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CLEMSON / Landscape Architecture / LARC 1160 / How can i make my garden secluded?

How can i make my garden secluded?

How can i make my garden secluded?

Description

School: Clemson University
Department: Landscape Architecture
Course: History of Landscape Architecture
Professor: Nassar
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Landscape Architecture, history, Ancient Japan, Pre-Columbian America, Zen Buddhism, Zen Garden, Bonsai, Central America, Aztec, Mayans, Monte Alban, Teotihuacan, Tenochtitlan, and Ryoan-Ji
Cost: 25
Name: History of Landscape Architecture, Week 5 Notes
Description: Ancient Japan Pre-Columbian America (Friday and Monday). These notes contain all material covered in class and include ID slide material that will be on exams and quizzes as well as notes from the clip shown in class on the 17th and Tenochtitlan notes from Landscapes of Man that was not covered in class.
Uploaded: 02/15/2016
8 Pages 162 Views 5 Unlocks
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History of Landscape Architecture


How can i make my garden secluded?



Ancient Japan

Social History 

- Series of islands

- Always been regarded as remote, isolated, and the end of the world - Society has been aristocratic and militarized in structure with the  emperor recognized as divine

- Because of isolation, Japan was never conquered militarily. The only  invasion was by Kubla Khan in AD 1281 and was repelled by tsunamis  before ever reaching the shore

o Preserved the culture of Japan from any outside influence - Culture originally came from China (Buddhism) c. AD 550 - Nara was the Capital from AD 707-81

- Kyoto became the Capital AD-784

- Tokyo became the Capital AD 1869

- Although Kyoto was destroyed twice, it remained the shrine of  Japanese landscape architecture


What can you grow in a tea garden?



Philosophy 

- In Japan, where the sea and they sky are dominant, the ancient  Japanese religion, Shinto, became concerned with the universe as a  whole

- Therefore, ancient Japanese worshipped the sun, moon, earth,  mountains, wells, springs, stones rocks, etc. as well as deities of  thunder, wind, fire, storms, earthquakes, volcanoes

- When Buddhism joined China in AD 550, it became known as Zen  Buddhism in Japan We also discuss several other topics like How we measure debt matters?

o This made life and landscape a conscious religion  

- Zen Buddhism sent out to find the meaning of life through meditation  of the landscape

- Zen Buddhism believes the power of meditation to be stronger than  words because…

1) The universe in conceived as a void in which material objects  float


What civilization existed in pre columbian america?



2) the mind is conceived as a void in which worldly events float 3) the quartz sand garden is the medium that liked both

-the rocks represented the worldly events and the quartz  represented the void

Ryoan-Ji Garden

- This type of garden is known as a Zen garden

- Design reflects the philosophy of Zen Buddhism

- Ryoan-Ji is part of a monastery in Kyoto

- It is a static garden used for contemplation, also referred to as a dry  garden

o No vegetation or growth, only sand and 15 rocks in 5 groups o 3 walls and a balcony to sit on

o Only the sand raker is allowed to enter the garden

- Groups of rocks look random and haphazard but are actually  calculated from a mathematical formula Don't forget about the age old question of Who came up with tabula rasa?

- The meaning of the garden lies within the mind of the observer *ID slide, check BlackBoard for images

https://bb.clemson.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-2636652-dt-content-rid 23617084_2/courses/hnassar-LARC-1160/8%20Japan.pdf 

Gardens of the Borrowed Landscape 

- These gardens take in a view of a far object and make it a part of the  garden design

- They borrow and frame the distant landscape

*ID Slide, check BB for images

Sacred Landscape 

- Chinese preference for symmetry normally placed the pagoda on the  same central axis as the Buddha Hall

- Japanese preference for asymmetry placed them side by side as in  Horyu-J monastery at Nara

*ID Slide, check BB for images

Tradition Japanese House and Garden 

- House and garden interlocked and are complementary because… o house is asymmetrically geometric and garden was organic in  design  

o house is built on a mathematical module with moveable  translucent partitions

o design unified indoor and outdoor spaces

- light material withstands earthquakes and is easier to rebuild

Landscapes 

- Japanese Landscape went through successive phases of evolution  influenced by religion and politics

- Know the name of the phase, characteristics, and example of  landscapes from the phase

o Phase 1: Ancient Period If you want to learn more check out What are the long bones in the leg?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the key molecules for the continuity of life?

