History and Culture Study Guide Exam 1 Kenneth Chauvin
History and Culture Study Guide Exam 1 Kenneth Chauvin His 1110
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Smith on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to His 1110 at Appalachian State University taught by Kenneth Chauvin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see History and Culture in History at Appalachian State University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
History and Culture Exam 1 Study Guide 1. Early professional historians (1830-1920’s) created the artificial division of the past into prehistory (prior to 3500 BC) and history because ran into the issues that they HAD to look at ALL of the available data before creating any explanations, they HAD to also exclude ALL fake or questionable data before formulating an answer and the Theory of Evolution which challenged all the creation myths. There were many religious based creation myths that predated the existence of writing (oral traditions) and many were preserved as “scriptures” (220 creation myths.) They avoided the controversy of deciding what religion or if just science is the reason for creation and the beginning of history (which is called “the Ostrich Tactic” by our professor.) They were trying to avoid the arguments between religion and science. Professional historians are neither theologists nor scientists and had to apply their own rules. 2. The Scopes Trial (1924-27) was a trial that claimed that a substitute teacher by the name of John Thomas Scopes violated Tennessee’s Butler Act, which made it unlawful to teach human evolution in any state-funded school. He was only allowed to teach religious beliefs, but he didn’t see how he could do that in a SCIENCE class. He was fined and taken to jail. This forced professional historians, and academia in general, to rethink the “human origins” because they leaned towards the Theory of Evolution as the true origins of life. In the 1930’s Historians convinced politicians that science teachers could teach evolution in science classrooms without bad mouthing religion and the other way around. Everyone had to acknowledge both, but didn’t have to accept both necessarily. Religion is a powerful source, but can’t be used by historians and science acknowledges mistakes, but also can’t be used by historians. 3. In 1989, the super computer stored DNA data to show how closely related primates were. It showed that chimps are almost human with a .8% drift and that great apes are 98.7% human. When you have these figures many believe that the Theory of Evolution is a fact. 4. The Annales Method was developed around three separate, but inter-related concepts known as Realite, Mentalite, and Activite. Realite represents the material world (natural and artificial,) mentalite is the intellectual world (knowledge & logic, belief & faith, and feelings & emotions,) and activite is the active world (daily routine, predictable events, and extraordinary events.) These three concepts are dependent on each other. They interact to drive human behavior and actions throughout history by all depending on one another. So one’s environment/their material possessions influence their knowledge, logic, faith, belief, feelings and emotions, which then influence their daily routines or events in their lives. But it also can go another way around, the material world can influence one’s events and routines which then influences their feelings and knowledge, etc. 5. Africa’s environment (realite) 10 million BP was 90% forest and 10% savannas. There was plenty of living space, food, and water. There were no deserts or great rivers during this time. It was known as an “arboreal primate Eden.” There was a huge pool of genetic material. During this time there were only arboreal primates and 3 times the primate species. Primates avoided the savannas because they couldn’t live and thrive there and also because they didn’t need to live there. There was plenty of living space and food and water. Primates lived in the trees and fed off of the trees. They were all foragers (they ate whatever they found in their environment.) Also the primates stayed in troops where it was 50% male and 50% female. It was a matriarchal society basically. They interacted with other primates by staying out of their way. There wasn’t much harmful interaction because there was no reason for it. 6. By 5 million BP the forests had shrunk by 50% because of less rain. Africa was 45% forests, competition for living space/food intensified, and Africa’s savannas expanded to 55% of land area. There were no deserts yet. The veldts were a harsher environment to live in because surface water disappeared and there were super dry winter months. 7. Changes in Africa’s realite affected how its arboreal primates lived and behaved by making them more aggressive and triggered conflicts between the different primates and within the same species. By 1 million BP half of all the primate species had gone extinct. The surviving species mutated to improve their chance at survival. Some species prospered by becoming specialists (guerons went from 1 to 16 species,) some species evolved “new” instincts as well as bodily forms (grew larger and stronger, dimorphism, instinctively aggressive and territorial.) 8. Dimorphism means “two” forms. Male and female species are different. The male is 800 pounds while the females are 350 pounds. This feature emerged because the species had to evolve because the males’ role is to be defensive and fight competition (to protect space, food and water.) The males had the tendency to survive. The females had to protect the young and families in order to allow them to survive. Allomothering is when a female from the same troop takes care of children in case the mother dies. 9. Veldts are extremely dry grasslands that act like deserts; especially during winter while savannas are more like prairies. In Southern Africa the environmental shifts were more extreme than the other parts of the continent. The forests shrank faster and therefore competition was fiercer. The arboreal primates that were forced onto the veldts to find food and such required changes to physiques and culture. These primates had the disadvantage of opposable thumbs because they couldn’t swing through the trees, but they became an advantage because they were able to use tools. 10. Picanthropus society likely operated by staying in small troops. They realized they could see over the grass and look out for predators (bipedal,) they have to think harder to survive, and that being timid can be a source for survival. The baboons became more aggressive and would fight whoever and whatever they needed to in order to keep their territory. The baboons were the bigger and more in charged primate. 11. The Australopithecines physical form changed by becoming bipedal which allowed them to see better over the grass, they were more efficient and faster, and their shorter arms allowed their limbs to be proportional which aided their balance and movement. They grew 60%+ (5 foot 6- 5 foot 10) and got heavier (40-120 pounds.) Their society changed by becoming more adventurous (they used the savannas as highways.) They were smart enough to know that food and water was scarce, they used savannas to migrate, and to move North to richer environment. Doing that their numbers expanded, there was a greater variation, each troop’s genetic code was different, they understood seasons and food supplies (able to remember their environments,) and were also able to use tools. They migrated to East Africa. 12. The Picanthropus went extinct around 3.5 million BP because the forests shrank, the savannas shrank, deserts grew, veldts got super dry, and they weren’t able to migrate. They couldn’t survive because they couldn’t migrate and they became too small and weak. They weren’t able to go back to the trees because they weren’t physically fit for it (opposable thumbs.) 13. Hominins posses a 33% bigger skull and brain. The skull and brain grew over time. They needed more protein in their diet, which caused them to become omnivores (hunters and scavengers,) they started creating “simple” tools, complex social organization (childhood lengthens and males are powerful.) They made tools to rip meat off and to hunt. 14. By 1 million BP, Africa’s environment continued to deteriorate, so the forests shrank to 33%, the savannas shrank to 45% and the deserts emerged to 22%, 50% extinction of arboreal primates, and the extinction of picanthropus. The Australopithecus were doomed because of the extreme environmental stresses (desertification.) The forests and savannas shrank, deserts arise, savannas turn into veldts, they’re not designed for life in the trees so they couldn’t have gone back to forest niches, harder to find food, more muscle means more calories and there was a lack of food. Hominins managed to survive because of their bigger brain and luck technically. Being a gracile becomes an advantage because they didn’t have to eat as much during the time of Africa’s lack of food and resources. 15. The physical changes that emerged that divide Hominins from all other Arboreal and Terrestrial Primates is the bigger brain that the Hominins had. The bigger brain meant a larger frontal lobe, which is important. The frontal lobe meant their short-term memory was better (able to problem solve,) capable of manual dexterity (able to make tools and use tools,) and they had language comprehension (organization skills were better.) Timeline of primates 1. Arboreal Primates a. Barbary Apes b. Guerons 2. Terrestrial Primates a. Picanthropus b. Australopithecus c. Hominin
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