 5) “How could you do this to me?” Considered emotive. 6) “Marcel is cool.” Considered descriptive. 7) “Marcel is cool.” Considered evaluative. 8) “Why did the chicken cross the road?” Considered recreational. 9) “And I will strike down upon thee with great vengeance and furious anger.” Considered evocative. Provide two different interpretations on the following ambiguous sentences. Make sure to identify precisely where each ambiguity lies. Please note that some sentences may share one point of ambiguity, while others may have multiple points of ambiguity. 1) Iris told her brothers to leave her alone. 2) He showed up to the party wearing a jean jacket with two chicks. 3) Venus is in the clouds. 4) Our city has a large population. Determine whether the following sentences are analytic, synthetic or contradictory. 1) 2+2=4 2) Venus revolves around the sun. 3) Some circles are triangular. 4) Andorra is a small country in between Spain and France. State whether the italicized phrase in each of the following sentences identifies a necessary condition or a sufficient condition or a combination of the two conditions or neither conditions for the underlined statement. Briefly justify your answer. 1) You need to own a car to move out. 2) I forgot a few times to sign the attendance sheet but I have attended all classes because I have all the lectures notes. 3) You have to have hands to write books. 4) Time must exist to experience change. 5) Getting good grades means you are intelligent. 6) Those who wish to win the school’s election simply must be currently enrolled and receive the majority of the votes. I. Which of the following passages are arguments? For those that are arguments, identify the premise(s) and the conclusion. 1. You should go home next weekend because you promised your parents you would. 2. You should go home next weekend and have a good time with your friends. 3. Peter took the first place in the mile run at the NCAA Division III championships last year and has been training hard ever since, so he should win the championship easily this year. 4. I will be able to visit you next month after all. The doctor just told me that a second operation won’t be necessary and that I’ll be able to go home this Friday. 5. His car skidded on the ice and hit a van in the middle of the intersection. The car was a write-off, and the van suffered $3,000 in damage. 6. It is obvious that no great leader ever suffered from low self-esteem. 7. The company laid off 250 assembly line workers last week. I think they were justified because their sales had declined by 23 per cent in the past three months. 8. Many people think that thunder is caused by lightning. This is a mistake. 9. Most evenings I go for a walk after dinner. Usually, I walk to the park and back, which is about two miles, but last night I only went as far as the library. 10. You’re crazy if you think you can take a full course load while working 20 hours a week and pass your semester. You should remember what happened to Van and Patti when they tried to do that last year. 11. My purse with several hundred dollars in cash, my watch, and my necklace have gone missing from my hotel room. The door was locked while I was out, and there’s no sign of forced entry. It looks like someone on staff at this hotel is a thief. 12. We drove to Pittsburgh to visit Sally in the morning, spent the afternoon in Latrobe with Onno and his family, and then stopped at Betty’s for dinner in Greensburg. By the time we finally arrived in Philadelphia last night, we were happy about visiting friends but tired from all the driving. When you know enough to judge the truth or falsity of the premises, indicate which of the following arguments are sound. 1. Albany is in New York. New York is in the United States. Therefore, Albany is in the United States. 2. Montreal is larger than Beaver Creek. Beaver Creek is larger than Vancouver. Therefore, Montreal is larger than Vancouver. 3. Shaquille O’Neal is taller than Steve Nash. Steve Nash is taller than Tom Cruise. Therefore, Tom Cruise is shorter than Shaquille O’Neal. 4. No one under the age of 18 is legally an adult. Katherine is only 15 years old. Katherine is not legally an adult. 5. Baseball is the United States’ de facto national sport. A country’s official or de facto national sport is likely to be very popular in that country. Therefore, baseball is likely to be very popular in the United States. 6. Fez is north of Casablanca. Tangier is north of Fez. Therefore, Tangier is north of Casablanca. 7. A cat makes a good house pet. A tiger is a cat. Therefore, a tiger makes a good house pet. 8. No human being is immortal. Even the President is a human being. Therefore, the President is not immortal. 9. Everybody loves a winner. The New York Yankees have won more games than any other baseball team since its inception. Therefore, everybody loves the Yankees. 