New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapters 1,2,3,4,6

by: Adrianna Elbon

Chapters 1,2,3,4,6 BIOL 1114, 001

Adrianna Elbon
GPA 3.48

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes/review tips for exam 1
Intro to zoology
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Intro to zoology

Popular in Department

This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Adrianna Elbon on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views.


Reviews for Chapters 1,2,3,4,6


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/14/16
Intro to Zoo (BIO 1114) with Professor Lee CHAPTER 1­ The Scientific Study of Life  Biology is defined as the scientific study of life  The cell is defined as the basic unit of life. ­Every living organism contains one or more cells ­Cells use DNA to produce proteins All life forms share 5 characteristics: 1. Organization ­ Atom (all living structures are composted of atoms) ­ Molecule (group of joined atoms) ­ Organelle (membrane­bound group of molecules) ­ Cell (fundamental unit of life, made up of organelles) ­ Tissue (collection of cells) ­ Organ (consists of multiple tissue types and has a defined/special function) ­ Organ system (a group of organs, either connected physically or chemically,  that work together to perform) ­ Organism (living individual)  Another level of organization is the organization among the living­ ­ Population­ members of the same species occupying the same space at the  same time ­ Community­ all the populations of different species in a place at a time ­ Ecosystem­ both living and nonliving components of an area ­ Biosphere­ all parts of the planet that sustain life  2. Energy use ­ Life requires energy ­ During each step of the cycle of life heat is lost Biologists organize organisms in the following categories: ­ Producers (autotrophs)­ make their own food by extracting energy from  nonliving things such as the sun ­ Consumers (heterotrophs)­ obtain energy by eating other organisms, living or  dead ­ Decomposers (heterotrophs)­ obtain energy by eating dead organisms  3. Maintenance of internal consistency ­ Or HOMEOSTASIS  ­ Blood glucose levels are maintained when we intake food ­ When the body’s temperature drops below or rises above the normal  temperature, the body uses homeostasis to fix it. ­ Negative feedback: (example) if the temperature goes down, the body brings it back up. ­ Positive feedback: (example) Childbirth or labor­ the body has contractions  over and over until the baby is delivered. ­ Salt levels, nutrients levels, and water levels are all monitored by homeostasis. 4. Reproduction, growth, and development ­ Sexual reproduction­ sexual reproduction requires two parents and is most  successful in a changing environment ­ Asexual reproduction­ asexual reproduction only requires one parent and is  most successful in an unchanging environment  5. Evolution ­ A species adapts to its environment over time to become more successful/to  thrive. An example would be a puffer fish. Over time they have become the  exact color of their surroundings in order to prey on other things in  camouflage or to hide from threats. ­ Natural selection: Process by which organisms with a certain successful trait  reproduce and the organisms without that trait do not.  THE THREE MAIN BRANCHES ON THE TREE OF LIFE: ­ Domain bacteria (no nucleus) ­ Domain archea (no nucleus and is made up one 1 cell) ­ Domain eukarya (nucleus)  Domain bacteria and domain archea are prokaryotes.  ­ Pro means before and karyote means nucleus, so that helps explain that those  two do not have nuclei. Domain eukarya is a eukaryote. ­ Eu means true and karyote means nucleus, therefore domain eukarya have  nuclei.  Eukarya:  ­ Protista­ 1 cell of multiple autotrophs/heterotrophs  ­ Kingdom Animalia­ multicellular heterotrophs  ­ Kingdom fungi­ mostly multicellular organisms and heterotrophs (fungi use  external digestion) ­ Plantae­ multicellular autotrophs (use sun energy)  The mnemonic levels of organization: ­ Kingdom ­ Phylum ­ Class ­ Order ­ Family ­ Genus ­ Species  *Other helpful notes from chapter 1:  The endothelial cell can be found in the stomach lining and blood vessels (among  other places)  Emergent properties­ properties that arise at each level of biological organization. For example, the bicep muscle is an organ made up of tissue and at this level it begins to  serve its function (its function would be whatever the bicep muscle is used to do in  daily life). Another example would be a blood vessel.. Before all of the cells came  together to make it, it didn’t have a property.   Bacteria evolve rapidly  In order to write a good hypothesis it must be a possible explanation and it must be  testable.   Taxonomy­ scientific study of naming and classifying organisms  CHAPTER 2­ The Chemistry of Life  All life is made up of elements  An element (atoms) is basically protons, neutrons, and electrons.   