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AU / History / HIST 1020 / What's revolutionary about the industrial revolution?

What's revolutionary about the industrial revolution?

What's revolutionary about the industrial revolution?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: World History II
Professor: Michael smith
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: world history ii, World History, and history
Cost: 25
Name: World History II Week 5 Notes
Description: These notes cover what we went over in lecture during week 5.
Uploaded: 02/15/2016
10 Pages 181 Views 5 Unlocks
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Worlds of Work in an Industrial Age  


What's revolutionary about the industrial revolution?



Legacies of the French Revolution  

1. Weakened political influence of aristocracy and clergy

o End of privilege based on birth: careers based on merit

o Limited monarchy (constitutional)

2. France transformed into modern state

o secular, rational (law), infrastructure  

3. Practical application of ideas of Enlightenment  

o Individual subject becomes citizen (rights & duties)

4. Revolutionary Fervor Exported Ex: Americas (Haiti)

5. French Revolution + Industrial Revolution -> Creation of European working  class  

What's Revolutionary about the Industrial Revolution?  

∙ When: late 18th and early 19th century (Europe)  


What is the 1st step toward the industrial revolution?



∙ What: application of power driven machinery to manufacturing  ∙ Why a revolution?: monumental changes on all these fronts  ∙ Where people live (urbanization)  

∙ Work (how to relate to what they do) Don't forget about the age old question of Producers make food from where?

∙ Material conditions of life (standard of living)

∙ Family (engaged in wage labor outside of home, even children --> shift in  identity)  

∙ Transportation (method/rate at which people/goods travel)  ∙ Physical Landscape (deforestation, land mining, smoke factories)  ∙ Role of Government (is it their responsibility to help workforce) ∙ Time (different work shifts, time is money)


Seed drill means what?



Why England?  

∙ Natural Resources  

o Timber, coal deposits, and iron ore

o Fuel furnace of industrial  

∙ Access to raw materials (India)  

o Cotton (inexpensive)  

∙ Political Stability

o Geographically isolated from turmoil with French Revolution  ∙ Population Growth  

∙ Agricultural Revolution

o Products related to land holidays massive population boom  o Lot of demands (problem) Don't forget about the age old question of What is the percent error?

o Develop machine to support population  

∙ Innovation/Mechanization  

o Early machines  

o Cotton and textile production #

o Lynch pin of industrialization is textile  

Biological Consequences of 1492: The "Columbian Exchange"

∙ corn and potatoes  

∙ Utility to help people palette taste  

∙ How to feed working class inexpensively  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the process of evolution?

∙ Huge population growth in London  

∙ 1700-1850 We also discuss several other topics like Authoritarianis similar to?

∙ 1700: 500,000 people  

∙ 1800: 959,000 people  

∙ 1850: 2,363,000 people  

The Agricultural Revolution  

o 1st step toward industrial revolution  

1. New World Crops  

i. Population boom  

2. Shift in Landholding Patterns  

i. Land held in individual plots/strips  

∙ Small and amount sufficient for family and maybe a little extra  they could trade  

∙ Eventually insufficient  

ii. Enclosure Movement  

∙ Enclosure acts  

∙ Enclose a # of small plots for one large one; make one  

person the owner  

∙ Large farming operations try to make every acre as  

productive as possible  

∙ Need surplus  

∙ Urbanization  

∙ Pushed many people into cities = downside

3. New Agricultural Methods  

i. Agriculture as Science  

Jethro Tull (1674-1741)

∙ Seed Drill

o Higher levels of germination  

o Prior to this seeds were distributed by seed throwing (rely on  randomness/wind/animals)

∙ Horse Drawn Hoe  

o Weed control  

o Speed up process using animal labor  If you want to learn more check out What is a ghost light in the theater?

Yarn Production and Cottage Industry  

∙ Textile production  

∙ Before Industrial Revolution (Cottage Industry or Putting out Method)  o Merchant purchases raw cotton  

o Deliver to group of women to clean and spin to yarn  

o Come back in week to get yarn and leave more cotton  o Take to another house to weave yarn together  

o This was a slow process and produced small output  

Innovations in Textile Production  

∙ Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves, 1778)

o Produce more spools of yarn  

∙ Waterframe (Richard Arkwright, 1771)  

o No need for human labor (mistakes, costly, tiredness)  o Water can run constantly to power  If you want to learn more check out How did lenin secure single-party rule for bolshevik party?