10. At this moment, I am reading a book. If I am reading a book, I must be awake. Therefore, I must be awake. 11. The HMS Pinafore is a faster vessel than the SS Minnow. The SS Minnow is faster than the Yellow Submarine. Therefore, the Yellow Submarine is the slowest of the three vessels. 12. Dogs make excellent companions. Cerberus is a dog. Therefore, Cerberus is an excellent companion. II. Using the contextual clues provided, which of the nine functions (descriptive, evaluative, emotive, evocative, persuasive, interrogative, directive, performative, recreational) is the most likely primary purpose for each of the following sentences? 1. If you want to succeed in life you need a good education. (Said by a father to his 17-year-old daughter who has just told him she wants to drop out of school.) 2. Retail clothing stores can increase sales by about 30 per cent through advertising in local media. (Said by a teacher in a business class at a community college.) 3. You can increase your sales by 30 per cent through advertising in local media. (Said by an advertising salesperson from a local TV station when talking to the manager of a clothing store.) 4. I love you more than anyone else I’ve ever known. (Said by a young woman to a young man.) 5. She loves him more than anyone she’s ever known. (Said by a father about his daughter and her boyfriend.) 6. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. (Said by a father to his fouryear- old daughter.) 7. Your essay must be at least 1,500 words and must include a full bibliography. (Said by a professor to a class.) 8. I now declare this building officially open. (Said by a politician when cutting the ribbon at the opening of a new school building.) 9. Pedestrians Cross Here. (A sign at a crosswalk.) 10. Reading an old copy of a Dickens novel is like spending an afternoon in the attic of an old house: the feel of the old paper, the look of the dated typeface, and the musty smell all take you back to the days when even your grandparents were still children. (From an article by a literary critic entitled Why Reading Literature Is Important.) 11. Cloven Pickard, stop, in the name of the law. (Said by a police officer to a fleeing suspect.) 12. Cloven Pickard, you are under arrest and being charged for the murder of Oma Sage. (Said by a police officer to Cloven Pickard.) III. Identify the kind of ambiguity (linguistic, referential, grammatical, use/mention) in each of the following sentences and state the different ways in which each sentence can be interpreted. 1. Billy gave his sisters a box of candy for Christmas. 2. He’s a chicken. 3. Melissa only has one dress. 4. The General loses battle with nurses. (A newspaper headline) 5. Conversational German is extremely difficult. 6. Children need discipline to become responsible adults. 7. If, after you think it over, you still decide to drop out of school, I promise I won’t say another word to you. 8. In multi-section courses, the instructors should be free to choose the text. 9. Eighty per cent of the stores tested illegally sell cigarettes to minors with no questions asked. 10. She arrived at the theater in a white limousine with a bright red hood. 11. The apartment superintendent came to our door during the party last night to complain about the noise in his pajamas. 12. Tell me where she hit you. IV. For each of the following sentences, determine whether it is best interpreted as analytic, synthetic, or contradictory. 1. A full deck of playing cards contains 52 cards. 2. A yard is longer than a foot. 3. It is better to be free and unhappy than to be a contented slave. 4. No one has ever run the marathon in less than two hours. 5. Death comes for us all, sooner or later. 6. I’m not saying that postal workers should not have the legal right to strike, but the postal service is so vital to the economy, and postal strikes cause so much personal inconvenience to so many people, that I think the government should enact legislation banning strikes in the post office. 7. In the southern hemisphere, the sun rises in the west and sets in the east. 8. All parents love their children, when they are newborn. 9. A rose by any other name would smell as sweet. 10. A rose is a rose is a rose. 11. You can’t fit a square peg into a round hole. 12. My bicycle is in excellent condition, once both wheels are straightened out, the broken frame is welded, the tires are patched, the handlebar gets replaced, and a seat is put on it. V. State whether the italicized phrase in each of the following sentences identifies a necessary condition or a sufficient condition or a combination of the two. (Note: Once you understand the two different meanings of each sentence, you will have to use your common-sense knowledge to decide which is the more likely meaning.) 1. To bring down a fever, apply a cloth dampened in cold water to the patient’s face, arms, and legs. 2. Any student who has not paid his or her tuition fee by the first day of the term, or who has not made arrangements with the bursar’s office for delayed payment, will be automatically required to withdraw from the university. 