Test 2 Study Guide
Test 2 Study Guide Biol 2230-001
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madeline Notetaker on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2230-001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. John Cummings in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Test 2 Study Guide Lecture Objectives- Blood List the functions of blood. • Delivers oxygen • Transports wastes • Transport hormones • Maintain body temperature • Maintains body pH • Maintains fluid volume • Prevents infection • Prevents blood loss o Platelets in blood Describe the composition of whole blood. *Formed elements + liquid component/plasma= blood Formed elements: • Erythrocytes • Leukocytes • Platelets Describe the structure, function and production of erythrocytes. Characteristics: • Formed element • Also called red blood cells • Make up 45% of total blood volume • Biconcave disks in appearance • Have no nucleus o Considered dead because don’t have DNA, organelles, and cant reproduce • Contain hemoglobin • Contain antioxidant enzymes • Main function is to carry oxygen Production of erythrocytes • Called “erythropoiesis” • Occurs in the red bone marrow • Hemocytoblast (uncommitted) produces myeloid stem cell (can be referred to as a pluripotent cell or a cell that can give rise to many things) • Myeloid stem cell (uncommitted) becomes proerythroblast (committed) • Proerythroblast becomes early erythroblast • Early erythroblast becomes late erythroblast • Late erythroblast becomes normoblast • Normoblast loses organelles and nucleus to become reticulocyte o This cell then starts to accumulate hemoglobin • Reticulocytes mature to become erythrocytes Regulation of erythropoiesis • Erythropoietin o Produced by kidneys o When there is a hypoxic situation (low oxygen), stimulates erythropoiesis • Testosterone o Stimulates kidneys to produce erythropoietin • Iron o Stored in cells as ferratin and hemosiderin o Transported as transferrin • B vitamins o Assist with red blood cell production o Contained in prenatal vitamins • Dietary nutrients o Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates are raw materials fro building new cells Describe the chemical make-up of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin: globin protein bound to heme pigment • Globin o Consists of four polypeptide chains § 2 alpha and 2 beta • Heme o Contains oxygen binging iron o Iron turns reddish when it oxidizes giving blood its red color • Each hemoglobin molecule has 4 heme units therefore it will bind to 4 oxygen molecules • Men have more red blood cells per mL than women Define diapedesis. “To leave through” • Red blood cells are unable to pass out of blood vessels, while some white blood cells are able to List the classes, structural characteristics and functions of leukocytes. • Formed element • Also called white blood cells • Larger in size than red blood cells but there are fewer leukocytes than erythrocytes in the blood • Complete cells with nuclei and organelles • Display positive chemotaxis o Ability to go toward a chemical • Bacterial infections increase WBC count while viral infections decrease WBC count Types of Leukocytes: Granulocytes • Neutrophils o Most common leukocyte o Have a lobed nucleus o Attack bacteria • Eosinophils o 2 lobed nucleus o Only make up 2-4 % of WBC volume o Attack parasitic worms • Basophils o Least common leukocyte o Contain histamine Agranulocytes • Lymphocytes o Very large nucleus o Tend to live in lymphatic tissue o B cells – attack foreign cells with antibodies o T cells- attack tumors • Monocytes o Largest leukocyte o Able to leave blood vessels where it acts as a macrophage Describe leucopoiesis. Hemocytoblasts give rise to myeloid stem cells Granulocyte Leukopoiesis • Myeloid stem cells become myeloblasts (committed cell, can only become granulocyte) • Myeloblasts accumulate lysosomes (granules) to become promyelocytes • Promyelocytes differentiate into myelocytes • Cell division stops and nuclei arch to form band cells • Nuclei constrict and segment to become mature granulocytes Agranulocyte Leukopoiesis • Myeloid stem cells become monoblasts (committed cell) • Monoblasts become promonocytes • Promonocytes leave bone marrow and become monocytes in lymph tissues Agranulocyte Leukopoiesis of Lymphocytes • Lymphoid stem cells become lymphoblasts (committed cell) • Lymphoblasts become prolymphocytes • Prolymphocytes leave bone marrow and become lymphocytes in lymph tissue Describe the structure, function and formation of platelets. • Anucleated cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes • Platelets are granules containing clotting chemicals • Thrombopoiesis= formation of platelets 1. Hemocytoblast produces myeloid stem cell 2. Myeloid stem cells becomes megakaryoblasts 3. Megakaryoblasts undergo repeated mitosis but no cytokinesis to form megakaryocytes 4. Cytoplasmic extensions of megakaryocytes break off to be platelets • Regulation o Thrombopoieten: hormone Give examples of disorders caused by abnormalities of each of the formed elements. Erythrocyte disorders: • Anemia- deficiency of red blood cells, and thus oxygen o Sickle cell anemia- red blood cells lose their shape and are unable to carry oxygen, this causes a build up of irregular red blood cells in capillaries which can result in death • Polycythemia- excess of ref blood cells makes blood too thick Leukocyte disorders: • Leukemia- reduction of white blood cells • Infectious mononucleosis- aka mono, contagious • Leukopenia- linked with AIDs Describe the process of hemostasis, differentiating the intrinsic pathway from the extrinsic pathway. Hemostasis= blood clotting/stoppage of bleeding STEPS DESCRIPTION 1. Vascular Blood vessel contract to slow blood passage/loss Spasm 2. Platelet • Damage to the blood vessels exposes underlying collagen Plug fibers, which stimulates the activation of different chemicals. Formation • Von Willebrand factor and thromboxane A are 2eleased. o Von Willebrand factor is a plasma protein that is already present in the blood but drawn to damage o Thromboxane A is a prostaglandin that is secreted by 2 damaged tissue • These chemicals cause platelets to collect and adhere at site of damage • Once the platelets are attached, thrombin activates platelets to breakdown and release chemical contents o Intact endothelial cells secrete P2I and heparin which prevent platelets from accumulating at undamaged sites o Vitamin E quinone acts as a blood thinner 3.Coagulation Intrinsic or extrinsic INTRINSIC EXTRINSIC • Is directly caused by the • Is stimulated by platelets themselves damaged cells • Clotting factors are themselves, doesn’t converted from inactive directly involve to active forms platelets 1. Aggregated platelets 1. Injured cells release PF 3 release tissue 2. PF a3tivates other factor, which has intermediates the ability to leading to activation interact with PF 3 of factor X 2. Tissue factor 3. Activated factor X interacts with PF 3 complexes with to allow “a calcium, PF 3nd shortcut” to factor factor 5 to form X activation. prothrombin 3. All of the intrinsic activator. events after factor 4. Prothrombin X activation follow activator catalyzes as the next steps the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin 5. Thrombin catalyzes polymerization of fibrinogen into the active form called fibrin 6. Thrombin also activates factor XIII which links fibrin strands together List factors that limit clot formation. • Clotting factors are carried away from site by circulating blood • Antithrombin III inactivates thrombin not bound to fibrin o Results in thrombin turning back into prothrombin o Antithrombin III is a plasma protein that limits how much fibrin gets activated • Protein C inhibits intrinsic pathway events o It is a plasma protein that prevents the production of factor X • Heparin also enhances activity of Antithrombin III and inhibits intrinsic pathway events Explain how the processes of retraction and fibrinolysis relate to the natural elimination of a blood clot. Clot retraction 1. Platelets contain contractile proteins 2. Cause platelets to contract and squeeze out serum to compact clot 3. Ruptured edges of blood vessel come together 4. PDGF (platelet derived growth factor) stimulates vessel repair a. Released by platelets Fibrinolysis • Purpose= to break down fibrin 1. Clot produces plasminogen (a plasma protein circulating in blood) 2. Plasminogen is activated to plasmin 3. Plasmin digests fibrin Identify the hemostatic disorders. Thromboembolytic disorders • Thrombus – results in excessive clotting, non-mobile clot, large clot gets attached and blocks a circulatory path • Embolism- a mobile clot, can travel anywhere and get stuck, which cuts off oxygen supply Bleeding disorders • Thrombocytopenia- reduction in platelets that results in clotting issues • Hemophilia- body cant produce one of the clotting factors Describe the ABO and Rh blood groups. Blood Type Agglutinogens present on cell Antibodies (produced by person) A+ A, Rh Anti-B A- A Anti-B, anti-Rh B+ B, Rh Anti-A B- B Anti-A, anti-Rh AB+ A, B, Rh None AB- A, B Anti-Rh O+ Rh Anti-A, anti-B O- None Anti-A, anti-B, anti-Rh Lecture Objectives- The Heart Describe the location and orientation of the heart. Location: • The heart is located in the center portion of the thoracic cavity called the mediastinum Orientation: • Base: top of the heart • Apex: bottom of the heart Name the coverings of the heart. • Fibrous Pericardium- made of dense connective tissue, attaches to wall and anchors heart • Serous Pericardium (2 layers) 1. Parietal Layer: belongs to the cavity 2. Visceral layer: belongs to the heart outermost layer of heart o Pericardial cavity: space between the two layers filled with pericardial fluid that protects the heart Describe the structure and the function of the three layers of the heart. 