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Unit 1 Study Guide

by: Elizabeth Ennis

Unit 1 Study Guide P SC 1113-030

Elizabeth Ennis
GPA 3.5

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American Federal Government
Professor Justin Wert
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Ennis on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to P SC 1113-030 at University of Oklahoma taught by Professor Justin Wert in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see American Federal Government in Political Science at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
Unit  1  Study  Guide Wednesday,  February  10,  2016 3:14  PM Topics Declaring  Independence The United States originated as a collection of colonies under the rule of Great Britain. • Great  Britain  needed  to  secure  revenue  after  the  French  and  Indian  Wars,  and  it   imposed  taxes  and  duties  on  the  colonists  to  achieve  this  end. • The  colonists  resisted  these  new  taxes  and  began  to  organize  in  favor  of   revolution.  Events  such  as  the  Boston  Tea  Party  and  the  publication  of  Thomas   Paine's  Common  Sense  were  key  to  this  movement. • The  founders,  particularly  Thomas  Jefferson,  used  John  Locke's  political   philosophy  in  crafting  the  Declaration  of  Independence. • The  Revolutionary  War  lasted  from  1775  to  1781  and  ended  with  Cornwallis's   surrender  at  Yorktown.  Great  Britain  fully  recognized  the  independence  of  the   United  States  with  the  Treaty  of  Paris  in  1783. The  Constitutional  Convention Forming a functional government was a long process for the United States and involved significant controversy and strife. • The  United  States'  first  government  was  organized  under  the  Articles  of   Confederation,  which  created  a  “league  of  friendship”  among  the  states  but   provided  very  limited  powers  to  the  central  government.  In  essence,  each  state   functioned  as  a  sovereign  nation. • The  lack  of  authority  of  the  central  government  created  many  problems.  The   government's  inability  to  tax  or  borrow  money  made  it  difficult  to  repay  debts   from  the  Revolutionary  War.  There  was  also  no  executive  or  judiciary  power,   and  legislation  required  a  supermajority  of  nine  states  to  pass.  Any  changes  to   the  Articles  required  unanimity  of  all  thirteen  states. • In  May  1787,  delegates  began  to  meet  in  Philadelphia  to  fix  the  problems   created  by  the  Articles  of  Confederation. The process of building a new constitution required balancing the interests of states that were often in conflict while creating a more centralized government capable of responding to problems. the  Articles  required  unanimity  of  all  thirteen  states. • In  May  1787,  delegates  began  to  meet  in  Philadelphia  to  fix  the  problems   created  by  the  Articles  of  Confederation. The process of building a new constitution required balancing the interests of states that were often in conflict while creating a more centralized government capable of responding to problems. • Two  major  plans  were  offered:  the  Virginia  Plan,  largely  seen  to  benefit  larger   states,  and  the  New  Jersey  Plan,  which  was  more  favorable  for  smaller  states. • Ultimately,  the  two  plans  were  combined  into  what  was  known  as  the  Great   Compromise,  or  the  Connecticut  Compromise.  The  compromise  included  a   bicameral  legislature  and  an  Electoral  College  to  select  the  president  in  order  to   balance  the  needs  of  larger  and  smaller  states. The framers of the new Constitution also had to contend with the issues of slavery and the slave trade in the future of the new nation. • Slavery  was  already  controversial  throughout  the  nation  at  this  time;  many   states  had  banned  slavery.  