3. To be admitted as a graduate student, applicants must have a four-year honors degree with a 75-per-cent average on all courses taken in their last two years. 4. You cannot get an A average unless you work hard throughout the whole term. 5. Essays will be returned to the student without being graded, if they are submitted without a proper bibliography. 6. The Bruce Prize of $500 will be awarded to the graduating student who has the highest cumulative average in all his or her philosophy courses. 7. In the US only US citizens can be elected president. 8. For the business community to regain confidence in the economy, interest rates must come down. 9. You have to have good physical coordination to be a good skier. 10. No one can become a university professor these days unless he or she has a Ph.D. degree. 11. You can’t watch television tonight, Sarah, until your homework is done and you’ve had a bath. 12. The results of a departmental vote are valid if, and only if, at least 25 per cent of members are present at the meeting in which the vote took place. VI. Supply the missing premises or conclusions in the following arguments. 1. It is after midnight and the gas stations are all closed, so I won’t be able to drive you home. 2. Whenever your car’s engine is flooded, you should put the accelerator right to the floor and then try to start it. So floor it and try again. 3. But you are still a Catholic, and Catholics are supposed to make a special effort to attend church at Easter. 4. Living in a large metropolis is much more stressful than living in a small town. So Jennifer is going to be even more uptight when she moves to Chicago next year. 5. He skipped more classes than he attended, so it will be no surprise when he fails his mid-term. 6. Children whose parents are extremely strict usually turn into teenage rebels, and Todd’s father was tougher on him than any parent I know. 7. You broke my hearing aid, you clumsy oaf. Now I’ll have to get a new one. 8. The high school drop-out rate in our district is about 15 per cent higher than the state average. Clearly, the school board ought to introduce programs to persuade students not to drop out, as well as programs designed to make it easier for those who have already dropped out to resume their education. 9. I deserve a much higher grade on my essay than a D+. I worked really hard on it. 10. There ought to be a law prohibiting the use of animals in research. After all, we would not tolerate that kind of treatment of humans. ANSWERS I. 1. This is an argument. Premise: You promised your parents you would go home this weekend. Conclusion: You should go home next weekend. 2. This is probably not an argument. However, it is possible, although unlikely, that the speaker means that a reason for going home would be to have a good time. On this interpretation, the passage would be an argument. 3. This is an argument. Premise 1: Peter won the mile run at the NCAA Division III championships last year. Premise 2: He has been training hard ever since. Conclusion: He should win the Division III mile run this year. 4. Most likely, this is an argument. Premise 1: The doctor told me that a second operation won’t be necessary. Premise 2: I will be able to go home this Friday. Conclusion: I will be able to visit you next month. However, it is possible to interpret this passage in a way that it does not attempt to prove that the speaker can make the visit. Rather, it could well be an explanation of how it has become possible for the speaker to make the visit after all. Which interpretation is more plausible would depend on the context in which these things are said. 5. This is not an argument. It is merely a description of an event. 6. This is not an argument. It is merely a statement that is unsupported by any reasons or evidence. 7. This is an argument. Premise: The company’s sales declined by 23 per cent in the last three months. Conclusion: The company was justified in laying off 250 assembly line workers. 8. This is not an argument. It is merely a claim. 9. This is not an argument. It is merely a description. 10. This is an argument, although the premises and conclusion need to be rewritten to make explicit what the argument implies. Premise 1: Last year Van and Patti both took a full course load while working 20 hours a week. Premise 2: Last year Van and Patti both failed their semesters. Conclusion: If you take a full course load while working 20 hours a week, you will fail your semester. 11. This is an argument. Premise 1: My purse with my cash, my watch, and my necklace are missing from my hotel room. Premise 2: The door of the room was locked while I was out. Premise 3: There’s no sign of forced entry into the room. Premise 4: Only someone working in the hotel could have entered the room without breaking in. Conclusion: It looks like someone on staff at the hotel stole these items. 