ANT 333 Study Guide
ANT 333 Study Guide ANT 333
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Daijah Walker on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 333 at Emory University taught by Dr. Konner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Diseases & Human Behavior in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Emory University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Anthropology 333 —Chikungunya Study sheet for Exam 1 —trachoma (NOT necessarily all you need to —Zika know) Main danger of Zika Schistosomiasis & other NTDs Malaria schistosomes approximate global numbers parasites “ “ distribution worms Anopheles definitive vs intermediate host Plasmodium mating in liver life cycle of parasite snails -in human & mosquito global distribution parasites make people attract mosquitoes fatalities sporozoites water-borne route of entry merozoites schistosome life cycle gametocytes liver, urinary symptoms reproduction of gametes growth stunting, anemia effects on liver immune response effects on red blood cells First Epidemiologic Transition mosquitoes breed in stagnant water schistosome evolution (general) sickle cell anemia acute schistosomiasis thallassemia chronic schistosomiasis balanced polymorphism stool sample hemoglobin S urine sample point mutation anti-worm treatment sickle cells primary, secondary, tertiary prevention sickle cell crises (artery damage, etc.) role of poverty malaria eradication past and future snail eradication swamp drainage Japan’s eradication program importance of DDT Tanzanian dam effects insecticide-treated bed nets children especially vulnerable quinine drugs Guinea Worm disease resistance to quinines and other drugs worm life cycle symptoms of malaria role of water flea prognosis size of worm relation of treatment to parasite life cycle how worm exits body primary, secondary, tertiary prevention painful sores mosquitoes attracted to CO 2 egg deposit in water “ “ more to some people how people get Guinea Worm evolution of resistance how to avoid it evolution vs. vaccines role of Carter Center children especially vulnerable end of Guinea Worm role of cultural beliefs future directions role of poverty How are these diseases transmitted? challenges to fighting malaria —Chagas disease environmental concerns vs. eradication Bill & Melinda Gates initiative sanitoriums current global trend in malaria incidence declining mortality -before bacillus identified Meningitis/Meningoccocal Disease -before treatment or vaccine Neisseria meningitides desired vs actual effect of antibiotic meningococcus symptoms of TB meningitis latent TB infection causes of meningitis Isoniazid & Rifampin – their targets antigens (cell wall synthesis & RNA synthesis, polysaccharide capsule respectively) serotypes drug treatment and TB life cycle meningococcal sepsis/bacteremia global TB prevalence meningococcal rash rise of MDR & XDR evolution of immune evasion DOTS: 5 elements DNA horizontal transfer DOTS: effectiveness endotoxin secretion “ vesicles brain inflammation/swelling Polio meningismus ancthnt history disease pathway 20 century epidemic septicemia FDR’s case rapid progression of meningitis quarantines “ of septicemia March of Dimes dropping blood pressure, shock Salk & Sabin vaccines gangrene in fingers and toes Injected Polio Vaccine (IPV) vaccination recommendation Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) “ impact eradication from global patterns -Western Hemisphere meningitis epidemics -World “meningitis belt” obstacles to eradication age patterns contrasts to smallpox eradication endemic countries Tuberculosis transient flu-like illness airborne (aerosol) transmission difficulties in diagnosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis transient paralysis lung infection permanent paralysis infection of other organs iron lung MDR TB, XDR TB, TDR TB RNA virus TB in ancient world RNA capsule functions Pthisis/Consumption fecal-oral transmission “The Great White Plague” paths through nervous system Consumption in art and literature mechanism of recovery from paralysis romanticizing TB Post-Polio Syndrome symptoms discovery of M. tuberculosis “ mechanism tubercle bacillus Post-Polio Muscular Atrophy (PPMA) Koch’s 4 postulates acetylcholine cycle “Too-clean environment”/“hygiene filoviruses and what they do hypothesis” What does the Ebola virus attack OPV-based outbreaks and chronic symptoms excreters vulnerable groups ethical questions re eradication diagnosis dissolve internal organs HIV/AIDS usually fatal what “HIV” & “AIDS” stand for route of infection HIV-1 and HIV-2 RNA viruses approximate numbers affected why prognosis is better in later epidemic how Africa stands out supportive treatment main modes of transmission quarantine iatrogenic causes (unsterilized needles handling corpses etc) contact with blood heterosexual transmission funerary practices synergy with other STIs (open sores) handling/eating dead animals vertical transmission bats as reservoirs anti-retroviral treatment (ART); when to other species as carriers start vaccine from virus-like particles (VLPs) stigmatization and AIDS fear ▯ cruelty age groups affected most how AIDS cripples societies Influenza why African-Americans are vulnerable epidemic of 1918 poverty and AIDS -time frame Paul Farmer’s perspective and structural -global scope violence definition -fatalities retrovirus seasonal vs. pandemic what does immune deficiency lead to? avian influenza CD4+ T helper cells most affected emerging diseases CD4 cell count viral types viral replication H & N numbers-significance viral load annual vaccination simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) natural reservoir viral evolution vs. vaccines zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) significance of virus latency ( wild ducks/waterfowl HIV+ status without AIDS ecology of influenza opportunistic/secondary infections (TB, H1N1 etc.) H5N1 pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) antigenic drift anti-retroviral resistance human-to-human adherence problems bird-to-human adherence and poverty swine-to-human bird & swine serotypes mix Hemorrhagic fevers difference between cold and flu Marburg & Ebola flu process 1967 and 1976 outbreak seasonal flu pandemic flu e. Young adults needed for pandemic? how pandemic strains emerge True/False preparation for pandemics outbreak response 4. Sanitation in the 1800s reduced stamping out mortality from TB, but the really big mass slaughter of animals decline followed the development of vaccine manufacture in hens’ eggs isoniazid. vaccine delays vaccine grown in tobacco 5. Meningococcal disease is now antiviral treatments & how they work declining among college students due to vaccination. 6. Building a dam in Tanzania caused a marked rise in cases of schistosomiasis. Sample Questions (answers below) 1-B Multiple choice: 2-D 3-E 1. Polio virus primarily infects and 4-F destroys which kinds of cells? 5-T 6-T a. Muscle cells b. Motor neurons c. Macrophages d. Both a and b e. All of the above 2. Which of the following is likely the most important reservoir for Ebola virus? a. Chimpanzees b. African wild dogs c. Rats d. Bats e. None of the above 3. In the 1918 flu pandemic, which age group was most susceptible? a. Elderly b. Children c. Menopausal women d. Infants
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