 Japanese landscape started as empty graveled Shinto  

courtyards which gradually transformed into sophisticated  designs with the introduction of elements of nature: water,  rocks, trees, hills, and islands

o Phase 2: Kamakura Period, AD 1885-1332

 Period of political instability

 Buddhist paradise garden evolved to provide escape from  hostile environment

 Ex. Moss Garden of Saiho-Ji temple

o Phase 3: Muromachi Period, AD 1333-1573

 Momoyama Period, AD 1573-1615

 Zen Buddhism creates garden of contemplation

∙ Ex. Ryoan-Ji Garden

 Ceremonial Tea Pavilion and Garden

∙ Tea ceremony was a social interaction and was for  

relaxation

∙ Pavilion was connected to house by stepping stones

o Phase 4: Edo Period (1615-1868)

 In this period, the stroll garden evolved from stepping  

stones in the tea garden to create garden movement

 Contrasts with the static garden

 Ex. Katsura Palace, Kyoto

o Phase 5: The Modern Period, 1868-1950

 Witnessed experimentation with western styles of  

landscapes

 Borrowed landscapes appeared

 Plants clipped in the form of rocks or as pure abstract  

forms (topiary) We also discuss several other topics like What is the anatomy of a long bone?

 Miniature gardens made in receptacles with live dwarf  

trees

Bonsai: Tray Gardens 

- Bonsai literally means tray garden

- The art of dwarfing trees or plants and developing them into an  aesthetically pleasing shape by growing, pruning, and training them in  containers

Notes from Movie Clip Shown in Class We also discuss several other topics like Why did the advent of chinese immigrant generate such fierce opposition?

Imperial Gardens 

- Built to awe ordinary people

- Used symmetry and elevation

Secluded Gardens 

- Scholars garden

- Located within the city

- Used for the painter to live, work, and meditate

- located within many walls

- Lacked an organized formal plan

- No distinction between indoors and out

- Chinese metaphysics encouraged design to derive from nature

-garden built around a pool of some type is a reoccurring theme in Japan -miniature hills and islands contribute to design

Tea Garden 

- Place of transition

- Prepares guest for serene detachment from everyday affairs - Without religious significance yet is still deeply spiritual

History of Landscape Architecture

Pre-Columbian America

Mexico and Central America 

- Central Mexico is a plateau crossed by mountain ranges - -valley of Mexico is interspersed with lakes and temperate coniferous  forests

- Maya country is mainly located East and South of Mexico Social History 

- 10000 BC, Mongoloid people crossed from Asia

- 6000-2000 BC, population of Mexico increased and agricultural  techniques were perfected  

- The Mayan Civilization (AD 100-900) was based on religious hierarchy  dominating agrarian people

- During that time, urban centers of Monte Alban and Teotihuacan  flourished

- 10th century Toltec’s established a warrior society

- C. AD 1300, Aztecs established another society of warriors, priests, and laymen

- Eventually destroyed by the Spaniards in 1519

Philosophy, Religion 

- Mayan civilization worshipped the sun for its power of fertility - Mayans were preoccupied with time (past) rather than the present  activity

- The evolved calendars to look backwards over a million years to  calculate future movements of the heavens (ex Eclipses) because the  time of starting a project was critically important to its success

- Mayans believed that gods along with humans were jointly responsible  for fertility

- Sacrificing human blood was important because they thought without  it they would perish

- to maintain partnership with the gods, Mayans built huge ceremonial  centers controlled by priests and ruling officials

Monte Alban 

- a sacred ceremonial center built on a high plateau above the valley  and city of Oaxaca

- capital of Zapotecs (600 BC- AD 900)