12. This is not an argument. It is merely a narrative description of a journey. -- 1. Sound. However, if you did not know that Albany is in New York, or that New York is in the United States, you should have answered that it is merely a logically strong argument. 2. Merely logically strong. However, if you really thought that Beaver Creek is larger than Vancouver, you should have answered that it is a sound argument. 3. Logically strong, but if you know enough about the people named in the argument to believe that the two premises are true, then you should say that the argument is sound. 4. Merely logically strong. Even if you knew that the first premise is true, since you don’t know who Katherine is, it would be incorrect to say that the argument is sound 5. Sound, assuming that baseball is America’s de facto national sport. Otherwise it is a merely logically strong argument. 6. Sound. However, if you did not know that both premises are true, you should have answered that it is merely a logically strong argument. 7. Merely logically strong. Since the context indicates that the word cat is being used in a very broad sense, the first premise is obviously false. 8. Sound. It is not necessary to know who the President is in order to know that he or she is a human being. 9. Merely logically strong. First, while the second premise may be true of the New York Yankees in North American major league baseball, it may well be that there is an amateur team somewhere or a professional team outside North America that has won more games. In addition, it is not true that everybody loves a winner: some people detest winners. 10. Sound. However, if you did not interpret I as referring to yourself, the correct answer would be that it is merely a logically strong argument. 11. Merely logically strong. All the ships named in this passage are fictional, and it’s not possible to compare how fast or slow they are in relation to each other. 12. Merely logically strong. Not all dogs are excellent companions, and this claim seems to be implicit in the first premise. II. 1. Persuasive 2. Descriptive 3. Persuasive 4. Emotive 5. Descriptive 6. Recreational 7. Directive 8. Performative 9. Directive. Note, however, that although it appears to be addressed to all pedestrians, it is really a directive only for those pedestrians who want to cross the street. 10. Emotive and evocative. It is likely that the author has both purposes in mind. 11. Directive 12. Performative III. 1. There is a referential ambiguity here since it is unclear whether the term his sisters is being used collectively or distributively. If it is used distributively, the sentence means that Billy gave two boxes of candy, one to each sister. If it is being used collectively, the sentence means that Billy gave his sisters one box of candy to be shared between them. 2. Because chicken can be used metaphorically to characterize a cowardly person or literally to refer to a kind of bird, this sentence is referentially ambiguous. 3. There is a grammatical ambiguity in this sentence. Literally, the sentence means that Melissa has nothing else in the world besides her one dress. If the location of the word only is changed to make the sentence read Melissa has only one dress, it means that although she may have many possessions, she has only one dress. This is the more likely meaning. 4. The term General is referentially ambiguous. It could refer to a local hospital, in which case the sentence means that the nurses won their strike with the hospital. Or it could refer to a specific military officer, in which case the sentence means that the officer was beaten by the nurses in some kind of contest or struggle. In a town that has a local hospital that is routinely called The General, however, it will usually be clear which interpretation is best. 5. If the term Conversational German is being merely mentioned, then it refers to a textbook or a course, and the sentence means that it is a difficult book or course. If the term is being used, then the sentence means that it is difficult to learn how to speak conversational German. 6. The term discipline is referentially ambiguous. It could refer simply to corporal punishment, which is how some people use the term. But it could refer to a set of rules imposed by adults that children are expected to follow. It could also refer to self-discipline, that is, to a set of rules that children learn to develop for themselves. The meaning of the sentence is quite different depending upon which reference we choose. 7. This is grammatically ambiguous. It is likely that the speaker is promising to drop this subject after the condition has been met, that is, if the person thinks over once again the plan to drop out of school. However, if we read the passage according to its literal meaning, there is another claim on the surface: the speaker promises he or she will never to speak to the person again if the condition is met. In most contexts, the principle of charity would require us to interpret the speaker as meaning ... I won’t say another word to you about dropping out of school. 