Other  states  were  highly  dependent  on  slave  labor  in   order  to  keep  their  economies  functioning. • A  key  area  of  contention  was  whether  slaves  would  be  counted  as  full  persons   for  the  purposes  of  electoral  population  and  taxation. • Ultimately,  the  Three -­‐Fifths  Compromise  determined  that  all  slaves  would  be   counted  as  thre-­‐fifths  of  a  person  for  the  purposes  of  representation  and   taxation. The  Terms  of  the  New  Constitution The Constitution presented to the states for ratification was significantly different from any government structure ever seen before. • The  Constitution  created  three  branches  of  government:  executive,  legislative,   and  judicial.  Each  branch  had  separate  powers  as  well  as  areas  in  which  it   overlapped  with  other  branches,  creating  checks  and  balances  so  that  no  single   branch  could  dominate  the  government. The checks and balances enshrined in the Constitution were designed to prevent tyranny by any single branch of the government. • No  branch  of  government  can  act  unilaterally;  each  has  some  dependency  on   the  others. • The  most  commonly  though-­‐ tof  check  is  the  president's  veto  power  over   legislation.  The  Senate  can  also  block  treaties  and  executive  nominations. • The  ability  of  the  judicial  branch  to  rule  on  the  constitutionality  of  laws  (judicial   review)  was  established  inMarbury  v.  Madison in  1803. The Constitution includes a number of specific powers, but interpretation of the Constitution has expanded the scope of the government over time. • The  Constitution  was  designed  to  limit  the  powers  of  government,  but  after  the   • The  ability  of  the  judicial  branch  to  rule  on  the  constitutionality  of  laws  (judicial   review)  was  established  inMarbury  v.  Madison in  1803. The Constitution includes a number of specific powers, but interpretation of the Constitution has expanded the scope of the government over time. • The  Constitution  was  designed  to  limit  the  powers  of  government,  but  after  the   Articles  of  Confederation,  the  framers  of  the  Constitution  recognized  the  need   for  some  flexibility. • Article  I,  Section  8  of  the  Constitution  explicitly  grants  certain  powers  to   Congress,  including  the  right  to  levy  taxes,  raise  an  army,  borrow  money,  and   establish  post  offices. • The  final  clause  of  Article  I,  Section  8  is  the  necessary  and  proper,  or  elastic   clause.  This  clause  has  been  interpreted  to  give  Congress  the  power  to  take   actions  needed  to  fulfill  its  enumerated  powers;  some  interpretations  grant   much  broader  powers. The  Debate  over  Ratification The Constitution did not become effective when the convention concluded; rather, it required ratification by the states in order to become law. • A  key  area  of  disagreement  was  whether  a  new  constitution  was  necessary  or   whether  the  Articles  of  Confederation  should  simply  be  amended. • The  two  sides  that  emerged  were  known  as  the  Federalists,  who  supported   ratification,  and  those  who  opposed  ratification,  known  as  -tiederalists. • The  method  of  ratification  favored  the  Federalists;  holding  ratification   conventions  during  the  winter  made  it  difficult  for  those  who  lived  in  rural  areas   (who  tended  to  oppose  the  Constitution)  to  travel.  Likewise,  the  proceedings  of   the  convention  were  secret,  giving  the  Federalists  an  information  advantage. The debate over ratification took place in the media, with both sides publishing essays designed to persuade citizens about the necessity or the dangers of ratification. • The  Federalists  were  represented  by  Alexander  Hamilton,  James  Madison,  and   John  Jay,  who  published  essays  under  the  name  Publius.  They  argued  that  the   new  government  would  combat  the  dangers  of  faction,  not  overtake  the  state   governments,  and  would  be  structured  in  order  to  counteract  an  excess  of   government  ambition. • The  Anti-­‐Federalists  wrote  under  several  names,  including  Brutus  and  The   Federal  Farmer.  They  argued  that  the  new  government  was  not  set  up  to   protect  states  sufficiently  against  encroachments  of  federal  authority.  