1. Epicardium: also known as the visceral layer of serous pericardium 2. Myocardium: muscle layer of the heart that does the beating 3. Endocardium: innermost layer made of squamous epithelial List the chambers and anatomical landmarks of the heart. Chambers • Atria o Located at the base of the heart (top) • Ventricles o Located at the apex of the heart (bottom) Anatomical Landmarks • Coronary sulcus o Located on the outside of the heart o Divides the atria from the ventricles • Interventricular groove o Located on the outside of the heart o Runs between the left and right ventricles Describe the structure and composition of the heart chambers. Atria • Auricles are extensions of the atria that allow for an increase of the surface area/more blood flow • The atria are separated by the Interatrial septum as an embryo so that blood can flow directly between them, but immediately seals shut once born • Pectinate muscles line the inside of the atria and force contraction of the heart • Fossa ovalis is what used to be a hole in an embryos heart Ventricles • Separated by the Interventricular septum • Trabeculae carneae are bundles of muscles found on the wall of the ventricles • Papillary muscles are muscles that extend into the ventricles themselves and play a vital role in regulating blood flow by regulating the valves of the heart Trace the pathway of blood flow through the heart, including the major blood vessels. Major blood vessels • Vena cava: empties into the right atrium, largest vein of the body • Coronary sinus: all the coronary veins empty into here which empties into right atrium • Pulmonary veins: brings blood back from lungs and empties into the left atrium, oxygenated blood • Pulmonary artery: carries blood from right ventricle to the lungs, oxygen poor • Aorta: largest artery, receives blood from left ventricle and carries it to the entire body Blood Flow (*cycles) Superior (or inferior) vena cavaà right atriumà tricuspid valveà right ventricleà pulmonary valveà pulmonary arteryà lungsà pulmonary veinà left atriumà bicuspid valveà left ventricle à aortic valveà bodyà superior (or inferior) vena cava Differentiate the pulmonary and systemic circuits. Pulmonary circuit • Involve the lungs! • Right side of heartà lungsà left side of heart Systemic circuit • Involved body! • Left side of heartà bodyà right side of heart List the major coronary arteries and veins. Coronary Arteries: the first branch off the aorta that carries blood back to the heart muscle itself because it is living tissue and needs oxygen Ø Anterior interventricular artery Ø Circumflex artery Ø Marginal artery Ø Posterior interventricular artery Cardiac Veins Ø Great cardiac vein Ø Middle cardiac vein Ø Small cardiac vein Ø Anterior cardiac veins Coronary Sinus: all cardiac veins empty into this Identify the name and location of the valves that control the flow of blood through the heart. Have to have structures to regulate the direction of blood flow: VALVES • Atrioventricular (AV) valves o Located between atria and ventricles 1. Tricuspid- on the right side of the heart; has 3 flaps 2. Bicuspid- on the left side; 2 flaps, aka mitral valve • Semilunar valves o Located between ventricles and arteries 1. Aortic- on the left side 2. Pulmonary- on the right side Describe the structural and functional properties of cardiac muscle, contrasting it from skeletal muscle. • Striated • Uni-nucleated • Involuntary • Functions with the sliding filament mechanism (think and thin filaments slide across each other) • Adjacent cells are locked by desmosomes and gap junctions • Contain intercalated discs which allow for rapid electrical communication causing the heart to work as a whole instead of individual cells Lecture Objectives- Heart Physiology Name the components of the conduction system of the heart, and trace the conduction pathway. Autorhythmic cells- noncontractile cells that function to initiate nerve impulses of the