Protons have a positive charge, neutrons have a neutral charge, and electrons have a  negative charger  Protons/neutrons are in the core of each atom  Opposite charges attract  When looking at the periodic table, the mass # = protons + neutrons  Add a neutron, the mass increases  Atomic weight= the average mass of all isotopes of that element  Isotopes are the same element but with a different number of neutrons   For Zoology purposes, know that each atom has a 2­8­8 configuration of electrons  Hydrogen can hold 2 electrons in its shell  Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen have 2 rings  When the outer electron shell is full, the element(atoms) are at maximum stability  Everything is also made up of bonds­ covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds  Covalent bonds share electrons (strong)  Ionic bonds transfer electrons (strongest, but weak in water)  Hydrogen bonds have partially positive and partially negative ends, so they are just  sticky (weakest)  When something is polar, it has both positive and negative ends.  Water contains covalent and hydrogen bonds  Hydrogen bonds are what hold the double helix of DNA together  Electronegativity (how likely an element is to find an electron) helps predict what  types of bonds will form. On the periodic table, bottom left elements have low  electronegativity and as you go up and to the right on the table it increases. Water is important for all of life­  Water is both cohesive and adhesive.  Cohesive means that water sticks to itself, creating surface tension.  Adhesive means that water sticks or climbs other things.   Water does not dissolve hydrophobic solutes such as fats, wax, sand, etc.   Hydrophobic means “water fearing”  Hydrophilic “loves water”  Water is a good solvent, it dissolves solutes to create a solution THE pH SCALE:  The pH scale is based on the amount of H protons  Acids become more acidic when H is added, while bases become more basic.  ORGANIC MOLECULES­  Carbohydrates (sugars)  Amino acids (proteins)  Nucleic acids (DNA/RNA)  Lipids (fats) Mono means one, poly means many.  A bunch of monomers make up a polymer.  Monomer­ a single unit of carb, protein, or nucleic acid. NOT LIPID! Carbohydrates­ ­ A carb polymer is made up of many sugar monomers. ­ Monosaccharides are monomers of carbohydrates ­ Disaccharide is two monomers ­ Polysaccharide is a chain of monomers The following contain carbs: ­ Leaf  cellulose ­ Potato starch  ­ The liver produces glycogen  Amino acids­  ­ Amino acids are building blocks of proteins ­ Proteins have more variable structures and functions than any others. ­ The function of a protein depends on the shape  ­ Their “R” group gives them their personalities  ­ All have a core Carbon group ­ R groups are variable ­ 2 monomers ( amino acids) after dehydration synthesis= dipeptide bonds  ­ During dehydration synthesis (breaks bonds) an enzyme binds two monomers, releasing water ­ The backward process of the above is called hydrolysis, which creates bonds. The four levels of structure of amino acids are: ­ Alpha helix­ amino acids are twirled around each other and held together by  Hydrogen bonds (secondary structure) ­ Beta sheet­ a flat structure (secondary) ­ Tertiary structure­ consist of both alpha helixes and beta sheets  ­ Quaternary structure­ subunits, a mixture of multiple polypeptides ­ Covalent bonds hold amino acids together, but hydrogen bonds make them  sticky ­ When hydrogen bonds break, it produces a denatured protein ­ Heat can be used to break both hydrogen and covalent bonds ­ pH also denatures proteins NUCLEIC ACIDS: ­ DNA & RNA DNA RNA BOTH Adenine Adenine Adenine Guanine Guanine Guanine Cytosine Cytosine Cytosine Thymine Uracil ­ Cells contain two types of nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid and  ribonucleic acid.  LIPIDS (fats): ­ Lipids are composed of long carbon chains ­ Kinks in the chain mean that the fat is not solid ­ Lipids are NOT composed of monomers and polymers ­ They have triglycerides ­ Triglycerides store fat in adipose tissue ­ 3 types of fat include saturated, unsaturated, and trans fat ­ Saturated fat is bad for consumption, but trans­fat is the WORST ­ Trans­fat is synthetically made  ­ Unsaturated fat is the best fat  ­ Sterols are lipid molecules such as cholesterol and testosterone (both  hydrophobic)  *Extras from chapter 2: ­ Hemoglobin can be found in red blood cells Zoology – Professor Lee Chapters 3 & 4 (touches on 25 and 33) CHAPTER 3- Cells  Cells are the smallest unit of life to function alone.  