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Bread and Circuses Study Guide Exam 1

by: Emily Hunteman

Bread and Circuses Study Guide Exam 1 CLAS 1140

Marketplace > Classical Studies > CLAS 1140 > Bread and Circuses Study Guide Exam 1
Emily Hunteman

GPA 3.74

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About this Document

Notes on lectures up to 2/10
Bread and Circuses
Andy Cain
Study Guide
bread and circuses, Classics, Cain
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Hunteman on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLAS 1140 at a university taught by Andy Cain in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
      Bread  And  Circuses   Exam  1   Study  Guide                                                     History  of  Rome     • Founding   o 735  BC   o Myths   § Romulus  &  Remus   § Aeneas     • Four  Periods   1. Monarchy  (753-­‐510)   a. Seven  Kings     2. Republic  (510-­‐27)   a. Government:     i. Two  consuls  with  one  year  term   ii. Commander  in  Chief   iii. Senate  –  life  term,  shapes  nature  of  all  laws  so  republic  is  more   of  an  aristocracy  than  democracy     iv. Chief  Legislative  Body   b. Conflict  of  the  Orders:     i. Plebians  (plebs)  VS  Patriticians  (patricii)     3. High  Empire  (27BC  –  284  AD)   a. Augustus   b. Birth  of  Christianity  à  conflict  with  paganism  (paganus)   c. Military  Anarchy   i. 22  Emperors:  “barracks  emperors”  easy  to  take  over   ii. Overextension  of  military  abroad  and  on  borders   iii. Inflation:  high  taxes  to  pay  soldiers   iv. Year  of  the  Six  Emperors     4. Late  Empire   a. Expansion   b. Christianity  becomes  state  religion   c. Barbarians  invade  à  intermarriage   d. Alaric’s  Invasion  of  Rome  (410):  showed  Rome  was  not  eternal   e. Fall  of  Rome  (476):  Romulus  Augustus  deposed  by  Odacer,  king  of   Italy       Notable  Emperors     1. Augustus  (27  BC  –  14AD)   a. Came  during  prolonged  civil  war  and  restored  republic   b. Good  Politician  à  propaganda  (statues,  coins)   c. Achievements   i. Pax  Romana  =  Roman  peace   ii. Reorganization  of  government   iii. Patron  of  literature     2. Caligula  (March  37  –  January  41)   a. Looked  very  creepy  which  he  exaggerated   b. Immediate  popularity     i. Halted  Tiberius’  treason  trials   ii. Gave  amnesty  to  accused   iii. Massive  spending  on  public  entertainment   c. Brain  Fever   i. Megalomaniac  (deify  with  statues)   ii. Despotic  (hate  me  as  long  as  you  fear  me)   iii. Disrespectful  to  senators  (killed/treated  like  slaves)   iv. Sadistic  (enjoyed  torture  and  punishment)   v. Made  horse  senator     3. Nero  (54  –  68  AD)   a. Young  and  Inexperienced  (17  years  old)   b. “Hollywood  Emperor”  à  chariots,  gladiators,  music,  acting   c. Early  Popularity   i. Cut  taxes   ii. Cash  handouts   d. Great  Fire  of  Rome   i. Rebuilt  with  Domus  Aurua,  most  lavish  building   ii. Blamed  for  it     4. Diocletian   (284  –  305  AD)   a. Experienced  general  (59  years  old)   b. Military  Anarchy   c. Tetrarchy   i. Rule  of  Four:  Empire  split  in  quarters  because  too  big  for  one  person   ii. Augustus  (president)  //  Caesar  (VP)       Coins  &  Propaganda     • Roman  Coins   o “Numismatics”   § Coins,  not  cash   § Values  vary  over  time  (affected  by  inflation,  etc.)   o Uses   § Commerce   § Propaganda   o Coin  production   § Start  with  blank  metal  à  Mold  à  Sift  à  Impression       • Common  Abbreviations     (Latin  /  English)     o SC  =  Senatus  Consultum  =  By  order  of  the  senate     o IMP  =  Imperator  =  Emperor     o COS  =  Consul  =  Has  been  elected  consul     o TRIB  POT  /  TR  P  =  Tribunicia  Potestas  =  Holder  of  tribune  power     o F  =  Filius  =  Son  of     o P  M  =  Pontifex  Maximus  =  Chief  Priest     o P  P  =  Pater  Patriae  =  Father  of  the  Country     o SPQR  =  Senatus  Populusque  Romanus  =  Senate  and  People  of  Rome     o DIVUS  =  Divine     o AUG  =  Augustus     o CAES  =  Caesar     o PIUS  =  Pious     o ICUS  -­‐  Added  to  end  of  geographic  place  to  mean  conquered  by       Social  Stratification       Imperial  Domus  à  Senators  à  Equestrians  à  Commoners  à  Freedpeople  à  Slaves          *Freedpeople   • Manumission  common     o 80%  of  population  have  slave  blood   • Procedure   o Appear  before  magistrate   o By  owner’s  will   • Reasons   o Show  off  wealth   o Slaves  work  harder   • Benefits   o Citizenship   o Voting  rights   o Legal  Marriage   o Private  Wealth   • Limitations   o Loyalty  owed  to  former  master   o Can’t  run  for  political  office   o Stigma  of  being  a  former  slave          *Slaves   • “Slave  Society”     o 20%  of  the  population  were  slaves   • Sources  of  Slaves   o Prisoners  of  war   o Kidnapped  travelers   o Criminals   o Exposed  children   • Purchasing   o Buy  through  slave  market  or  private  party   o Rent  for  crop  season   • Legal  Status   o Property  not  a  citizen   o No  identity;  Take  owners  family  name   • Rebellious  Slaves   o Runaways   o Revolts   o Punishment:  flogging,  torture   • Sex  slaves   • Domestic  slaves   o Number  =  Status   o Jobs:  caregiver,  gardener,  barber,  cook,  clean,  etc.   Marriage  and  Children     I. Family  Values   a. Familia  =  nuclear  family  +  aging  parents  +  slaves   b. Traditional  Roles   i. Male  Head  (paterfamilias)   ii. Wife  owes  undying  loyalty  (fides)   c. Demographics   i. Life  expectancy  =  27   ii. Remarriage  à  blended  families     II. Marriage  (conumbium)   a. Requirements:   i. Will  –  consent   ii. Age  –  12  girls,  14  boys   b. Upper  Class   i. Arranged   ii. For  money,  politics,  and  procreation   c. Intimacy   i. Romantic  love  not  the  intent   ii. Sex  for  procreation   iii. Separate  bedrooms   d. Family  Planning   i. Boys  were  more  desired  because  girls  just  cost  money   ii. Tried  to  have  as  many  kids  as  possible  because  high  mortality  rate   iii. Could  abort,  expose  (abandon),  or  use  contraception  if  don’t  want  kid   iv. Ius  Trium  Liberorum:  rule  that  required  3  or  more  kids   e. Sponsalia   i. Formal  promise  to  marry   ii. Iron  ring     III. Adultery   a. Norms   i. Men  had  sex  with  slave  girls  or  prostitutes   ii. Women  had  to  be  faithful   b. Divorce   i. Reasons:   1. Infertility   2. Incompatible   3. Politics   ii. Process:   1. Declaration  of  intent  to  dissolve   iii. Consequences:   1. Return  dowry   2. Emotional  toll  on  kids   3. Custody  problems  


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