They  also   argued  that  the  new  nation  was  too  large  to  be  effectively  governed,  and  the   lack  of  a  bill  of  rights  made  the  new  Constitution  less  protective  of  individual   rights  than  most  state  constitutions. • The  Federalists  ultimately  prevailed,  with  nine  states  ratifying  the  Constitution   by  July  1788.  However,  some  states  ratified  only  once  they  were  assured  that   argued  that  the  new  nation  was  too  large  to  be  effectively  governed,  and  the   lack  of  a  bill  of  rights  made  the  new  Constitution  less  protective  of  individual   rights  than  most  state  constitutions. • The  Federalists  ultimately  prevailed,  with  nine  states  ratifying  the  Constitution   by  July  1788.  However,  some  states  ratified  only  once  they  were  assured  that   the  new  government  would  pass  a  bill  of  rights  after  ratification. The lack of a bill of rights in the new Constitution was controversial and required much consideration. • Many  state  constitutions  included  a  bill  of  rights,  raising  the  question  as  to   whether  the  federal  Constitution  should  maintain  those  protections. • The  Federalists  expressed  concern  that  a  bill  of  rights  could  ultimately  limit   freedom,  implying  that  only  those  enumerated  rights  were  truly  protected. • The  Bill  of  Rights  was  primarily  sponsored  by  James  Madison,  who  had  originally   opposed  the  inclusion  of  any  enumeration  of  rights. Changing  the  Constitution The U.S. Constitution does not exist in a vacuum. There are both formal and informal methods to change the Constitution and how we interpret it. The first ten amendments to the Constitution are collectively known as the Bill of Rights. Congress originally proposed twelve amendments, but only ten were ratified by 1791. One of the remaining two amendments was ratified in 1992 as the Tw-enty Seventh Amendment. • Article  V  of  the  Constitution  lays  out  the  methods  by  which  the  Constitution  can   be  amended.  This  was  established  in  response  to  the  near  impossibility  of   amending  the  Articles  of  Confederation. • The  most  common  method  for  amending  the  Constitution  is  through  a   congressional  proposal.  Two -­‐thirds  of  both  houses  of  Congress  must  approve   the  amendment,  and  then  it  requires  ratification  by  three-­‐fourths  of  the  states.   In  most  cases,  this  has  been  accomplished  through  votes  in  state  legislatures.  In   one  case,  the  Twenty-­‐First  Amendment,  was  ratified  through  special  state   ratifying  conventions.  This  amendment  repealed  the  Eighteenth  Amendment,   popularly  known  as  Prohibition. • While  it  has  never  happened,  tthirds  of  the  states  could  call  on  Congress  to   stage  a  national  constitutional  convention.  Amendments  emerging  from  such  a   convention  would  still  need  ratification  by efourths  of  the  states. • Congressional  amendments  are  often  proposed  but  rarely  ratified.  More  than   ten  thousand  amendments  have  been  proposed;  thirty-­‐three  amendments  have   been  sent  to  the  states  by  Congress,  and  twenty -­‐seven  have  been  ratified  into   law. • Some  amendments,  such  as  the  Equal  Rights  Amendment,  fail  due  to  missing   deadlines  for  ratification. Beyond the amendment process, there are methods through which our been  sent  to  the  states  by  Congress,  and  twenty -­‐seven  have  been  ratified  into   law. • Some  amendments,  such  as  the  Equal  Rights  Amendment,  fail  due  to  missing   deadlines  for  ratification. Beyond the amendment process, there are methods through which our understanding of the Constitution changes over time. • The  case  ofMarbury  v.  Madison established  the  authority  of  the  judicial  branch   to  engage  in  judicial  review,  or  determine  which  laws  are  compatible  with  the   Constitution  and  overrule  those  that  are  not. • Under  Chief  Justice  John  Marshall,  the  Supreme  Court  tended  toward  a  loose   interpretation  of  the  Constitution,  with  a  broad  view  of  the  government's   powers  under  Article  I,  Section  8  of  the  Constitution. • The  flip  side  of  Marshall's  view  is  that  of  strict  construction,  which  tends  to   follow  very  closely  the  enumerated  powers  established  under  Article  I,  Section  8   and  take  a  narrow  view  of  the  elastic  clause. • Interpretation  of  the  Constitution  evolves  over  time  as  the  Court's   understanding  of  societal  dynamics  and  the  role  of  law  change.  