- site is on a hill top

- organized geometric design

- central area is a rough rectangle with mounds on its periphery - mounds refers to manmade pyramid like structures

- mounds were predominant architectural structures of pre-Columbian  landscapes

- Ball Courts were a part of sacred ceremonial grounds

- Once the ball game of the Mayans, Ulama still survives today as an  endangered sport

City of Teotihuacan 

- Mayan city rose as a new religious and ceremonial center, 100-750 AD - 28 miles north west of Mexico City

- The plan is geometrical, monuments are placed along two intersecting  and perpendicular axis

- Axial central way known as the Avenue of the Dead

o 130 ft wide and about 1.5 miles long

- During its greatest period, Teotihuacan grew to 20 square kilometers  and 125,000 people

- The complex was a religious ceremonial center for the rituals of the  agrarian calendar

- Part of its function was to observe the relationship of the earth and sun - Layout is a geometric microcosm of the surrounding mountains and  valleys and mirrors the heavenly order of the stars

*ID Slide, check BB for images

https://bb.clemson.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-2636653-dt-content-rid 23617085_2/courses/hnassar-LARC-1160/9%20Pre%20Columbian %20America.pdf 

The Aztec’s City of Tenochtitlan 

- AD 1350, capital of the Aztecs, Present Mexico City

- Island in the middle of Lake Texoco with waterways that connected to  the shore

- Aqueduct brought pure water from Chapultepec

- Monuments were traditional

- Sacred precinct was a walled square that was placed in the outer city - Chinampas were located along the outside of the city

o created agricultural land that was made by dumping organic  matter into the lake

o important conception of Ancient Meso-American Agriculture o Stationary artificial islands that measured 60 X 7 feet

o Staked out shallow lake bed to make a rectangular area, then  area was layered with mud, lake sediment, and decaying  

vegetation

o Willows were planted on corners so that the roots would secure  the structure and prevent erosion

o Separated by channels for canoe passage

*ID Slide, Check BB for images

Peru 

- Only seat of an ancient civilization in the southern hemisphere - C. 4000 BC, Peruvian Civilization grew in the river valleys between the  Andes mountains and the South Pacific Ocean

- Source of water- rivers and streams from the mountains

Civilizations of Peru 

1. Low Land Civilizations

2. Incas- high elevation of the Andes

The Incas 

- Founded their capital city Cuzco in the 11th century (10,000 ft  elevation)

- 1400’s the Incas conquered the neighboring earlier and superior  lowland civilizations

- Without horses or wheels, they established an empire 20000 miles long - They controlled the empire through a 20,000 mile long road system  that included suspension bridges  

- Their civilization collapsed when their ruler was captured by the  Spaniards in 1532

Philosophy and Expression 

- Unlike the Mayans, Incas were concerned with survival and therefore  were practical

- Like the Mayans, Incas were involved in agriculture

- Incas worshipped the sun and submitted to a king who represented the sun on earth

- Incas built fortifications rather than monuments and pyramids - Natural setting and landscape were different

o The Mayans were settled on relatively flat land

City of Chanchan 

- Built by a lowland civilization known as Chimu along the coastal belt - The lowland was leveled, resulting in a gridiron or rectangular  architectural forms

- Chanchan is composed of rectangular walled enclosures - Buildings are geometrical using adobe

o Adobe- bricks of mud mixed with water and any natural binding  material that can be found that are dried in the sun

o Adobe Architecture is structure built with this type of brick Macchu Picchu 

- West side was the religious precinct

- Central area was the town square

- East side was where the townspeople lived

- Set up on a grid iron but the geometry is distorted by the dramatic  change in topography

- Stone was used in construction. Each stone was individually shaped  with a concave or convex surface to fit adjoining piece to resist  earthquakes

*ID slide, check BB for images

The Grandeur of the Inca’s work was reflected in…

- Engineering and design of their building on a mountainous terrain and  its harmonious fit with the natural landscape

- Terracing mountainous terrain for agriculture

- Building 20,000 mile long road system with bridges

- Designing buildings that resisted earthquakes

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