History and Culture Exam 2 Study Guide
History and Culture Exam 2 Study Guide His 1110
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Smith on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to His 1110 at Appalachian State University taught by Kenneth Chauvin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see History and Culture in History at Appalachian State University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
History and Culture Exam 2 Study Guide 1. What are the three physical characteristics that evolved which separate Hominins (proto-humans) from Early Humans? What abilities and skills came from these physical evolutionary gains? a. Brain in excess of 1400 cc (frontal lobe and occipital lobe,) larynx (complex oral language,) and the menstrus cycle (higher fertility rates, sex as activite and new family unit.) Emotional bonding and families were created as well as the use of language. Also, the brain being bigger allowed for them to be able to problem solve. 2. How did the Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon brains differ from each other? What specific strengths and weaknesses would each type of brain possess? Why can’t we make any definitive statement about the Denisovan brain’s size, shape or capabilities? a. Cro-Magnons brain mostly grew in the frontal lob which resulted in them having superior frontal lobe skills (such as problem solving, motor planning, speaking, attention/concentration, etc.) and Neanderthals had a larger occipital lobe which resulted in better eyesight and visual accuracy. Denisovan remains are rare and difficult to find. We only have bits and pieces of them, so we do not have proof of what their skull shape was. 3. Why is the evolution of the larynx so difficult for scientists to explain? How do we know all Early Humans (and not just Cro- Magnons) had the ability to make and use “complex oral language”? Why was complex language so important for Early Humanity’s success as an organism? a. The larynx is made up of soft tissue and won’t fossilize nor could fossilize. There are 4 bones in the neck that only came about when a larynx evolved. Complex language was so important because it allowed them to organize hunting, gathering, migration, teach burials and magic rituals. 4. How does the unique human Menstrus Cycle differ from the more common Estrus Cycle? How does the menstrus cycle change human concepts of sexuality and family? a. The Estrus Cycle is also known as the heat cycle. This is when an animal generates heat when it is time to have sex and have offspring and only happens twice a year. The menstrus cycle happens once a month and allows one to have sex more often. It changes human concepts of sexuality and family because it get more personal, a relationship grows from two things having sex and it doesn’t just attract anything of the same species with a penis like the other does. With the development of human’s pituitary gland hominins were able to send out the sexual “on” signal more often. 5. Where did each form of Early Humanity evolve and how did this environment influence their physiology? Specifically, why are Neanderthals (and likely Denisovans) cold-adapted while Cro- Magnons are warm-adapted? Which is the better form and why? a. The Cro-Magnons evolved in Africa, the Neanderthals evolved in Europe and the Denisovans evolved in North Asia/Siberia. The Neanderthals and Denisovans are cold adapted because there were ice ages in the north where they inhabited. Their muscle acted as an insulator to retain heat, they were short and stocky so they had less surface area (retain heat,) their short limbs help prevented frostbite because the heart is closer so blood can flow to toes and fingers faster, and their deep sinuses/large noses allowed air to get warm before going to their lungs. They also had some kick ass immune systems. The Cro-Magnons were warm adapted because they evolved in Africa where it stayed warm. They had less muscle so they retained less heat, they were tall and lean which allowed them to get rid of heat with sweat, their long limbs allowed them to speed up and need fewer calories, and their bloody sinuses expelled heat. Their forms evolved to fit their specific niches, but the Cro-Magnons ended up surviving longer so I suppose that one. 6. Explain the likely types of racial differences separating the southern Cro-Magnons from the “northern” Neanderthals and Denisovans. Why would skin/hair/eye colors evolve differently for each group of Early Human? Why is “race” so important? a. Cro-Magnons had darker pigmented skin so that their body had a natural protectant from the sun and the harsh UVR, while Neanderthals and Denisovans were closer to the poles where there is a smaller amount of UVR and their natural sunscreen was shed so that they could get an intake of Vitamin D faster. Cro-Magnons also had darker hair and eyes while Neanderthals and Denisovans had lighter hair and eyes. “Race” is so important because it is linked to how modern humans look at race. Modern humans, depeding on who you ask, are racist and are this way because of the physical differences such as skin tone. 7. Early Humans invented complex tools which were essential for their