8. The term instructors is referentially ambiguous. If it is being used collectively, the sentence means that the instructors, as a group, are free to choose whatever text they can all agree on. If the term is being used distributively, the sentence means that each instructor is free to choose whatever text he or she wishes. 9. The sentence is grammatically ambiguous. If illegally modifies tested the sentence means that the stores were illegally tested. If illegally modifies sell it means that the stores were illegally selling cigarettes. 10. This sentence is grammatically ambiguous. If with a bright red hood modifies limousine the sentence means that the limousine has a bright red hood. But if with a bright red hood completes she arrived the sentence means that she was wearing a bright red hood. 11. This sentence is grammatically ambiguous. Literally, it says that the noise the superintendent complained about was coming from his own pajamas. However, the principle of charity encourages us to interpret the speaker as saying that the superintendent was wearing his pajamas when he was complaining about noise coming from the apartment. The comic effect of the sentence depends on seeing the literal meaning and recognizing that the speaker intends us to interpret it as the principle of charity suggests. 12. This sentence is referentially ambiguous. The speaker could be asking about where on the person’s body they were struck, or the speaker could be asking about where the person was at the time they were struck. IV. 1. Analytic. If you know what a full deck of cards is, you know that it must have 52 cards. (Of course, a few card games require players to use the jokers, but this is a special case that would be cleared up by the speakers sorting out what is meant by full deck, not by counting cards.) 2. Analytic. Since a foot is defined as one-third of a yard, a foot is by definition shorter than a yard. 3. Synthetic. There is nothing about the meanings of the words in this sentence that guarantees its truth or falsity. 4. Synthetic. The truth or falsity of this sentence can only be determined by checking a reference book on sports records. The meaning of the sentence leaves its truth or falsity an open question. 5. Synthetic. As far as we know, this is a true statement. But its truth is something we have learned and is not determined by the meaning of the sentence. 6. Contradictory. The first clause in the sentence is contradicted by the last clause. 7. Synthetic. Assuming that the speaker correctly understands the meanings of the words in this sentence, he or she could only be proven wrong by sending him or her to the southern hemisphere with a compass. 8. Synthetic. Observations would be needed to determine the truth of this statement. 9. Synthetic, on both the literal and metaphorical interpretation. In both cases, the truth of the sentence could only be determined by investigating the facts. 10. On a literal interpretation this is an analytic statement. However, it would normally be used to mean something like You should not adopt romantic or highly speculative interpretations of ordinary things, which is synthetic. 11. On the usual interpretation of this cliché, it is analytic. According to the analytic interpretation, fit is understood to mean that the peg sits snugly in the hole. 12. Contradictory. Usually, excellent condition means that a bicycle does not have any problems and that it does not require the kind of extensive repair work described in the second part of the sentence. (Of course, one might charitably read this sentence to mean that after all the repairs are completed, the bike will be in excellent condition, but in the present tense it is contradictory.) V. NOTE: These are the book’s answers but I’ve argued for a different reading for some. 1. A sufficient condition, since this is only one of several ways to bring down a fever. If interpreted as a necessary condition, it would mean that this is the only way of bringing down a fever, which is false. 2. The two conditions stated are jointly sufficient conditions for being required to withdraw from the university. If interpreted as a necessary condition for being required to withdraw, the statement would mean that this is the only way of being required to withdraw, which is false since one can be required to withdraw for other reasons, such as failing too many courses. 3. Almost always a necessary condition, since while no applicants will be admitted unless they meet the stated conditions, not every student who meets these conditions can expect to be admitted. If the sentence is interpreted as stating a sufficient condition it means that every student who meets these conditions will be admitted, which is a highly implausible interpretation (although not impossible). 