Psychology Study Guide Part 1 (Exam 1)
Psychology Study Guide Part 1 (Exam 1) PSY1001
U of M
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla gohmann on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY1001 at University of Minnesota taught by Briggs in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 253 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psych in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Lectures & readings on History and scientific thinking 1 What are four different ways of knowing and which kind is used in psychology? Rationalism knowing parts of things and putting the rest of the story together. Tradition/authority Knowing things just because it is the way it has always been Intuition a feeling that something is true or correct without actually learning it. Empiricism The use of observation and measurements science 2 What kinds of knowledge are represented in “dataland and theoryland’? Data behavior, observations and concrete evidence Theory unknown, thoughts based on the data 3 What is a psychological construct (or more simply, a construct) What is an operational definition? A hypothesis? A theory? Operational definition Hypothesis connect different constructs and show different relationships Theory A SYSTEM of interrelated ideas that is used to EXPLAIN a set of OBSERVATIONS. o A logical system of constructs and hypotheses based on observations and concrete data. Construct An inferred cause of measurable events or processes (variables in a theory) o What causes A to do B? o Example Motivation, intelligence, personality o Indirect measurements o Have to be logical and empirical to be considered a construct 4 What are the three primary traditions that have characterized the field of psychology? What methodology is associated with each? Where do behavioral psychology, cognitive psychology and neuroscience fit? Where do personality and intelligence belong? What assumptions characterize each? What are the challenges of each? Who is Wilhelm Wundt? William James? What approach to psychology is associated with Wundt? With James? Differential Psychology Show how people are different meaningful variation Clinical/Therapeutical Psychology Goal is to improve the overall human health Experimental Phycology explore how people are the same law of behavior o Founders James (influenced by Charles Darwin) Functionalism finding the underlying purpose and meaning Functionalism understand the functions of our thoughts, feelings and behaviors Wundt consciousness (structuralism) studying response to elements: beat, tempo, color, anticipation Structuralism identify basic elements or structures of experiences. o Behaviorism (Pavlov, Watson, BF Skinner) Classical conditioning The goal is to uncover the general principles of learning through observable behavior Situation – behavior – outcome Reward and punishment o Cognitive (Piaget & Neisser) Examine the role of mental processes on behavior Language and connection to parents at a very young age How are we the way we are MUCH DEEPER Include personality and intelligence o Neuroscience 5 How are structuralism and functionalism different? Structuralism is “what” and functionalism is the “why” 6 Who are Ivan Pavlov, JB Watson and BF Skinner and what kind of psychology is associated with each them? What were the core assumptions of this kind of psychology? o Behaviorism (Pavlov, Watson, BF Skinner) Classical conditioning The goal is to uncover the general principles of learning through observable behavior Situation – behavior – outcome Reward and punishment 7 Who is Jean Piaget and what kind of psychology is associated with him? What was the core assumption of this kind of psychology? o Cognitive (Piaget & Neisser) Examine the role of mental processes on behavior Language and connection to parents at a very young age How are we the way we are MUCH DEEPER Include personality and intelligence 8 Who are Francis Galton and Alfred Binet? What are the core assumptions of the kind of psychology associated with these individuals? 9 Who is Sigmund Freud and what kind of psychology is associated with him? What are the core assumptions of this kind of psychology? Psychoanalysis look at the role of unconscious psychological processes in the early years of life 10 What is the confirmation bias? Belief perseverance? Confirmation Bias Reading the results and forcing them to prove a belief that you already have Belief Perseverance refusing to change your belief where there is physical evidence that it is incorrect 11 What are the six principles of scientific thinking? To what do they refer? 1 Ruling out rival hypotheses 2 Correlation isn’t causation 3 Falsifiability capable of being disproved 4 Replicability the study has to be able to be redone 5 Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence 6 Occam’s Razor Use a simple explanation and shave off unnecessary stuff Lectures and readings on Research methods 12 What are correlational methods? What is the strength of this method? What are its limitations? What is the correlational coefficient? What is a strong correlation? What is a weak one? What does the direction of a correlation (positive, negative) refer to? When we say a correlation can be used to predict another rd variable, what do we mean? What is an illusory correlation? What is the problem of the 3 variable? The correlation design is examining to which level two variables are associated. This method allows scientist to make predictions on what will happen in the future. Its limitation is that you can not tell why these two variables are associated you just know they are. Also there could be a third variable that accounts for the association between the two variables. Variables can be either strong or weak and or positive or negative. Each correlation has a correlation coefficient a strong correlation would be positive or negative 0.81.0 while a weak correlation is around 0.5. If the correlation is proportional it is positive while if it is un proportional it would be negative. An Illusory correlation is believing that there is a correlation when there is not any correlation there. 13 Describe each of the components of an experiment: Independent and dependent variables, random assignment to condition and experimental control? Why is the experiment considered the “gold standard” in psychology? What are the limitations of experiments? What is generalizability? Independent variable: the variable that you change Dependent variable: the variable that changes based on changing the independent variable Random assignment: the participants are randomly sorted into groups to be tested. Experimental control: the group of people that does not have the manipulation done to them. Gold standard: all other experiments are compared to the experiment. This has the opportunity to explain why something is the way it is. Limitation: bias Generalizability: have the ability to replicate the experiment. 