PSCI 2054 Exam 1 Study Guide
PSCI 2054 Exam 1 Study Guide PSCI 2054
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eric Arkfeld on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSCI 2054 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Thomas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Introduction to World Politics in Political Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
1. Theory a. a kind of simplifying device that allows you to decide which facts matter and which do not b. tied to notion of exclusionary principles c. set of assumptions 2. International Relations a. Interactions BETWEEN and AMONG states trade, diplomacy, conflict b. a state centered world c. Sovereignty: “there is no actor above the state that can compel it to act in specific ways” (aylis, Smith, Owens ) i. wrote a book on globalization d. Legitimacy i. Internal the people of the state believe that the government is doing what it is supposed to do ii. External recognition by foreign states that the state is indeed sovereign and its own nation 3. World Politics a. Issues that play out on the world stage b. Role of non state actors i. NGO’s can provoke or prevent conflict c. Links back to international relations d. A pretty meaningless term tbh 4. Globalization a. Transnationalism i. due to the higher connectivity between people around the world, people are linked across national borders, economic and social classes b. Interdependence c. Supranationality d. Subnationalism e. Hyperglobists vs. Skeptics i. perspective where economies are becoming denationalized ii. people are being connected so much to where nationalism doesn’t exist f. Overstated? 5. Before there were states a. states and nations are relatively new political inventions b. there is no international system before there are states c. for most of human history, people lived in primordial kinship (Family) communities 6. Primordial Communities a. Small groups of people linked by familial ties of blood and marriage b. legitimacy derives from common ancestry c. governed by patrimonial rule d. confront resource scarcity e. focused on intergenerational survival f. disciplined by honor and shame in order to carefully control and husband resources 7. Transformation a. What Changed? i. The first agricultural revolution challenged kinship legitimacy and discipline ii. food surpluses led to the establishment of river valley civilizations and early empires iii. societies of strangers linked to destiny but not by blood required new forms of governance and legitimacy to resolve conflict, defend territory, manage resources, and extract taxes/conscription (military) iv. Dynastic rule perpetuated the rule of blood but in the name of dominant blood lines 8. Dynastic Rule a. Emperors, feudal lords, and monarchs each represent a form of dynastic rule over increasingly complex societies of strangers b. this transformation takes thousands of years, most of history 9. Dual Legitimacy a. In europe (state builders) faced a series of power struggles i. first between the monarchy and the nobles 1. France vs. Britain ii. and between the monarchy and the pope 1. Petrine Doctrine 2. French Revolution 10. Emergence of States a. the second agricultural revolution led to the rise of sovereign states across europe i. classical monarchs became unable to extract and rule in the name of blood ii. legitimacy attached of the consent of the governed rather than the blood of the governor b. paralleled by the rise of imagined political communities bound by culture, language, religion, and or history 11. States, Nations, etc. a. States: territories endowed with sovereignty and legal status in the international community to grant citizenship and govern b. Nations imagined community of people who believe they belong together and that they have the right to be ruled by a government legitimated by their consent i. idea of Locke c. NationState: a nation governed by a sovereign state d. Nationless States i. Sovereign States consisting of a populous that does not adhere to a similar history, religion, culture, language, etc. e. Stateless Nations i. groups of people that identify together as a nation but lack territory and sovereignty ii. example would be the kurdish people 12. International Society a. Exists when a group of states, conscious of certain common interests and common values, form a society in the sense that they conceive themselves to be bound by a common set of rules in their relations with one another, and share in the working of common institutions (Bull) i. sovereignty ii. nonintervention iii. external legitimacy 13. Treaties of westphalia a. a series of treaties marked the end of the 30 years war in the Holy roman empire and the 80 years war between spain and the dutch republic i. initiated a new period in political history that would be based upon the supremacy of sovereign states ii. included some religious freedoms and early recognition of citizenship 14. Napoleonic Wars (18031815) a. An extension of the french revolution b. first use of conscription based on nationalism c. defeat after rebellion in haiti and invasion of Russia d. Led to collapse of the spanish empire in the new world (french occupation of spain) e. dissolved the holy roman empire 15. Peace of Vienna a. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the leaders of Europe met at the congress of vienna to reestablish order across europe i. this initiated the age of metternich 1. was a 100 year period during which relative peace across Europe emerged due to the Great Powers System 2. France, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austria maintained peace through diplomacy, balance of power, and luck 16. Prussia and Bismarck a. Prussia sought to unite “Germany” b. Leadership of Bismarck c. AustroPrussian War (1866) d. FrancoPrussian War (18701871) e. German Unification (1871) 17. End of the Age of Metternich a. WWI marked the end of the Age of Metternich i. The causes and consequences of this conflict would shape the international system and the dynamics of international relations for the 20th century 18. WWI a. Total war primarily among European powers b. Many Causes i. nationalism ii. arms races iii. imperialism iv. alliances v. industrialization vi. military planning vii. failure of diplomacy viii. led to the destruction of the remaining european empires and the establishment of sovereign states throughout europe 19. Peace of Versailles a. Not based on President Wilson’s 14 points b. designed to cripple germany to prevent the outbreak of future war c. War Guilt Clause d. Reparations i. fees that Germany had to repay for starting the war e. Lost Territory (AlsaceLorraine) i. where germany got all of their steel and coal (their main resouces) f. Strict military limitations g. fueled german motivations throughout the interwar period and going into WWII h. Established the League of Nations i. a very weak institution with little power or influence 20. The interwar period a. Economic Boom followed by bust b. isolationism of the US c. Rise of Hitler and fascism in Europe 21. Appeasement a. “Only makes the aggressor more aggressive” b. to stall the outbreak of war and give themselves more time to prepare, France and Great Britain gave into some of Germany’s early demands i. annexation of Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia ii. Anschluss with Austria iii. Remilitarization c. Outbreak of War 22. WWII a. Early wins by the Nazis b. Invasion of the USSR c. Pearl Harbor and American Involvement d. Use of the atomic bomb 23. End of WWII a. At the end of WWII, the Allies were determined not to repeat the mistakes of 1918 b. this focus would shape the the next phase in international history i. often associated with the Cold War ii. also associated with the end of colonialism, the establishment of what would become the European Union (EU), and the Emergence of the United Nations 24. Imperialism a. European states emerged organically alongside nations over a period of several hundred years b. throughout much of the rest of the world states as a political form were imposed upon primordial peoples through colonialism (linkage to the creation of the israeli state) c. Many problems that emerged in the post WWII period (Particularly Africa) can be attributed to imperialism and its impacts on these peoples d. in the aftermath of WWII, these colonies transitioned to independent rule 25. Why the Cold War a. Ideological difference and fundamental distrust between the soviet union and the west b. US aid to counterrevolutionaries during the Russian Civil War (19171923) c. WWII: “the enemy of my enemy is my friend” d. commitment to self determination vs vision of worldwide socialism e. 1946 crisis in Iran f. The Bomb (Atomic) 26. Role of the Nuclear Bomb a. Atomic weapons fundamentally change the way the world looks at war i. WWII was defined by the bombardment but Little Boy and Fat Man created the possibilities of WWII of annihilation rather than attrition 27. Deterrence a. The soviets realized that deterrence was the only thing that could check the US nuclear monopoly i. Three C’s of Deterrence 1. Communication 2. Capability 3. Credibility 28. The Arms Race and MAD a. Problem: one bomb is destabilizing (use it or lose itgives both sides the incentive to strike early) i. many nuclear weapons are stabilizing ii. the harder a nuclear arsenal is to destroy, the more stabilizing it becomes due to Mutually assured destruction iii. You NEED a second strike capability to have a nuclear deterrent iv. this leads to a nuclear arms race, hair trigger alert, and the development of the nuclear triad 29. The triad and targets a. Nuclear Triad i. Bombs ii. Land Based Missiles iii. Submarine Missiles b. First strike targets i. nuclear military and command targets 1. decapitation strike: completely destroys nuclear arsenal and military/civilian leadership c. Second strike targets i. cities, population centers, infrastructure d. Third strike targets i. long term infrastructure and military capability 30. The iron curtain a. in the aftermath of WWII and the onset of the cold war, the soviet union sought to acquire a buffer zone in eastern europe i. at the same time, germany and berlin were divided among the allies to prevent a resurgence of hostilities 31. Alliances a. Europe became divided into East and West i. Western Europe became allied with the US and comprised the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 1. Importance of Article 5 An act on one is an act on all ii. Eastern Europe became allied with the Soviet Union and comprised the Warsaw Pact 1. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd worlds 32. Crises a. the cold war didn’t end with the destruction of all life on the planet but that wasn’t for a lack of trying on the part of all parties involved b. The Berlin Crises i. Berlin became the flashpoint of the Cold War 1. West Berlin was a NATO enclave deep inside the warsaw Pact ii. 1st Crisis (19481949) 1. soviets cut off NATO access to west berlin 2. Berlin airlift solved it iii. 2nd Crisis (1961) 1. Soviets cut off NATO access to west berlin again 2. kennedy runs the blockade 3. the construction of the Berlin Wall resulted c. Cuban Missile Crisis i. in 1961, the US placed Jupiter Missiles in Turkey 1. IRBMs capable of hitting moscow ii. USSR responded with missiles in cuba iii. The US discovers the missiles while they are being discovered iv. for the next 13 days, the US and USSR face off this was the most dangerous moment of the Cold War v. Solution: Quarantine of Cuba and back channel diplomatic negotiations to trade missiles in turkey for those in cuba d. Emergence of Detente i. the realization that both military powers were actively subverting the diplomatic process 1. the installation of the red telephone system to foster direct communication between the leaders of the US and USSR 2. as a consequence, the leaders of the US and USSR committed to detente a diplomatic approach to avoid war 33. Proxy Wars a. The Cold war got hot in a series of proxy wars i. Korean War 1. US vs USSR and China ii. Vietnam 1. US vs China iii. Afghanistan 1. US vs USSR iv. Latin America 1. US vs USSR supported forces b. Containment i. Proxy wars were based on the idea that soviet socialism had to expand or die (based on Kennan and the X telegram) ii. influenced the truman doctrine and containment (in actuality it was based on the X telegram) c. Rapprochement i. Detente brought an end to active hostilities and belligerence between the US and USSR 1. in the late 1970s and throughout the 80s we shifted towards rapprochement active cooperation between the US and USSR a. Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (SALT and SALT II) 2. Also refers to the mending of USChinese relations after 1972 34. End of the Cold War a. Two Schools of thought i. the US’s rhetoric and spending drove the USSR into an economic death spiral which fostered counterrevolutionary movements throughout the USSR and 2nd world ii. the USSR had been in a death spiral for decades the collapse was primarily caused by Gorbachev’s policies of glasnost and perestroika b. Berlin wall comes down in 1989 c. USSR collapses on December 25, 1991 and with that ends the cold war i. Hell of a christmas gift 35. Post War Predicament a. Europe was decimated by WWII i. Industrial capacities ii. Infrastructure iii. Cities and population centers iv. european economies were too small to promote competitive economic growth v. european states didn’t trust each other vi. USSR threat made cooperation necessary 36. WWII aftermath a. Recognition of the mistakes of the Interwar Period and the Treaty of Versailles b. western commitment to self determination and sovereign equality but also to new institutions, frameworks, and approaches to international relations i. partially captured by the UN ii. underpinned commitments at Nuremberg iii. Framed decolonization efforts iv. exemplified in the formation of a new united europe 37. Post War Vision a. US general George Marshall was a student of Former president Wilson i. Both committed to an IR perspective called functionalism ii. understood that a united Europe was in the interest of both European countries and the US iii. Proposed the European Recovery Plan (Marshall PLan) to rebuild European Economies 1. funds came with a catch 38. Marshall Plan a. the marshall plan represented a program of massive economic aid to european countries i. provided 12 billion in US public funds for a reconstruction of Europe through outright public grants rather than private sector loans ii. distinct from the Dawes plan at the end of WWI in both theory and impact b. The Catch i. US would supply funds to rebuild but Europe had to establish a system of institutionalized international economic and political cooperation to prevent the outbreak of another war 1. resonated with two European Leaders, Jean Monnet and Robert Schumann, who both had a similar vision for post war europe and who saw the potential for history to repeat itself c. European coal and Steel i. in response to rising tensions between france and germany, monnet proposed the creation of a European Coal and Steel Community that would combine coal and steel resources of member countries under the authority of a public cooperation 1. Coal and Steel because they were the main sources of infrastructure and power generation at the time ii. Established