4. Probably a necessary condition, since working hard throughout the term is not the only thing most students have to do to get an A average. If interpreted as a sufficient condition, it means that working hard will always produce an A average. This is an unlikely interpretation, since even students who work hard throughout the whole term would probably not get an A if they failed to hand in their term assignments. Note: I argued that it is neither. Indeed, most will work hard through the term but we can easily imagine someone of natural talent go through a semester, doing work last minute and still getting an A. 5. A sufficient condition, since there are normally other defects that may lead to an essay’s being returned ungraded, for example, if it is illegible or submitted late. 6. This statement gives both the necessary and sufficient conditions for winning the prize. If interpreted merely as a necessary condition, it would mean that, although every winner would have the highest average, some years the student with the highest average might not be awarded the prize. If interpreted merely as a sufficient condition, it would mean that, although each year the student with the highest average would receive the prize, another student who failed to achieve the highest average might also receive the prize, perhaps with the money divided between them. 7. A necessary condition. If interpreted as a sufficient condition, it would mean that every US citizen could become president which is false since (among other things) one must be US-born to become president. 8. A necessary condition, since presumably if interest rates do not come down, the confidence of the business community will not be restored. It might also be a sufficient condition, if reducing interest rates is the only thing necessary to restore confidence in the economy, but this would only make sense if it is assumed that all the other factors necessary to restore confidence (such as stable international markets, acceptable exchange rates, reasonable taxes) are already present and are unlikely to change. Note: As discussed in class that it might be neither as we can imagine a business community that can have confidence with interest rates remaining the same. 9. A necessary condition, since good physical coordination is necessary for becoming a good skier. But it is not a sufficient condition, or else anyone with good physical coordination who had never skied before would already be a good skier, which is absurd. 10. A necessary condition. If it were a sufficient condition, it would mean that everyone with a Ph.D. could become a university professor, which isn’t true, as there are other prerequisites to being a university professor (public speaking skills, etc.). Note: This is factually incorrect and so it is neither. There are rare exceptions where university professors have no Ph.D. but entered the field through exceptional circumstances. Additionally from a logical point of view this cannot be the case. For instance, in fields where the study has recently been developed it would imply that the professors teaching the degree would need some Ph.D. but it is unlikely that, say, the all first professors of computer science had Ph.Ds. Perhaps some had them in other fields but others may just be acknowledged innovators. 11. Two necessary conditions, which are probably jointly sufficient. Both completing the homework and having a bath are necessary conditions for Sarah being allowed to watch television. Presumably, permission is automatically granted once these conditions are satisfied. Note: Of course, a child could always break these rules. Here is an example of the question whether we should take the case as defining the possible rules in the world vs the case as showing standard aspects of our world. The latter being breakable by many circumstances, some absurd. 12. The condition is both necessary and sufficient. The only if means that it is a necessary condition, and the if means that it is also a sufficient condition. Note: See above. VI 1. Missing premise: My car (van, truck, or motorcycle) doesn’t have enough gas to drive you home. 2. Missing premise: Your car is flooded. 3. Missing conclusion: You should attend (or make an effort to attend) church at Easter. 4. Missing premise: Jennifer has been living in a small town. 5. Missing premise: Students who do not attend class regularly are likely to do poorly in the course. 6. Missing conclusion: Todd is a teenage rebel. 7. Missing premise: It won’t be possible to repair my hearing aid. 8. Missing premise: School boards have a responsibility to achieve a low dropout rate. 9. Missing premise: Students who work hard on an assignment deserve a high grade. 10. Missing premise: Animals deserve the same kind of legal protection as humans enjoy.


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