The  composition   and  set  of  judicial  philosophies  present  on  the  Court  also  shifts  over  time.  While   the  Court  tends  to  adhere  to  precedent,  it  does  make  decisions  that  differ  from   those  it  has  made  before,  as  it  did  in  overturningPlessy  v.  Ferguson (1896)   with Brown  v.  Board  of  Education  of  Topeka,  K(1954). Key  Terms Anti-­‐Federalists Group  that  opposed  ratification  of  the  new  Constitution. Articles  of  Confederation The  first  government  structure  of  the  United  States.  It  created  a  “league  of  friendship”   between  the  new  states  and  featured  a  very  weak  central  government. Checks  and  balances A  component  of  government  structure  in  which  each  branch  of  the  government  is  able  to   check  the  others  by  preventing  policies  from  being  enacted. Common  Sense A  pamphlet  published   by  Thomas  Paine  arguing  for  independence   from  Great  Britain.  It   was  inspired  by  John  Locke  and  widely  read  throughout  the  colonies. Federalists The  group  that  supported  ratification  of  the  new  Constitution. Intolerable  (Coercive)  Acts was  inspired  by  John  Locke  and  widely  read  throughout  the  colonies. Federalists The  group  that  supported  ratification  of  the  new  Constitution. Intolerable  (Coercive)  Acts Laws  passed  to  punish  colonists  after  the  Boston  Tea  Party;  the  laws  closed  Boston  Harbor   and  changed  the  government  of  the  Massachusetts  Bay  Colony,  as  well  as  requiring   peacetime  accommodation  of  soldiers   in  civilian  homes. Loose  construction An  approach  to  constitutional  interpretation  that  sees  a  large  scope  of  government   responsibility;  it  generally  involves  a  broad  interpretation  of  the  necessary  and  proper   clause. Natural  rights Rights  that  cannot  be  abridged  by  the  government,  including  life,  liberty,  and  property.   This  was  a  key  component  of  John  Locke's  political  philosophy. Separation  of  powers A  component  of  government  structure  by  which  responsibilities   for  various  governmental   capabilities  are  divided  among  different  parts  of  the  government. Stamp  Act A  law  passed  by  the  British  in  1765  to  raise  revenue  through  a  tax  on  printed  paper  goods;   paper  items  needed  to  be  embossed  with  a  special  government  stamp  in  order  to  be   legally  purchased. Strict  construction An  approach  to  constitutional  interpretation  that  focuses  on  the  enumerated  powers  of   the  government;  it  generally  involves  a  narrow  interpretation  of  the  necessary  and  proper   clause. Sugar  Act A  law  passed  by  the  British  in  1764  that  increased  import  taxes  in  the  colonies  on  many   consumer  goods,  including  sugar,  molasses,  and  coffee. Study  Guide Unit  Timeline 1764 Sugar  Act  passed Study  Guide Unit  Timeline 1764 Sugar  Act  passed 1765 Stamp  Act  passed;  Stamp  Act  Congress  convenes 1767 Townshend  Acts  passed 1773 Boston  Tea  Party 1774 Intolerable  (Coercive)  Acts  passed 1775 Second  Continental  Congress  convenes;  beginning  of  Revolutionary  War  with   battles  of  Lexington  and  Concord 1776 Publication  of  Thomas  Paine's Common  Sense;  Second  Continental  Congress   presents  Declaration  of  Independence 1781 Cornwallis  surrenders  at  Yorktown;  Articles  of  Confederation  come  into  effect 1786 Shays's  Rebellion 1787 Beginning  of  Constitutional  Convention;  publication  of  the tederalist  Papers 1789 Ratification  of  the  U.S.  Constitution 1791 Ratification  of  the  Bill  of  Rights 1803 Supreme  Court  decides Marbury  v.  