The cell membrane is composed of organic molecules - It has a phospholipid bilayer - It has a hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions - It is fluid and dynamic - Phospholipids have a head and a tail, the head is hydrophilic while the tail is hydrophobic. - The membrane acts as a barrier. - The barrier allows hydrophobic things (lipids/non polars) to pass, but it does not allow hydrophilic things (ions, polars) to pass. - Inside the cell membrane: - Transport proteins (is a protein that serves the function of moving other materials within an organism) - Recognition proteins (protein that recognizes and targets specific proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes and the plasma membrane in prokaryotes) - Cholesterol is also a molecule embedded in proteins ** CHAPTER 4- Energy  Two types of energy:  Potential energy: chemical energy  Kinetic energy: movement (examples would be photons, light, sound, etc)  Energy is always lost as heat Energy going IN or OUT:  Endergonic (IN): going from a lower energy state to a higher potential energy  Exergonic (OUT): going from a higher to a lower energy state  Cellulose requires endergonic reactions Thinking moment* What happens when cellulose undergoes an exergonic reaction? (like fire) A: It goes up in flames and releases CO2 and heat.  So how do cells harness energy without losing it to heat? A: potential energy  metabolism ATP  kinetic energy During this process the electron donor donates to the acceptor. After the donation, the donor is considered OXIDIZED and the molecule that accepts the electron is considered REDCUDED.  Oxidation- loss of electrons, releases energy  Reduction- gain of electrons, requires energy  An electron transport chain is a series of membrane proteins that harness energy as it passes.  The mitochondria is the power house of the cell and it makes ATP.  Energy is mainly stored in the phosphate bond of ATP  ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a nucleotide that temporarily stores energy  When the phosphate bond is broken, energy is released *ATP formation is coupled with other exergonic reactions *ATP breakdown is coupled with endergonic reactions - The joining of molecules uses ATP. For example, when monomers become polymers it requires ATP. ATP donates a phosphate that changes the shape of the target molecule. Question time: How does our body control the rate of chemical reactions? - The answer is enzymes (proteins) - Enzymes lower activation energy! - Activation energy: kick start energy, the energy required to actually start the process - An enzyme is a REUSABLE protein, and it binds to a specific substrate. For example, lactase (enzyme) breaks down lactose (it’s a lock and key situation) - The active site of where a substrate joins an enzyme can change shape or be blocked off by an inhibitor - Negative feedback- when a reactions products inhibit the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction. - Positive feedback- the opposite of negative feedback is when a product produces a pathway leading to its own production. - Indirect way of altering enzyme activity: Enzymes are proteins, proteins are genes, and the rate of protein synthesis can be controlled by genes (this will link unit 1 and 2 together) Touching on chapter 25* - Organs promote homeostasis within the body. - Interstitial fluid bathes all body cells from the outside Touching on chapter 33* - Surface area to volume ratio is important. For example, google images of the snowshoe hare vs the jack rabbit or the arctic fox vs the kit fox. Each animal has adapted to its specific environment. - Endotherms- regulate their heat internally (humans are endotherms) - - the hypothalamus controls endotherms body temperature and initiates responses - Ectotherms- move to areas in order to lose or gain heat - Counter current exchange: (used by wolves in cold climates) conserves energy and prevents frostbite. - Vasodilation- expands the diameter of blood vessels (alcohol does this) - Osmoregulation: Is the maintenance of constant water pressure in the fluids of an organism by the control of water and salt concentrations? - Urination regulates salt/water in the body - Marine fish do not really pee, but water leaves their bodies through osmosis. Marine fish drink the salt water. - Freshwater fish do not drink the water, yet they pee more dilute urine. Water enters freshwater fish through osmosis. - Land animals also have strategies to obtain and conserve water. DEFINITIONS TO KNOW FOR CH 3 & 4:  Ribosomes- structures that make proteins  Cytoplasm- fluid in the cell  Adhesion proteins- enable cells to stick to one another  Receptor proteins- bind to molecules outside the cell and trigger an internal response  Vesicles- transport things within the cell  Competitive vs noncompetitive inhibition- competitive means that substrates are competing to bind with the enzyme, while noncompetitive means that the substrate bonded somewhere other than the active site but not intentionally blocking another.  Endocytosis- cell engulfs material and brings it into the cell in a vesicle  Exocytosis- sends things out of the cell  Hypotonic- solution has lower concentration than the interior of the cell  Hypertonic- the cell has a higher concentration than the solution around it  Isotonic- has equal water  Phagocytosis- engulfs BULK matter  Metabolism- describes all chemical reactions in a cell  Entropy- measure of disorganization  Cofactors- enzyme helpers Zoology w/ Dr.Lee CHAPTER 6  CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURE:  The concentration gradient can store potential energy.  