14 In research, what are confounds? What is experimenter expectancy effect? What is a doubleblind research design? Cofounding variable: any variable that changes between the groups that is not the independent or dependent variable. Experimenter expectancy effect: Rosenthal effect when the results lead the experimenter to an unintended bias. The experimenter often doesn’t know about this bias (confirmation bias) Double blind research: neither the researcher nor the participant know which group they are a part of. This prevents the confirmation bias by the researcher. 15 What are measures of central tendency? What kind of information does each provide? Which is most vulnerable to extreme values? What is the standard deviation? Standard deviation: the measure of variability that it takes into account how far each data point is from the mean. Central tendency: where most of the participants tend to group together (average) o Mean median and mode 16 What is the normal curve? Normal curve takes into account the mean median and mode to make a graph. 17 What are descriptive statistics? What are inferential statistics? What is statistical significance? Descriptive statistics: the numerical characterization of the described data. 18 What ethical principles are used to guide psychological research and practice? Institutional review board (IRB) each research college has one and you have to propose your study to them first. Their job is to protect the human rights of the participants. o Researchers must tell the participants what they are doing before they do it. Participants should know the length and risk of the study. Must be voluntary. Each participant should have a contact would can answer questions about rights. o Psychologist must protect and avoid harm. o Participants must me informed of any potential harm physically or mentally. Lectures and readings of biological psychology 19 What is biological psychology? What is a key assumption of Biological psychology? Biological psychology: the study of the relationship of the brain ad the behavior/mental processes. Assumption: 20 How are human brains and animal brains & behavior similar? How do human brains differ from animal brains? Why use animals in research? Animal brains provide a model not a replica for science Animal brains are less complex Used for more invasive procedures NEURONS AND THE NERVE IMPULSE 21 Describe the neuron: dendrites, soma, axons, terminal fields, myelin sheath. Soma cell body Dendrite receives the signal Axon sends signals Myelin sheath protect the axon 22 What is the resting potential of a neuron? What are the steps involved in a neural impulse (also called the action potential)? What is an excitatory signal? What is an Inhibitory signal? Resting potential when there is no signal being sent down the axon. Positive current sends an excitatory signal Negative current sends an inhibitory signal. Steps in neural impulse: o Neurotransmitter (GABA or glutamine) move to the synaptic cleft o Received by the receptor molecule o The receptor proteins can open and close on the dendrite of the receiving neuron to send the signal. 23 What are the similarities between neurons with other cells? What makes a neuron different from other cells? 24 What is plasticity? The nervous system can change very easily to adjust to different damages. o The brain in not hardwired because it is constantly changing as we age and become more intelligent. The NERVOUS SYSTEM 25 What are the Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System? What are the autonomic and somatic branches of the peripheral nervous system? What are the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system? What bodily functions are associated with each? Central nervous system: brain and spinal cord o Frontal lobe motor and planning, language and memory o Parietal lobe processes information from vision and tough o Temporal lobe auditory information, language and memory o Occipital vision o Basal ganglia movement and motor planning o Cerebellum balance o Spinal cord information from the brain to the rest of the body o Brain stem: Midbrain reflexes Pons controls information between the cortexes and the cerebellum Medulla breathing and heartbeat o Limbic system: Thalamus sensory information Hypothalamus oversees the endocrine and autonomic nervous system (4 F’s) Amygdala regulates arousal and fear Hippocampus processes memory for spatial locations Peripheral nervous system: autonomic and somatic o Somatic caries messages from the CNS to the target organ. o Autonomic: regulate basic bodily functions (fight, flight, feeding and fornication) Parasympathetic rest and digestion Sympathetic when the body is in action (fight or flight) 26 What is a simple reflex pathway? Sensory neurons? Motor neurons? Interneurons? The BRAIN 27 What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex? What functions are associated with each? What is the prefrontal cortex? Frontal lobe motor and planning, language and memory o Motor cortex body movement o Prefrontal thinking, planning and language o Broca’s area control speech production Parietal lobe processes information from vision and tough o The “where” pathway from the occipital lobe determines the location, shape and orientation of an object. Temporal lobe auditory information, language and memory o Wernicke’s area the language area of the brain Occipital vision 28 What is the limbic system? The thalamus?? The hypothalamus? The amygdala? Hippocampus? o Limbic system: Thalamus sensory information Hypothalamus oversees the endocrine and autonomic nervous system (4 F’s) Amygdala regulates arousal and fear Hippocampus processes memory for spatial locations 29 Why is the “dorsal pathway” from the occipital lobe to the parietal lobe called the WHERE pathway? Why is the “ventral pathway” from the occipital lobe to the temporal lobe called the WHAT pathway? The where pathway the parietal lobe helps determine the location and special awareness of visual objects The what pathway the temporal lobe helps understand what is being seen 30 What functions are associated with Broca’s area? Wernicke’s area? Broca’s area control speech production Wernicke’s area the language area of the brain 31 What are the following: basil ganglia? Motor cortex? The adrenal glands? The somatosensory cortex? The basal ganglia: the structures of the forebrain that help to control movement Motor cortex: part of the frontal lobe that assess with body movement Adrenal glands: Tissue located on the top of the kidney that releases adrenaline and cortisol during emotional arousal Somatosensory: sense of touch, temperature and pain
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