heart and generate regular pace of contraction • Leaky membranes with reduced potassium permeability but sodium still moves into cells • When membrane reaches threshold, calcium moves into cell and generates action potential Sinoatrial (SA) Node • In right atrium • This is where the action potential is created • Once impulse is created here, it travels to the AV node • The pacemaker of the heart AV node • At the junction between atria and ventricles • Receives impulse from AV node Bundle of His • Branch running down interventricular septum • Receives impulse from AV node Bundle branches Purkinje Fibers • Small branches off the bundle branches • Deliver the impulse to the papillary muscles tell them to contract before the ventricles contract Explain how heart rate is maintained and how it can be modified. Include a discussion of vagal tone. Intrinsic conduction • Autorhythmic cells have unstable resting membrane potentials • The ability of the heart to depolarize is a characteristic of the heart no the nervous system o Nervous stimulation to the heart can only change the signal and heart rate • Autorhytmic cells of the heart initiate nerve impulses • The heart continually undergoes depolarization Extrinsic innervation • Within the medulla of the brain there are 2 centers that modify intrinsic pathway of conduction 1. Cardioaccelatory center: sympathetic pathway a. Results in release of epinephrine and norepinephrine that increase heart rate 2. Cardioinhibitory center: parasympathetic pathway a. Results in release of acetylcholine which slows heart rate Draw a diagram of a normal ECG, name the waves and intervals, and describe the electrical events associated with each. ECG- measures electrical events occurring in the heart, makes a graphic recording of these events; concerned with electrical events P wave: represents depolarization of the atrium QRS complex: represents the depolarization of the ventricles (indirectly represents the repolarization of the atrium) T wave: represents the repolarization of the ventricles Identify what causes normal heart sounds and heart murmurs. Normal heart sounds: “lub”= AV valve closing “dub”= SL valves closing Murmur: valves not closing completely or blood is being forced backwards through a valve Describe the events of the cardiac cycle. A full cardiac cycle consists of systole and diastole of both atria plus systole and diastole of both ventricles • Systole= a period of contraction • Diastole= a period of relaxation Define cardiac output, identify the normal cardiac output, and describe factors that can affect cardiac output. Cardiac output: measurement of the amount of blood coming out of each ventricle per minute • Depends on amount of blood per beat and number of beats per minute • Produce of stroke volume and heart rate • Normally 75 bpm * 70 mL/b = 5250 mL/min Factors affecting stroke volume (the difference between amount of blood in ventricles before and after systole) • Stretch of cardiac muscle o Starling Law of the Heart: An increase in stretch of heart wall allows for stronger contraction o The less stretch, the weaker the contraction force and less amount of stroke volume o Preload function because the amount of blood that enters ventricles determines it o The slower the heart beat, the greater amount of blood that can collect in heart to increase the load and to cause an increase in stress, so the more blood that is pumped out • Contractile strength not due to stretch o Sympathetic nervous stimulation causes greater influx of calcium o The more calcium, the stronger the force of contraction o An increase in number of fibers increases contraction • Arterial pressure o As arterial pressure increases, the amount of blood leaving ventricle decreases which causes lower stroke volume o Afterload phenomenon List and describe pathologies related to cardiac output. • Tachycardia- abnormally high heart rate (over 100 bpm) • Bradycarida- abnormally low heart rate (under 68 bpm • Congestive heart failure o Any condition that results in a dangerously low heart output § Coronary atherosclerosis= closing of coronary arteries resulting in reduced blood flow though the artery § High blood pressure= diastolic over 90 § Myocardial infarction= heart attack § Dilated cardiomyopathy= extended periods of increases blood pressure that results in ventricles stretching out Discuss the process of fetal heart development. • Heart tissue is derived from mesoderm • Heart originates as 2 tubes • Tubes fuse into single chambered heart by day 23 • Early chambers formed by day 25, not separate from one another yet • Development