Madison Topics Origins  and  Purpose  of  the  Bill  of  Rights After the Revolution, Americans turned their attention toward the challenges of creating a new government. • The  Bill  of  Rights  was  created  to  address  the  limited  guarantees  of   individual  rights  included  in  the  proposed  and  ratified  Constitution. Origins  and  Purpose  of  the  Bill  of  Rights After the Revolution, Americans turned their attention toward the challenges of creating a new government. • The  Bill  of  Rights  was  created  to  address  the  limited  guarantees  of   individual  rights  included  in  the  proposed  and  ratified  Constitution. • The  Bill  of  Rights  sparked  four  years  of  debate  between  the  Federalists   and  Anti-­‐Federalists. • Federalists  believed  that  the  checks  and  balances,  along  with  the  federal   structure  created  by  the  Constitution,  were  adequate  to  ensure   protection  of  individual  rights. • Anti-­‐Federalists  believed  that  enumerated  rights  were  necessary  to   safeguard  against  governmental  interference.  This  belief  was  exemplified   by  the  many  states  that  already  included  a  bill  of  rights  in  their   constitutions. • James  Madison  drafted  the  Bill  of  Rights,  which  was  adopted  in  December   1791. Originally, the Bill of Rights applied solely to the federal government. Through the Incorporation Doctrine, selected provisions of the Bill of Rights were made applicable to the states. • The  Incorporation  Doctrine  embodied  the  use  of  the  due  process  and   equal  protection  clauses  of  the  Fourteenth  Amendment  to  apply  aspects   of  the  Bill  of  Rights  to  state  government.  These  clauses  require  states  to   provide  all  persons  with  due  process  of  the  law. • The  Incorporation  Doctrine  was  first  used  by  the  Supreme  Court  in   theSlaughterhouse  Cases of  1863. • Through  the  Incorporation  Doctrine,  the  federal  government  has  taken  a   larger  role  in  protecting  civil  rights  at  the  state  level. • Civil  liberties  are  the  basic  rights  and  freedoms  guaranteed  in  the  Bill  of   Rights. • Civil  rights  address  unequal  or  unfair  treatment  based  on  a  protected   class. The  First  Amendment Freedom of expression is composed of several rights included in the First Amendment: the freedom of speech, of the press, of association, and of assembly and petition. • The  courts  continue  to  define  the  types  of  speech  that  are  within  the   scope  of  governmental  regulation. • Symbolic  speech,  which  is  nonverbal  communication,  is  protected  by  the   First  Amendment. • Another  form  of  protected  speech  is  protest  expression  that  does  not   interfere  with  public  welfare  and  safety  laws. scope  of  governmental  regulation. • Symbolic  speech,  which  is  nonverbal  communication,  is  protected  by  the   First  Amendment. • Another  form  of  protected  speech  is  protest  expression  that  does  not   interfere  with  public  welfare  and  safety  laws. • Freedom  of  the  press  is  seen  as  integral  to  a  working  democracy,  and   prior  restraint  is  generally  struck  down  by  the  courts.  The  Court  has   determined  that  the  government  must  meet  an  extremely  high  standard   to  restrain  publication  of  legitimate  information. • Defamation,  which  includes  libel  and  slander,  is  one  exception  to  press   freedom;  however,  the  burden  of  proof  rests  with  the  plaintiff  to  prove   malice  or  reckless  disregard  for  the  truth. • Obscenity  and  speech  that  constitutes  a  “clear  and  present  danger”  are   not  covered  by  the  First  Amendment. • The  freedom  of  assembly  and  petition  involves  the  right  to  gather   together  in  groups  and  voice  concerns,  although  the  government  may   regulate  the  place,  time,  and  manner. Freedom of religion is protected under the First Amendment’s establishment and free exercise clauses, which help to define the proper relationship between church and state. • The  establishment  clause  limits  the  government’s  support  of  religiously   based  activities. • The  Lemon  Test  details  the  requirements  for  legislation  concerning   religion.  