Bread and Circuses Study Guide Exam 1
Bread and Circuses Study Guide Exam 1 CLAS 1140
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Hunteman on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CLAS 1140 at a university taught by Andy Cain in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Bread And Circuses Exam 1 Study Guide History of Rome • Founding o 735 BC o Myths § Romulus & Remus § Aeneas • Four Periods 1. Monarchy (753-‐510) a. Seven Kings 2. Republic (510-‐27) a. Government: i. Two consuls with one year term ii. Commander in Chief iii. Senate – life term, shapes nature of all laws so republic is more of an aristocracy than democracy iv. Chief Legislative Body b. Conflict of the Orders: i. Plebians (plebs) VS Patriticians (patricii) 3. High Empire (27BC – 284 AD) a. Augustus b. Birth of Christianity à conflict with paganism (paganus) c. Military Anarchy i. 22 Emperors: “barracks emperors” easy to take over ii. Overextension of military abroad and on borders iii. Inflation: high taxes to pay soldiers iv. Year of the Six Emperors 4. Late Empire a. Expansion b. Christianity becomes state religion c. Barbarians invade à intermarriage d. Alaric’s Invasion of Rome (410): showed Rome was not eternal e. Fall of Rome (476): Romulus Augustus deposed by Odacer, king of Italy Notable Emperors 1. Augustus (27 BC – 14AD) a. Came during prolonged civil war and restored republic b. Good Politician à propaganda (statues, coins) c. Achievements i. Pax Romana = Roman peace ii. Reorganization of government iii. Patron of literature 2. Caligula (March 37 – January 41) a. Looked very creepy which he exaggerated b. Immediate popularity i. Halted Tiberius’ treason trials ii. Gave amnesty to accused iii. Massive spending on public entertainment c. Brain Fever i. Megalomaniac (deify with statues) ii. Despotic (hate me as long as you fear me) iii. Disrespectful to senators (killed/treated like slaves) iv. Sadistic (enjoyed torture and punishment) v. Made horse senator 3. Nero (54 – 68 AD) a. Young and Inexperienced (17 years old) b. “Hollywood Emperor” à chariots, gladiators, music, acting c. Early Popularity i. Cut taxes ii. Cash handouts d. Great Fire of Rome i. Rebuilt with Domus Aurua, most lavish building ii. Blamed for it 4. Diocletian (284 – 305 AD) a. Experienced general (59 years old) b. Military Anarchy c. Tetrarchy i. Rule of Four: Empire split in quarters because too big for one person ii. Augustus (president) // Caesar (VP) Coins & Propaganda • Roman Coins o “Numismatics” § Coins, not cash § Values vary over time (affected by inflation, etc.) o Uses § Commerce § Propaganda o Coin production § Start with blank metal à Mold à Sift à Impression • Common Abbreviations (Latin / English) o SC = Senatus Consultum = By order of the senate o IMP = Imperator = Emperor o COS = Consul = Has been elected consul o TRIB POT / TR P = Tribunicia Potestas = Holder of tribune power o F = Filius = Son of o P M = Pontifex Maximus = Chief Priest o P P = Pater Patriae = Father of the Country o SPQR = Senatus Populusque Romanus = Senate and People of Rome o DIVUS = Divine o AUG = Augustus o CAES = Caesar o PIUS = Pious o ICUS -‐ Added to end of geographic place to mean conquered by Social Stratification Imperial Domus à Senators à Equestrians à Commoners à Freedpeople à Slaves *Freedpeople • Manumission common o 80% of population have slave blood • Procedure o Appear before magistrate o By owner’s will • Reasons o Show off wealth o Slaves work harder • Benefits o Citizenship o Voting rights o Legal Marriage o Private Wealth • Limitations o Loyalty owed to former master o Can’t run for political office o Stigma of being a former slave *Slaves • “Slave Society” o 20% of the population were slaves • Sources of Slaves o Prisoners of war o Kidnapped travelers o Criminals o Exposed children • Purchasing o Buy through slave market or private party o Rent for crop season • Legal Status o Property not a citizen o No identity; Take owners family name • Rebellious Slaves o Runaways o Revolts o Punishment: flogging, torture • Sex slaves • Domestic slaves o Number = Status o Jobs: caregiver, gardener, barber, cook, clean, etc. Marriage and Children I. Family Values a. Familia = nuclear family + aging parents + slaves b. Traditional Roles i. Male Head (paterfamilias) ii. Wife owes undying loyalty (fides) c. Demographics i. Life expectancy = 27 ii. Remarriage à blended families II. Marriage (conumbium) a. Requirements: i. Will – consent ii. Age – 12 girls, 14 boys b. Upper Class i. Arranged ii. For money, politics, and procreation c. Intimacy i. Romantic love not the intent ii. Sex for procreation iii. Separate bedrooms d. Family Planning i. Boys were more desired because girls just cost money ii. Tried to have as many kids as possible because high mortality rate iii. Could abort, expose (abandon), or use contraception if don’t want kid iv. Ius Trium Liberorum: rule that required 3 or more kids e. Sponsalia i. Formal promise to marry ii. Iron ring III. Adultery a. Norms i. Men had sex with slave girls or prostitutes ii. Women had to be faithful b. Divorce i. Reasons: 1. Infertility 2. Incompatible 3. Politics ii. Process: 1. Declaration of intent to dissolve iii. Consequences: 1. Return dowry 2. Emotional toll on kids 3. Custody problems
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