∙ Positives  

o Increased output tenfold  

o Cost of producing yarn dropped 9/10

∙ Negatives  

o Number of workers reduced 4/5  

o Cost of labor dropped by 1/2  

James Watt - Steam Engine  

∙ Machines can work day and night  

∙ Increased work time  

Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (1776)  

∙ First book to explain economy of nation as a system  

∙ New set of enlightenment philosophers

o Applying rational thought to material/economic questions  o Same conclusion = answers are absolute freedom  

∙ Keys to Economic Growth  

o Laissez-faire economics:

∙ Market's invisible hand = competition

∙ Government non-intervention  

∙ Supply and demand  

o Division of Labor:  

∙ Specialization of labor force  

∙ Increase production  

∙ Routineization  

The Division of Labor  

∙ Pen making example  

o Each person has one specific task  

∙ Benefits  

o More efficient  

o Cheaper  

o Higher production  

o Not long apprenticeship = train workers more quickly

∙ Problems  

o Child labor  

o Harsh working conditions  

o Low safety standard  

o Quality of goods  

o People's attitudes about what they are doing  

The New Industrialized Urban Landscape: Tenements  

∙ Massive influx of workers  

∙ No sewers  

o Out the door/windows  

o Into water (consumed/exposed to)  

∙ No building checks = safety not checked  

∙ No trash collection = pests (rats) = disease  

o Air pollution  

∙ Fires for heat in rooms  

∙ Grim reality for people in cities  

∙ Diseases  

o Cholera, Tuberculosis, Smallpox, Typhoid Fever  

o Misinformation about how they spread  

∙ Spread by smells (poisonous cloud)  

∙ "The River Irwell is considerably less a river than a flood of liquid manure."  ∙ Life Expectancy (1850s)

o England = 40 years  

o Manchester = 25 years  

o Note: 17 in poorest neighborhoods

∙ Punch a clock  

∙ Productivity measured in units produced  

Gas Lighting and Urban Life  

∙ Can work through the night  

∙ Difficult schedule  

o Anything that happens is scheduled  

o Bells ring to let works know to change  

o 12 hour shifts (7-7)  

o Set times for lunch and breakfast

o Gates shut and lock once workers come in  

Women and Industry  

∙ Excited to work outside the home

o Created tension in family  

o New exposure to sexual freedoms/dangers  

∙ 1/2 - 1/3 of male wage earned  

o Justification is that male is real bread winner and any other money is  supplemental  

Children and Industry  

∙ Need for supplemental income  

∙ No public schools or daycares  

o Don’t know what to do with them

o Have no one to watch them so have to take them to work  ∙ Worked same hours as adults  

o Could be beaten as punishment  

∙ Hard physically and psychologically

o Rickets  

∙ Knees bow out  

∙ Not enough nutrition and rest  

∙ Skeletal disfigurement

∙ Thousands treated for wounds and accidents  

o Prone to accidents  

o Send in child to fix one small part = get hurt  

o No compensation if harmed

∙ "Walking the streets of Manchester is like living in the midst of the Army just  returned from a campaign" - German Tourist (1842)  

Mining

∙ Typically used males  

o Crushed by wagons  

o Lung Disease  

∙ No access to sunlight  

Michael Sadler (1780-1835)

∙ Forms a commission to investigate working conditions  

o Specifically with children and textile factories

∙ Sadler Commission (1832)

o Wants to evoke response from parliament  

o Interview about what life is like  

Child Labor Legislation  

∙ First labor worker protection in history  

∙ Neither abolished child labor outright  

o Just placed limits  

∙ Factory Act (1833)  

o Prohibited children under age 9  

∙ Limited hours working  

∙ 9-13 years old = 8 hours max  

∙ 14-18 years old = 12 hours max  

∙ Mine Act (1842)  

o Girls no longer used at all  

∙ Could harm their reproductive health  

o Boys under the age of 10 could not work  

∙ Problems  

o No oversight  

o Resistance to legislation because people really need the money  o Does not solve the problem of what to do with children during the day  

Nation Building in an Imperial Age  

The World's Holiday (May-October 1851)  

∙ Invite the world to see London first hand  

∙ Huge event = 6 million attend  

∙ First global exhibition  

∙ Want to celebrate and show world advancement in Great Britain

∙ Prince Albert and Queen Victoria  

∙ Unapologetic celebration of British might  

∙ No reference to social and economic problems  

∙ "This is Our Only Vacancy" (London, 1851)  

o Not a very nice place to stay considering the huge celebration  ∙ "This Way to the Great Exhibition" (London, 1851)  

o To many people climbing on top of one another to get on the exhibition  Sir Joseph Paxton (1801-1865)  

∙ Submitted a design for the perfect venue

∙ Celebration of Industrialization  

∙ Innovator in construction of greenhouse  

∙ Monumental greenhouse  

o Made entirely of industrial materials  

Assembly of Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London  

∙ 9 months  

∙ Largest single sheets of glass produced to date  

∙ Weight: 400 tons  

∙ Space: 33 million cubic feet  

∙ Area: 18 acres  

∙ 500 painters to paint interior  

∙ "A Temple Made of Glass"  

o Completely revolutionary  

o Centralized location in city  

o Single firm brought the parts  

o Coming to worship Industrialization/British Progress  

o People were charged an admission fee of $.59 per person

Opening Ceremony (May 1, 1851)  