Cell membranes can form compartments-  Endomembrane system is made up of the following: nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondrial membranes, & cell membrane.  INTERMEMBRANE SPACE is where potential energy is stored  Another part of the cell membrane structure is the transmembrane proteins.  Transmembrane proteins are very selective. The following are transmembrane proteins: carrier proteins, channel proteins, and gated proteins (they all basically move things in and out of the cell)  When something enters the cell without a carrier, it is called simple diffusion (a type of passive transport).  Things normally want to enter the cell because they are moving down their concentration gradient, which also means they diffuse from high to low concentrations.  Passive transports include: simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis (water)  Facilitated diffusion is when a protein transports something into the cell  Active transport: active transport uses energy (passive does not, passive is powered by the concentration gradients) active requires energy because it moves against the concentration gradient (up the gradient)  There are three different types of solutions: isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic. Isotonic means that the solution has the same number of solutes as the other solution. Hypertonic means that the solution has a lower concentration than the other, and hypotonic means that the solution has a higher concentration than the other.  Active transport includes the following:  Sodium-potassium pump (which requires ATP)  An active mechanism changes shape in order to drive things through/into the cell.  Bulk transport (transports of large things into the cell) is also known as vesicular transport. CELLULAR REPSPIRATION: The three parts of cellular respiration are: - Glycolysis (breaks down glucose) - Krebs Cycle - Electron Transport Chain - Hint: most of the energy transformation occurs in redox reactions - A tip for remembering that oxidation means lost and that reduction means gained (electrons) is OIL RIG. - The electron transport chain: inner membrane, outer membrane, matrix, cristae, DNA, ribosome, and the inter-membrane space holds potential energy. - NADH and FADH come2from the Krebs Cycle and glycolysis. - ATP synthase complex is powered by hydrogen ions - O 2oxygen) is the final electron acceptor during cellular respiration - A basic break down would be: 1. Breathe in oxygen/eat food, 2. Break down polymers into monomers, 3. Feed sugar& O to cells2 and 4. Split glucose into to pyruvate molecules. - GLYCOLYSIS: (does not require oxygen so it is anaerobic) 1. Split into two pyruvate 2. Strip electrons of their energy 3. Make ATP in the process 4. (Now, in the presence of oxygen this happens) passes on 2 pyruvate and two NADH to the mitochondria -KREBS CYCLE: 1. Strips more energy 2. NADH goes on to the electron transport chain (NADH and FADH2 energize transmembrane proteins for active transport) + 3. H increases inter-membrane space 4. Makes ATP (also does not require oxygen) 5. Krebs Cycle passes on 8 NADH and 2 FADH2 to the electron transport chain 6. The ATP synthase harnesses concentration gradient energy to make ATP Electron Transport Chain: - The money maker $$$$ - The last step Overall discussion of cellular respiration: - Transmembrane proteins are on the inner-membrane - Enzymes do the conversions (proteins) - NAD NADH - NAD is limited in the absence of oxygen - NADH gets converted back to NAD creating lactic acid byproducts. - In the presence of oxygen….. Transition step  2 pyruvate Acetly CoAOutput NADH, FADH2, ATP, breathe out CO2. - NADH, FADH2 power + - Energized proteins pump H against the concentration gradient - Chemiosmotic phosphorylation: harnessing the power of the chemical gradient to produce ATP - Conversion rates for our purposes are 1 NADH3 ATP, 1 FADH2 2 ATP - 36= theoretical ATP yield of cellular respiration. - Proteins and fats can enter the cycle at many steps - Proteins enter using beta-oxidation **** Cellular respiration really cannot be explained as well as it should be by these notes, but the best way to learn would be to find google images of the process that has explanation besides each image of the steps. I have reviewed a previous exam and I compiled the following list of things to review/know:  Know which types of organic molecules dissolve in water  Osmosis  Why are single celled organisms limited in size?  Which things can pass through the membrane alone, which need a transport protein?  Know the isotopes (chemistry)  Review polar-covalent bonds  Review the molecules and what they look like  Enzymes  Review case study #2  CELLULAR RESPIRATON


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.