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BSCI105 Exam 1 Review

by: Jordan Kotler

BSCI105 Exam 1 Review Bsci105

Jordan Kotler

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Covers all notes from ch. 1-6 and lectures.
Intro to biological sciences
Dr. Alewall
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordan Kotler on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bsci105 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Alewall in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Intro to biological sciences in Biological Sciences at University of Maryland.

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Date Created: 02/14/16
BSCI105 Exam 1 Review  **This study guide does not guarantee any grades, but outlines all of chapters 1­6 as presented  through class lectures**  Ch. 1: Evolution, Biology, and Scientific Inquiry  ● Evolution­ the process of change over time  ● Levels of organization: molecule → organelle → cell → tissue → organ/organ systems  → organisms → populations → communities → ecosystems → biosphere  ● Emergent properties­ due to arrangement and interactions between parts as complexity  increases  ● Systems biology­ exploring system by viewing interactions between parts  ● Structure determines function!!!! ex. hummingbird wings, flat leaf vs bulky one  ● Eukaryotes: membrane­bound organelles, complex DNA, more complex cells  ● Prokaryotes: no membranes, no true nucleus, DNA is circular loop  ○ Bacteria and archaea  ● Chromosomes hold DNA and RNA in chromosomes (more about this in later chapters)  ● Producers make food from light, consumers eat it  ● Energy flows 1 way through; nutrients are cycled and recycled  ● Natural selection (understand the concepts)    Ch. 2: The Chemical Context of Life  ● Matter­ anything that takes up space and has mass  ● Element­ a substance that cannot be broken down anymore  ○ 92 elements; 25% are essential   ○ O, C, H, N make up 96% of living matter  ● Compound­ a substance consisting of 2+ elements in a fixed ratio  ● Trace elements­ required by an organism in only minute quantities  ● Atom­ the smallest unit of matter that has properties of the element  ○ Protons (+), neutrons (0), electrons (­)  ○ Protons and neutrons are in nucleus; electrons form cloud around it in shells  ■ P/N weigh 1.7x 10^­24 gram = 1 dalton, electrons  = 1/2000 of a dalton  ● atomic mass = # of protons (also the # of electrons (11 for each)  ● mass number = sum of protons + neutrons = 23  ● mass # ­ atomic # = number of neutrons = 23­11 = 12  ● Isotopes­ atom of a given element with a different number of  neutrons = weighs more or less than the regular atom  ○ Radioactive isotope­ less stable with a different number of  neutrons so it radioactively decays  ■ Half­life: time it takes to be ½ amount it started as  ■ Energy­ ability to do work  ● Potential energy­ energy the matter possesses due to its location  ○ Electrons have PE due to distance from nucleus  ● Electron shells: PE flows from least (closest to nucleus) to most (valence shells)  ○ Complete valence shell = stable and unreactive = inert  ● Electronegativity­ increases as you move up (valence shell is closer to nucleus) and left  to right (as # protons increases → positive charge)  ● More electronegative = more the atom pulls  shared electrons toward itself  ● Orbital­ 3D space where an electron is 90% of  the time  ○ First shell: 1s orbital  ○ 2nd shell: 2s, three 2p orbitals  ○ Each orbital holds 2 electrons  ● First shell (closest to nucleus) holds 2 electrons  ● Second shell holds up to 8 electrons (4 orbitals)  ● Chemical bonds­ attractions between atoms  ● Covalent­ strong; sharing of valence electrons  ● Ionic­ strong; 2 oppositely­charged atoms → the more charged atom takes electron(s)  from less­charged atom  ○ Positive charge = cation  ○ Negative charge = anion  ○ Make ionic compounds aka SALTS  ■ ex. Na+Cl­  ● Molecule­ 2+ atoms held together by a bond  ● Weak bonds  ○ Hydrogen: between H and an electronegative atom; sharing of electrons  ○ van der Waals interactions: ever­changing regions of +/­ charge that help atoms  to stick together  ● Molecular shape determines function (form = function)  ● Chemical reactions: making and breaking of chemical bonds  ○ Reactant + reactant → products  ■ ex. 