survival over hundreds of thousands of years during the Stone Ages. What exactly are “complex tools?” Compare and contrasts Neanderthal tools, fire, clothing with those of the Cro- Magnons. How does each “tool kit” fit their owner’s needs and wants? Which “kit” is superior and why? a. “Complex tools” are tools made up of two or more materials. Neanderthals DID NOT use fire pits or fire stones, but did use fire. They also used stone scrapes to prepare/hide fires, they had a “wrap and tie” clothing method and had thrusting spears, hunting knives, and axes (maces.) Cro-magnons used fire pits and fire stones, fire, stone scrapes, fitting clothing, needle and awl, beading, knapsacks, basketry, projectile weapons (thinner shafts, thinner and sharper points, atlatl, bow and arrows, fishhooks and fishnets.) Neanderthals hunted bigger game because they needed a shit ton of calories, but their little bodies and proportions made them limited to hunting technology that was long and didn’t have to be thrown. They were also cold adapted people so they didn’t need fitting clothing to keep them warm. Neanderthals didn’t need to use fire pits or stones because even when the fire died out they still radiated heat. Cro-Magnons had longer proportions so were able to throw weapons and they were warm adapted causing them to need fitted clothing to retain heat. Cro-Magnons needed fire pits and stones in order to keep the fire burning all night to keep warm. 8. What type of social hierarchies might have emerged in Paleolithic Age (500,000- 50,000 BCE) Early Human societies? Why do the traditionalists argue that society was patriarchal? Why did the Alternatives argue that society was matriarchal instead? Why did the study of the Ounaibi Tribe of the amazon suggest society many have been a gynandrony but the study of the Arctic Dene Tribe suggest equarchy? Which do you think is the most likely and why? a. The Paleo Tech “Kit” was divided between hunting and domestic camp duties. Neanderthals’ tool kit both limited in scope (thrust) and number while Cro-Magnons’ PTR much more advanced (thrust and projectiles) and varied (beading, jewelery, and fitted clothing.) Both socieities’ economics revolved around hunting, foraging and gathering. Traditionalists argue that society was patriarchal because of dimorphism (strength) and that the men hunted while the women were dependents. The Alternative view saw society as matriarchal because of dimorphism (childbirth.) Women produced life and men were expendable so they were able to hunt and risk death while women gathered because it was safe and reliable. The study of the Ounabi tribe of the amazon suggested gynandrony because without the men to hunt they’d starve and without the women to gather they starved. They had different roles, but equal respect. Equarchy is where the men and women both hunted, which I could see if they were made up of small tribes which Neanderthals were. Honestly, I see that gynandrony is the most likely. Meat is needed to survive for the protein and such, gathered foods are needed for certain sources, women needed to raise children and produce life, and men were needed for protection and to hunt. 9. Neanderthals began the Ritual Burial of the Dead. Why isn’t this seen as a form of “garbage disposal” but as an early form of religious belief system? Describe Type A, B, and C burial rituals. How are they the same; how are they different? What do we think each ritual suggests about the Neanderthals’ belief in afterlife? a. It isn’t seen as a form of “garbage disposal” because it was a ritual with a complex set of actions that were repeated with symbolic meaning. Everyone was buried and the graves were kept close (in or near the living area.) If they wanted to simply dispose of them they could’ve farther from where they lived, they would’ve just dumped them somewhere and wouldn’t have had a ritual of it. Type A burial is known as rebirth. The body is in an oval shaped hole, in the fetal position nude and covered in red ochre. Type B burials are known as sleeping and are the second most common. The body is in an oval shaped hole. The body is nude and in the fetal position. There are grass or fir branches at the bottom (as well as flowers depending on the season) with food placed in the hole. Type C burials are rare (only 6 known ones in the same site in Belarus.) It was also an oval shaped grave lined with mammoth tusks, fur/hide as “blankets” or clothing, body in fetal position, and hunting tools inside. Type C burials are where the person buried will awake in the afterlife and continue hunting. 