∙ 1/2 million participants  

∙ Encased whole trees within the building  

∙ Reminding audience  

o Worthy of this celebration  

o Show their power  

Great Exhibition of all Nations  

∙ 15,000 exhibits  

∙ 100,000 objects  

∙ 1/2 of entire exhibit dedicated to Great Britain  

o Featured product is textiles

∙ Show they can industrially produce with great quality and color  The "Miracle" of Mechanization: Displaying Objects of Utility  ∙ Given a catalogue with descriptions of the machines  

∙ Focus on innovation and variety  

∙ Early prototype of Telegraph Machine  

∙ Early Mechanized Printing Press  

Foreign Exhibits  

∙ All others countries in the other half of the exhibit together ∙ France is largest foreign contributor  

∙ Countries from all around the world  

o What are the objects that they bring and what do they say about them  ∙ France  

o Show off by sending artistic production

∙ Textiles, paintings, porcelain

o Rich, cultural, aesthetic position

o World's largest mirror = meant to show what capable of  

∙ India  

∙ Textiles, clothing, jewelry, gigantic elephant statue  

o Rich cultural tradition  

∙ U.S.

o Agricultural machinery, sewing machine, huge eagle  

∙ Most popular = rifles/ samples of gold  

Machinery Room  

∙ The heart of the great exhibition  

∙ Machines ran the entire day  

∙ Most talked about and visited section  

∙ Queen Victoria's favorite  

o “Went to the machinery part, where we remained two hours, and which is  excessively interesting and instructive…What used to be

done by hand and used to take months doing is now accomplished in a few  instants by the most beautiful machinery…We saw hydraulic machines, pumps,  filtering machines of all kinds, machines for purifying sugar—in fact, every  conceivable invention."  

Reassembling the Crystal Palace

∙ A place rich in history  

∙ Disassembled and transported on the outskirts of south London ∙ Couldn’t have been done if it had been made with bricks  

∙ Destroyed by fire in 1936

∙ Plan to rebuild 2013  

Displays and Disparities: Industrialized Nations vs. Primary Producers  ∙ The haves and the have nots  

∙ England and then way on the other spectrum India  

∙ Shows how different they are  

∙ England gets cotton from India at low cost  

Colonial Questions?  

∙ Industrialized/Imperial Nation

o How acquire colonies? Via what means?

o How make them socially & politically stable so that can extract raw  goods?

o How justify this relationship of dependence? On what grounds? ∙ Primary Producers/Colony  

o What are the relative costs & benefits of colonial status?

o What is gained in that relationship?  

o What is lost in that relationship?

Macgregor Laird Quote  

∙ He had a lot to say about colonies and imperial relationships  ∙ These are his answers to the colonial questions  

∙ Great Britain has superior biological/ moral (bible)/ physical and mechanical  traits  

o Uniquely positioned to be an industrial Titan  

o Duty to bring the light of civilization to dark places  

∙ Dark places = not like Great Britain  

∙ Not industrial, white or Christian  

∙ Extremely racist

British Empire (Ca. 1914)  

∙ Controlled ~1/4 of the Earth's surface

∙ Jewel in British crown = India  

o Important imperial structure

o Geographic position = Indian Ocean trade routes  

o Link to textile production = lost cost cotton prices

London Headquarters of East India Company (EIC), ca. 1800  

∙ EIC chartered in 1600  

∙ Initially funded by wealthy British Investors  

∙ Located in capital city  

∙ Lucrative relationship with British crown

o Operate monopoly on trade in India in exchange for taxes on imports  o Taxes tea = 10% of their annual revenue  

∙ Eventually take control of bigger and bigger pieces of India  ∙ 1818 controlled territory in India with more people than in Western Europe  ∙ Lines between EIC as company and state start to blur  

o Have a flag  

Sepoy Rebellion  

∙ Protect acquisitions from Dutch and France  

∙ Even further protect  

o Own funded army 200,000 men called sepoys  

o 170 units  

o Used Indians as troops  

∙ Cheaper, less opposition, cultural problems

o Problematic = tension within units  

∙ Discontentment  

o Multiethnic (Muslims and Hindus)  

o Leadership positions weren't Indian = British  

∙ Second class status  

o 1857 they released new rifle cartridges into units  

∙ Tear open with teeth but greased in animal fat to keep waterproof  o Never becomes a revolution  

o Crown hears word = troubling  

∙ Worried about taxes  

∙ Vein of money could be severed  

British Raj (1858-1947)  

∙ Queen Victoria settles the rebellion  

∙ Takes ownership and becomes the Empress of India (1877)  ∙ Laid foundation for most important piece in British Empire

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