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O  ■ Reactions are reversible!!   ○ Chemical equilibrium­ forwards and reverse rxn occur at the same rate; no effect  on net concentrations of reactants/products    Ch. 3: Water and Life  ● Polar: partial charge  ● Polar covalent bond: valence electrons are shared due to uneven bond    ● Properties of water  ○ Cohesion­ bonding to other water molecules due to hydrogen bonding  ○ Adhesion­ bonding to other molecules via hydrogen bonds b/w cell walls  ○ Surface tension­ difficult to breaking surface  ○ High specific heat­ hard to change the temperature of water  ○ High heat of vaporization­ high heat required for vaporization  ○ Universal solvent­ due to versatile feature due to polarity of water  ● Solution­ homogenous mix of 2+ substances  ● Solvent­ the dissolving agent  ● Solute­ the dissolved substance  ● Hydration shell­ H2O molecules that surround solute ions  ○ When NaCl is added to water, it splits into Na & Cl surrounded by water mol.  ● Acids: release protons (+), accept H+ ions, pH < 7   ● Bases: absorb protons (+), reduce hydrogen ion concentration, pH between 7 and 14  ● Hydrophobic­ repels water due to nonionic, nonpolar bonds; cannot form hydrogen  bonds (ex. oil)  ● Hydrophilic­ attracts water (ex. cotton → water adheres to cellulose fibers of cotton)  ● Buffers­ minimizes change by accepting or donating H+ if it is in excess or too little of it    Ch. 4 Carbon and the Diversity of Life    ● Carbon has 4 valence electrons and can form 4 covalent bonds  ● Usually bonds with H, N, or O  ● Ex. Methane: 1 carbon, 4 single bonds with 4 hydrogens      ● 4 structures of carbon skeletons:   ○ Length: could be a chain of 2 carbons or 4 or 8 etc  ○ Branching: carbons could be in a straight chain, a “T” shape, etc.   ○ Double bond position: could be C = C ­ C or C ­ C = C  ○ Rings: could form a ring of carbons (double or single bonds)  ● Isomers­ compounds with the same number of atoms of same elements but different  structures and properties  ○ Structural: differ in covalent arrangements                    ○ Cis­trans: differ in spatial arrangements  due to flexible bonds        ○ Enantiomers: isomers that are mirror images,  differ in shape due to asymmetrical carbon      ● Functional groups: chemical groups involved in rxns  ○ Hydroxyl  ○ Carbonyl  ○ Carboxyl  ○ Amino  ○ Sulfhydryl  ○ Phosphate  ○ Methyl    Group  Info  Example  Hydroxyl (­OH)  Polar, forms hydrogen bonds  Ethanol  with water    Carbonyl ( C=O)  Ketone (carbonyl within  Ketone (acetone)/aldehyde  skeleton) or aldehyde  (propanol)  (outside)  (O=C in  center makes  it a ketone)   Carboxyl (­COOH)  Acts as acid and donates H+  Acetic acid  bc of polar bond b/w O & H  (the C = O and C­O­H)      Amino (­NH2)  Acts as base, accepts H+    Sulfhydryl (­SH/­HS)  Thiol, 2 SH groups can react  and form a crosslink    Phosphate (­OPO3, ­ charge)  Charge = ­1 inside phosphate  chain, ­2 on end of chain    Methyl (­CH3)  Affects gene expression  when bound to DNA, affects  shape/function of sex  hormones      Ch. 5: Macromolecules  ● Definition: big molecules; include lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids      Carbohydrates  Lipids­​ mix poorly if at all w/H2O  Sugar like mono & polysaccharides  Made of glycerol (alcohol with 3 carbons) +  Monomers connected by g ​ lycosidic linkage​  fatty acid (carboxyl group + carbon chain)  connected through dehydration rxn (H20  Joined by e​ster linkages  removed) /separated by hydrolysis (H2O  Saturated fats: solid at room temperature,  added)  straight single bonds, pack together tightly  Monomer is monosaccharide; polymer is  Unsaturated fats: liquid at room temperature,  polysaccharide  double bonds allow kinks = movement  Make carbonyl and hydroxyl groups  Phospholipids: hydrophilic (phosphate)  Size of carbon skeleton differs  head/hydrophobic tail (2 fatty acids)  Spatial arrangement around asymmetric    carbons differ    Energy carbs:  glycogen  Structural carbs:  cellulose, chitin    Proteins  Nucleic Acids  Monomer: amino acids   Monomer: deoxyribose or ribose  AA → polypeptide → protein (folded polypep)  Polymer: polynucleotides  Primary​ structure: sequence of AA in  Nucleic acids linked by​hosphodiester  polypeptide; peptide bonds  