10. Sometime after 100,000 BCE. Neanderthals and Cro- Magnons came into “First Contact” with each other in the area of western Asia we call the Middle East. Why did Ns and CMs immigrate into this region from their homelands in Europe and Africa? Why would this type of migration pattern be easier back then than it would be today? a. Neanderthals immigrated and settled in the Middle East because it was part of their traditional migration patterns. They had access to land bridges that granted them access to the east. The coastal hills and piedmonts provided caves, wood, stone and water. There was also the fact that there was big game in other places too. The Cro-Magnons immigrated into the M.E. because North African savannas were turning to veldts (water was getting scarce.) Also, they most likely followed animal herds into wetter savannas; other middle eastern plains were a “rich” source of water and medium sized hunt/herd animals. They moved to areas that were slightly cooler than where they lived which made it more comfortable and less hot. Back then. We don’t have access to the land bridges that they had back then. 11. Researchers studying Neanderthal-Cro-Magnons came into “First Contact” offer three conflicting interpretations of the evidence. Why do the Traditionalists argue that “First Contact” would have led to Race War between the two Early Humans? Why do the Alternatives argue for “avoidance” rather than war? Why do we currently believe that neither of these arguments work and instead, both groups lived/worked & traded together? a. The traditionalists argue that “first contact” would have led to a race war because the differences in physical attributions and they were incompatible. Their evidence is the fact there were no trade goods in Neanderthals graves and that there was a “murdered” Neanderthal found. (This is now believed to be a hunting accident.) The alternatives believed that it was avoidance because the middle east was larger which allowed the Neanderthals to stick to the hills and Piedmont while the Cro-Magnons stuck to the plains. Also the tools that Cro-Magnons used were scary and different and with the hunting accident created fear of the unknown. The current view is that there was interbreeding (2-4% of our genome is Neanderthal,) there was joint hunting, complementary economics (big game vs. medium/small game,) CMs start burial of the dead. 12. How did climate and environment change between the Paleolithic Age “Ice Ages” (500,000-50,000 BCE) and Mesolithic Age (50,000-10,000 BCE)? Why is an understanding of environmental change important for our understanding of why Neanderthals abandoned the Middle East and Cro-Magnons migrated into Europe and Asia sometime after 60,000 BCE? a. Well Neanderthals disappeared from ME caves completely around 60,000 BCE and the popular belief is that they migrated back North. Cro-Magnons also began moving away, but didn’t abandon completely. Migrations to a lot of different places around the world. There was a climate shift, a “crisis” (50,000-10,000 BCE.) The Paleolithic Age dominated by Ice Ages (cold and dry climate) while the Mesolithic climate became irregular (wildly eratic weather.) There were longish periods of intense cold and dry that was harder than during the Paleo Age and short-ish interglacial warm periods (warmer and wetter than now!) Topography also changes radically; sea levels can rise or drop by 400 feet, land bridges can flood out, coastal plains and low lands flood. Flora and fauna change too; cold adapted forms suffer during IGWP, warm adapted forms suffering during “cold snaps,” animals migrated or simply died off. FOOD SOURCES STARTED DISAPPEARING. 13. What was the “Great Dying” (40,000-37,000 BCE)? What likely triggered the deaths of 60-70% of Neanderthals and 40% of Cro-Magnons? Why couldn’t the Neanderthals bounce back after this crisis and, eventually, went extinct (27,000 BCE)? Why could the Cro-Magnons’ bounce back? a. The “Great Dying” was two main events that resulted in the killing off of 70-80% of the Neanderthals and 40% of the Cro-Magnons. These two events were the second interglacial warm period and Camp Flieri or the volcanic eruption that occurred in 39,000 BCE. The Neanderthals didn’t live in the area where the eruption occurred, but the deadly ash in the air was toxic enough to kill them. There was also a bunch of Neanderthals in one area and the overpopulating, overhunting and the chronic malnutrition also contributed. Diseases (airbone and insect-borne) also were a contribution. The fact that Neanderthals lost most of the population led to them not being able to recover and going extinct by 27,000 BCE. 14. During the Mesolithic Age “Crisis”, Cro-Magnons began the practice of ritual Cave Art: why? What as it’s likely purpose? What does it suggest about CM’s paleo-culture and social hierarchy? Specifically, discuss venus figurines, delta images, phallic images and shamans. a. Cro-Magnons began the practice of cave art because of the Mesolithic crisis. When a crisis happens many turn to religion. In this case, Cro-Magnons turned to religion because they didn’t want their race to die like the Neanderthals were. Their act of cave art was a way to praise to a higher being and to give the higher being “celebrations” in order to get to be spared in return. Venuses are small modeled clay figurines that are women that represent fertility. Fertility was seen as a magical ability therefore there were women shamans who are believed to have been the religious leaders of fertility rituals. Delta images??? Phallic images are images that hint at the sexual experience of creating offspring. Shamans are either a male or female religious leader who is in change of the magic. This shows that it was a non-gender specific religion.
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