by the Treaty of Paris (1952) with six members: France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands d. Voluntary Surrender of Sovereignty i. Participants in the ECSC voluntarily relinquished a degree of national sovereignty, first in terms of the right to wage war and later in terms of citizenship, currence, immigration, and other policies 1. ECSC was so successful economically, politically, and socially that member states became willing to deepen the union and accept new members 39. European Economic Community a. Treaty of Rome (1957) established the European Economic Community i. Freedom of movement for goods, people, capital, and services ii. established common internal and external policies iii. encouraged deeper cooperation and integration iv. Survived the 1979 C assis de Dijondebacle leading a push for a single market in 1992 40. Impact of the end of the cold war on EEC a. When berlin wall collapsed, members of the EC wanted to ensure that Germany would remain committed to the Community and not become distracted by the events in Eastern Europe b. the Maastricht Treaty (1992) was designed to hold Germany to the European Union and to create structures to incorporate Eastern Europe over time 41. Since 1991 a. EU has accomplished an awesome amount i. Lasting peace between france and germany ii. common currency for europe iii. european government iv. voluntary surrender of national sovereignty to a supranational set of institutions v. expansion into eastern europe vi. BUT! since 1992, integration has slowed down 1. failure of the European Constitution in 2007 2. Limited nature of the treaty of Lisbon 42. TIME LINE!!!!!!!! 43. Theory a. kind of simplifying device that allows you to decide which facts matter and which do not i. tied to notion of exclusionary principles ii. a lense, a framework, a perspective, a set of assumptions, a worldview b. very different than the theories in natural sciences 44. Roy’s Rules a. Whoever has the guns and the guts to use them makes the rules b. there is no exception to rule number 1 45. Foundations of Realism a. StateCentric perspective on IR (statism) b. Power = Military (not economic or diplomatic) c. Power is a zero sum game d. sovereignty is absolute e. competition among states f. peace through strength g. hostile international system h. security seeking behaviors (survival) i. anarchic international system (self help) j. states are unitary actors 46. Classical realist assumptions a. State behaviors are a reflection of human nature i. competition, fear, war, aggression, ambition, self interest, etc. ii. biological drive for survival and dominance iii. states can trust each other only to act in their self interest, never to fulfill obligations to the contrary 47. Raisan de’etat a. the reason of the state i. fundamental principle of international conduct from the realist perspective is the survival of the state 1. the state must pursue power ii. leaders must rationally implement the steps necessary to perpetuate the life of the state in the hostile and threatening international environment 48. The role of ethics a. realists reject universal or moral principles i. states should never sacrifice their own interest in order to adhere to “ethical conduct” ii. states should distance themselves from traditional moral values and focus instead on political necessity iii. dual moral standard one standard for the citizens within a state, a different standard for the state in its international relations 49. States and billiard balls a. according to realist assumptions, states act as unitary actors in international relations i. this is often called the billiard ball theory of IR 1. states are all the same in form and function though not in power ii. realist argue that it is not necessary to study the internal politics of states since their international relations are determined by the pressures of anarchy 1. internal and external politics are seen as completely separate 50. the Strength of realism a. when states act according to realist assumptions they act in predictable ways b. game theory become a way of predicting the behaviors of sovereign states in the international system c. borrowed from economics, this strategy becomes about selfmaximization and rational choice 51. Prisoner’s Dilemma a. states acting in their rational self interest always defect i. explains the arms race during the cold war and the rationality of mutually assured destruction ii. also explains why realists are dubious of treaties such as the non proliferation treaty, the strategic arms reduction treaties, etc. b. it is in the best interest of the state to agree to the treaty but then to defect on the promise. Every time 52. Weakness of Realism a. realism’s strength is its ability to explain war and conflict i. realism is reductionist and thus cannot effectively explain cooperation, integration, and many of the elements associated with globalization (transnationalism) b. realist assumptions stand in opposition to the kinds of interdependence that have come to dominate the international system
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