linkage­ phosphate links to nitrogen base  Secondary​ : Regular, repeated coiling/folding Made of nitrogen base + pentose +  of polypep chain; alpha/beta helices;  phosphate group   hydrogen bonds b/w carbonyl + amino groups  DNA: makes RNA: makes proteins  Tertiary: 3D, irregular folding; noncovalent  Purine: 6­ring carbon/nitrogen fused with  bonds between R groups  5­ring; larger, adenine/guanine  Structure determines function  Pyrimidine: Smaller, 6­ring carbon of C/N,  Flexible, small, in constant motion  cytosine/thymine/uracil  Folding: chaperonin (promote correct folding),  5’/3’ end cause antiparallel arrangement; 3’  prion (misfolded protein, can cause other  had hydroxyl group and 3­carbon; 5’ has  misfolded protein)  phosphate and 5­carbon        Ch. 6: A Tour of the Cell  ● Ways to observe cells  ○ Light microscope: can’t always see cells  ○ Electron microscope: can see some specimens  ○ Scanning EM: study of the entire cell surface  ○ Transmission EM: studies internal structure of cells  ○ Cell fractionation: takes cells apart to identify individual organelle function    Prokaryotes  Both  Eukaryotes  Ex: bacteria and archaea  Cytosol  DNA in nucleus; is a double  DNA in nucleoid, which has no  Chromosomes  helix  membrane  Ribosomes  Nucleus and organelles are  Cytoplasm holds organelles  Plasma membrane  membrane­bound  Organelles are not membrane  Tend to be bigger than  bound  prokaryotic cells; multicellular  DNA is circular, only 1 (plasmid)  Animals, plants    ● Size influences function  ● As size increases, volume and surface area also increase  ● Volume grows faster than surface area  ● Larger organisms have more cells, NOT bigger cells    Organelle  Where?  Function  Nucleus  Eukaryotes  Holds genes  Nuclear envelope  Eukaryotes  Separates contents of nucleus from rest of cell  DNA  Pro/euk  Made of chromosomes, carry genetic information  Nucleolus  Eukaryotes  Where DNA makes RNA  Ribosomes  Both  Made of RNA + protein, bound to ER or free in cytosol  Endomembrane system  Eukaryotes  Synthesis/transport of proteins, movement of lipids,  detoxification of poisons  Endoplasmic reticulum  Eukaryotes  Smooth​ : no ribosomes, make lipids like sex    hormones, metabolize carbs, detoxify alcohol, store  ● Rough has  calcium ions  ribosomes, smooth  Rough:  wraps secretory proteins in transport vesicles  does not  (often glycoproteins), makes membranes and  phospholipids  Golgi apparatus  Eukaryotes  Shipping and receiving center: made of stacks of  cisternae (flattened membranous stacks)  Cis side: near ER, receiving side  Trans side: sending side, forms vesicles from it  Lysosomes  Eukaryotes  Membranous sac of hydrolytic enxymes, need acidic  environment, function is intercellular digestion  (phagocytosis), renews itself  Vacuoles  Eukaryotes  Membrane­bound vesicles  Food vac: lysosomes in it digest food  Contractile: pumps excess water out of cel  Central: plant cells, holds excess compounds  Mitochondria  Animal cells  Where cellular respiration occurs; has 2 membranes  that are both phospholipid bilyars and has some DNA;  ATP made here  Inner layer is folded and called cristae  Chloroplasts  Plant cells  2 membranes, has stacks of thylakoids (full of stoma  fluid with DNA and ribosomes) called granum  Where photosynthesis occurs  Peroxisomes  Eukaryotes  Transfer H to O and create H2O2; break down fatty  acids, detoxify alochol and other poisons  Cytoskeleton:  Both  Support, motility, regulation  Microtubules (part of CS)  Pro and eu  Made of tubulin dimers; shape and support  Grow from centrosomes, make flagella and cilia  Microfilaments (part of CS)  Pro and eu  Made of actin fibers, bear tension to support shape,  myosin proteins for motility  Intermediate filaments (CS)  Pro and eu  Shape and position of cells, hold nucleus in place ex.  keratin  Cell wall  Plant cells  Protection, shape, regulates water uptake  Extracellular matrix  Animal cells  Made of glycoproteins, like collagen, fibronectin, or  integrins  Middle lamella  Animal cells  Layer of sticky polysaccharides between animal cells  Plasmodesmata  Plant cells  Channels between cell walls  Intercellular junctions  Plant and  Animal: tight junction, desmosome, gap junction  animal   


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