of chambers causes tubes to rotate called D-looping • Structural changes divide heart into separate chambers and change orientation by day 46 Foramen Ovale • Opening between right and left atria through Interatrial septum in embryos • Turns in to fossa ovalis at birth Provide examples of age-related changes in heart function. • Valve sclerosis o Accumulation of deposits on flaps of valves preventing them from opening and closing • Decreased cardiac reserve o As you age, this decreases • Fibrosis of myocardium o Continued absence of use that causes muscles to become connective tissue • Atherosclerosis o Buildup of plaque in arteries reduces pathway for blood to travel o Increase blood pressure but decreases cardiac output Lecture Objectives- Blood Vessels Identify the blood vessels of the human body, and indicate their direction of flow. Arteries • Leave heart • Typically carry oxygenated blood • Two types a. Elastic- closest to heart, largest diameter, wall is connective tissue, receives blood with the highest pressure b. Muscular- smooth muscle, smaller diameter, distal to elastic, bring blood to organs Arterioles • Smaller in diameter, after arteries • Feeds a capillary bed Capillaries • Site of gas exchange • Microscopic • Blood cells pass through single file Venules • Drain a capillary • Turn into veins Veins • Carry blood back to heart Describe the three layers that make up the wall of most blood vessels, and state the function of each layer. 1. Tunica interna a. Closest to lumen, composed of simple squamous epithelium, reduces friction 2. Tunica media a. Next layer out from lumen, composed of smooth muscle, dilates/constricts blood vessels 3. Tunica externa a. Outer layer, composed of connective tissue with collagen fibers, anchors blood vessels in place • Lumen= center hole in blood vessels Differentiate the three categories of capillaries discussed in class, and identify where each could be found. Capillaries= site of gas exchange; located between arteriole and venule 1. Continuous a. Most common, tight junctions b. Found in skin muscles 2. Fenestrated a. Little pores, more permeability than continuous b. Found in kidneys, small intestine, endocrine glands 3. Sinusoidal a. Leaky, large pores, large molecules and cells can pass through b. Found in liver, bone marrow Describe the structure and function of a capillary bed. Structures • Terminal arteriole o Beginning of capillary bed, brings blood to capillary bed • Metarteriole o Braches off terminal arteriole, the entry way to the capillary bed • Thoroughfare channel o Takes blood fro Metarteriole and takes to post capillary venule • Postcapillary venule o Collects blood from capillary bed and sends to vein • Vascular shunt o The shortcut that blood always passes through o Composed of metarteriole and thoroughfare channel • True capillaries o Extensions around vascular shunt that are only used if needed • Postcapillary sphincters o Open or close to let blood in or keep out of true capillaries Identify some significant differences between arteries and veins. Arteries • Thick walls • Small lumen • Thick tunica media • Low blood volume • High blood pressure • No valves Veins • Thin walls • Large lumen • Thin tunica media • High blood volume • Low blood pressure • Has valves Explain the relationship between blood flow, blood pressure and blood resistance. Ø Blood flow: the combination of peripheral resistance and pressure Ø Blood pressure: the force on a blood vessel exerted by blood, generated by the heart Ø Blood resistance: force that opposes blood flow *Relationship between the 3: Ø Blood flow is Directly proportional to pressure Ø Blood flow is Inversely proportional to resistance Identify factors that could alter blood resistance, then identify the factor that exerts the most control. Blood viscosity • Measurement of ease of flow • Higher the viscosity, lower the flow • Stays constant in body Vessel length • How long a vessel is • The longer the vessel, the greater the resistance to flow, slower flow • Stays constant in person Vessel diameter • Constricting or dilating vessels • Larger the diameter, less resistance, more flow • THIS IS THE FACTOR WITH THE MOST CONTROL OF RESISTANCE Contrast the blood pressure at various points through the circulatory system. • Blood pressure is highest near heart, and you can see a difference between systolic and diastolic • In arterioles have huge drop in pressure! o Because need low pressure so capillaries don’t explode • More pressure drop in Venules • Pressure almost at zero in veins
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