The  government’s  action  must  be  secular  in  purpose,  must  not   have  the  primary  effect  of  advancing  or  inhibiting  religion,  and  must  not   lead  to  excessive  government  entanglement  in  religion. • The  free  exercise  clause  addresses  public  policies  that  appear  to  burden   religion. • Faith-­‐based  exceptions  challenge  the  courts  to  balance  the  needs  of  a   state’s  interest  and  the  threat  to  individual  faith. The  Rights  of  the  Accused  in  Criminal  Proceedings The Fourth Amendment prohibits the government from performing unreasonable searches and seizures. In order for a search to be legitimate, a judge must issue a warrant describing the premises to be searched and the item or items in question, and the requestor of the warrant must demonstrate probable cause for the search. • Mapp  v.  Ohio applied  the  exclusionary  rule  to  the  states,  which  restricts   the  use  of  evidence  obtained  through  illegal  searches  and  seizures  in   criminal  proceedings. • The  language  of  the  Fourth  Amendment  continues  to  challenge  the  Court   to  create  standards  for  reasonable  and  unreasonable  searches  and   seizures. • Mapp  v.  Ohio applied  the  exclusionary  rule  to  the  states,  which  restricts   the  use  of  evidence  obtained  through  illegal  searches  and  seizures  in   criminal  proceedings. • The  language  of  the  Fourth  Amendment  continues  to  challenge  the  Court   to  create  standards  for  reasonable  and  unreasonable  searches  and   seizures. • New  technologies  also  continue  to  challenge  the  standards  of  legitimate   searches  and  seizures. • Katz  v.  United  States emphasized  the  expectation  of  privacy  that  occurs   when  technology  has  advanced. The Fifth Amendment protects individuals against s- eilfcrimination and double jeopardy and ensures due process of the law. • The  Fifth  Amendment  gives  individuals  the  right  to  refuse  to  incriminate   themselves  by  providing  testimony  that  could  lead  to  prosecution. • The  Fifth  Amendment  also  prohibits  state  and  federal  governments  from   trying  an  individual  a  second  time  for  the  same  crime  after  the  individual   has  been  acquitted,  also  known  as  double  jeopardy. • In Escobedo  v.  Illinois,  the  Court  denounced  police  practices  that   restricted  suspects  from  speaking  to  their  attorneys  until  after   interrogation. • Miranda  warnings  are  required  to  be  given  to  any  person  who  is  under   arrest  to  ensure  that  the  person  is  fully  aware  of  his  or  her  constitutional   right  to  an  attorney  and  that  any  statements  given  may  be  used  against   him  or  her  in  a  court  proceeding. The Sixth Amendment provides individuals with the right to legal representation during interrogation and trial. This protection was incorporated in the states through the 1963 Gideon v. Wainwrightdecision. • The  Sixth  Amendment  goes  beyond  the  right  to  counsel  to  include  the   right  to  a  speedy  trial  and  a  public  trial  with  an  impartial  jury. • The  right  to  a  public  trial  is  not  absolute  when  a  compelling  government   interest  or  need  to  preserve  the  right  to  a  fair  trial  is  at  stake. • The  right  to  a  jury  is  also  limited  in  some  cases,  including  cases  with  a   penalty  of  less  than  six-­‐month  imprisonment  and  most  juvenile  court   proceedings. The Eighth Amendment limits the severity of punishment in criminal cases. • In  1972,  the  Supreme  Court  imposed  a  moratorium  on  executions  based   on  unrestrictive  discretion  of  trial  judges  in  capital  punishment  cases. • In Gregg  v.  George ,  the  Court  concluded  that  the  death  penalty  was  not   inherently  cruel  and  unusual  and  reopened  states  to  capital  punishment. • In  death  penalty  cases,  juries  have  two  roles:  determining  guilt  or   innocence  and  determining  whether  to  impose  the  death  penalty. • Certain  classes  of  individuals,  including  persons  with  disabilities  who  are   • In Gregg  v.  George ,  the  Court  concluded  that  the  death  penalty  was  not   inherently  cruel  and  unusual  and  reopened  states  to  capital  punishment. • In  death  penalty  cases,  juries  have  two  roles:  determining  guilt  or   innocence  and  determining  whether  to  impose  the  death  penalty. • Certain  classes  of  individuals,  including  persons  with  disabilities  who  are   protected  under  state  restrictions  and  minors,  may  not  be  subject  to  the   death  penalty. The  Right  to  Privacy The Ninth Amendment states, “The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.” The Supreme Court has interpreted the unenumerated rights associated with the Ninth Amendment to include the right to privacy. • The  Ninth  Amendment  includes  the  concept  of  reproductive  privacy,   which  has  been  raised  in  the  protection  of  the  right  to  contraceptives  and   a  woman’s  right  to  abortion  under  restricted  guidelines. • In  1992,  the  Supreme  Court  affirmed  a  woman’s  right  to  abortion  but   changed  the  restrictions  from  the  first  trimester  to  a  test  of  whether  a  law   restricting  abortion  imposes  an  undue  burden  on  a  woman  seeking  to   terminate  a  nonviable  pregnancy. The right to privacy protects many aspects of a person’s life from government regulation. Modern controversies over the right to privacy include cases involving sexual orientation and modern domestic surveillance. • Laws  governing  sexual  behavior  between  consenting  adults  of  the  same   sex  were  considered  constitutional  as  recently  as  1986,  when  the   Supreme  Court  upheld  Georgia’s  sodomy  statute  as  it  applied  to   homosexual  activity  in Bowers  v.  Hardwick. • In Lawrence  v.  Texas(2003),  the  Supreme  Court  ruled  to  protect   consensual  sexual  activity  between  sam -sex  adults  under  the  right  to   privacy. • The  debate  over  electronic  privacy  is  expanding  with  the  use  of  new   technologies  and  the  ability  of  government  to  capture  and  analyze   massive  amounts  of  electronic  data. The  Second  Amendment The Second Amendment protects the right to bear arms. Unlike other areas of the Bill of Rights, the Second Amendment has not been the focus of much litigation. • The  1939United  States  v.  Miller decision  established  the  constitutionality   of  registration  and  taxation  on  certain  classes  of  firearms. • The  Supreme  Court  has  overturned  bans  on  handguns  in  both  federal  and   local  jurisdictions. • There  are  legal  limitations  on  the  right  to  bear  arms.  Restrictions  exist  for   litigation. • The  1939United  States  v.  Miller decision  established  the  constitutionality   of  registration  and  taxation  on  certain  classes  of  firearms. • The  Supreme  Court  has  overturned  bans  on  handguns  in  both  federal  and   local  jurisdictions. • There  are  legal  limitations  on  the  right  to  bear  arms.  Restrictions  exist  for   felons,  concealed  weapons,  and  certain  geographical  areas. The political debate over gun control has been influenced greatly by public opinion and the desire of the government to protect individuals against crime and murder. • Much  of  the  debate  over  gun  control  focuses  on  congressional  and  state   legislative  action,  rather  than  Court  decisions. • The  Saint  Valentine’s  Day  Massacre  of  1929  led  to  the  implementation  of   the  National  Firearms  Act  of  1934,  which  established  taxation  and   regulation  on  certain  classes  of  firearms. • In  1993,  President  Clinton  signed  the  Crime  Bill,  which  included  the  Brady   Bill  that  mandated  a -­‐day  wait  period  and  background  check  for  gun   purchases. • The  shooting  of  former  congresswoman  Gabrielle  Giffords  and  the  recent   school  shootings  have  raised  concerns  about  the  need  for  further  gun   control  laws. Key  Terms Civil  liberties The  fundamental  individual  rights  such  as  freedom  of  speech,  freedom  of  press,  and   freedom  of  religion;  due  process  of  law;  and  other  limitations  on  the  power  of  the   government  to  restrain  or  dictate  the  actions  of  individuals. Defamation The  declaration  of  false  statements,  either  orally  or  in  written  form,  that  injures  a   person’s   reputation  in  the  eyes  of  the  community. Double  jeopardy Prohibits  both  state  and  federal  governments  from  trying  an  individual   a  second   time  for  a  crime  after  the  individual  has  been  acquitted  of  it  in  an  earlier  trial.  This   does  not  restrict  an  individual  from  being  sued  in  a  civil  lawsuit. Equal  protection  clause A  clause  within  the  Fourteenth  Amendment  that  requires  the  states  to  provide  all   persons  with  equal  protection  under  the  law. Exclusionary  rule Equal  protection  clause A  clause  within  the  Fourteenth  Amendment  that  requires  the  states  to  provide  all   persons  with  equal  protection  under  the  law. Exclusionary  rule An  element  of  judicial  procedure  under  which  evidence  that  is  found  during  an   illegal  search  cannot  be  admitted  in  a  criminal  proceeding. Free  exercise  clause Within  the  First  Amendment,  the  free  exercise  clause  protects  the  freedom  to   practice  one's  religion  without  government  interference. Incorporation From  the  Fourteenth  Amendment,  the  doctrine  that  states  cannot  infringe  on  the   rights  of  citizenship. Libel A  form  of  defamation  that  includes  the  publication  of  false  statements  that  damage   an  individual’s   reputation. Marketplace  of  ideas The  belief  that  truth  and  quality  public  policy  come  from  the  competition  of  diverse   ideas  freely  shared  through  public  discourse. Prior  restraint The  action  by  a  government  that  censors  or  restricts  the  expression  of  ideas  by   preventing  the  media  from  publishing   a  news  item. Slander A  form  of  defamation  that  involves   making  false  statements  in  verbal   communication  that  damages  a  person’s  reputation. Symbolic  speech Nonverbal  actions  or  gestures  that  are  intended  to  communicate  an  idea  or   message. Study  Guide Unit  Timeline 1791 Ratification  of  the  U.S.  Bill  of  Rights Study  Guide Unit  Timeline 1791 Ratification  of  the  U.S.  Bill  of  Rights 1863 Supreme  Court  decides  the Slaughterhouse  Cases 1919 Supreme  Court  decides Schneck  v.  United  States 1934 National  Firearms  Act  passed 1939 Supreme  Court  decides United  States  v.  Miller 1945 Supreme  Court  decides Associated  Press  v.  United  States 1955 Supreme  Court  decides Quinn  v.  United  States 1961 Supreme  Court  decides Mapp  v.  Ohio 1962 Supreme  Court  decides Engle  v.  Vitale 1963 Supreme  Court  decides Sherbert  v.  Verner andGideon  v.  Wainwright 1964 Supreme  Court  decides New  York  Times  Co.  v.  Sullivan 1965 Supreme  Court  decides Griswold  v.  Connecticut 1966 Supreme  Court  decides Miranda  v.  Arizona 1967 Supreme  Court  decides Katz  v.  United  States 1968 Supreme  Court  decides United  States  v.  O’Brien 1969 Supreme  Court  decides Tinker  v.  Des  Moines  Community  School   DistrictandBrandenburg  v.  Ohio 1971 Supreme  Court  decides New  York  Times  Co.  v.  United  States andLemon  v.   Kurtzman 1972 Supreme  Court  decides Barker  v.  Wingo,  Furman  v.  Georgia,  Gregg  v.   Georgia,  Eisenstadt  v.  BaiandWisconsin  v.  Yoder 1973 Supreme  Court  decides Roe  v.  WadeandMiller  v.  California Kurtzman 1972 Supreme  Court  decides Barker  v.  Wingo,  Furman  v.  Georgia,  Gregg  v.   Georgia,  Eisenstadt  v.  BaiandWisconsin  v.  Yoder 1973 Supreme  Court  decides Roe  v.  WadeandMiller  v.  California 1986 Supreme  Court  decides Bowers  v.  Hardwick 1990 Supreme  Court  decides Employment  Division  v.  Smith 1992 Supreme  Court  decides Planned  Parenthood  v.  Casey 1993 Brady  Handgun  Violence  Protection  Act  passed 2003 Supreme  Court  decides Lawrence  v.  Texas 2004 Supreme  Court  decides United  States  v.  Kincade 2008 Supreme  Court  decides U.S.  District  of  Columbia  v.  Heller 2010 Supreme  Court  decides United  States  v.  Pool andMcDonald  v.  Chicago 2011 Supreme  Court  decides United  States  v.  Mitchell 2012 Supreme  Court  decides United  States  v.  Jones


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