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UM / Psychology / PSY 370 / What is coitus?

What is coitus?

What is coitus?


School: University of Miami
Department: Psychology
Course: Human Sexual Behavior
Professor: Franklin foote
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: psy, PSY 370, PSY370, Foote, university of miami, umiami, and Human Sexual behavior
Cost: 50
Name: PSY 370 - Exam #1 Study Guide
Description: Completed study guide questions covering everything you need to know. Additional practice questions at the end.
Uploaded: 02/15/2016
18 Pages 18 Views 20 Unlocks

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PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide

What is coitus?

Exam #1 Study Guide

1 - Introduction: Sexuality in Perspective  

  1.  Defini)ons of coitus, gender, rape, sex, sexual behavior, and sexuality  

Coitus - Penis-Vaginal intercourse  

Gender - Person's sense of being female or male  

Sex - Refers to sexual/reproduc:ve anatomy  

Rape - Genital ac:vity WITHOUT consent of one of the individuals involved  

Sexual Behavior - Refers to what sexual/reproduc:ve anatomy produces or is intended to produce  

Sexuality - PaFerns of sexual behavior, beliefs, aHtudes, emo:ons, & fantasies  

  2.  Sexual aBtudes and prac)ces of Victorians, Puritans, Muslims, and ancient Greeks  

Sexual behavior refers to what?

We also discuss several other topics like What is the boston tea party?

Ancient Greeks  

- Openly acknowledged hetero & homo-sexuality 

- Explained gender through mythology 

- Gods were some:mes created as double bodies, some female-male, male-male, or female-female - Heterosexuals thought to have resulted from spliHng female-male bodies & thus searching for their missing halves - Same for homosexuals but spliHng of male-male or female-female  Don't forget about the age old question of unlotted


- Believed sexual intercourse to be one of the finest pleasures of life 

- Laws of the Koran carried out differently across countries  We also discuss several other topics like What competes with the substrate for enzyme binding?

Rise of Chris)anity  

What is sexuality?

- Chris:ans didn't like Romans & tried to differ culturally as much as possible 

- Romans very sexually promiscuous 

- Chris:ans emphasized condemna:on of pre-marital sex even more than Judaism 

- Catholicism rose, became more organized, more restric:ons developed 

- Prohibited extra-marital sex 

- Only permiFed marital sex for the purpose of reproduc:on 

- Condemned pleasure from sex  

Protestant Reforma)on  

- PermiFed pleasure of sex within marriage 

- Had a lot of marital sex 

- At least 60% of brides pregnant by marriage  

19th Century/Victorian Thought  

- Belief that men had to have sex or they'd go nuts & create mayhem 

- Kept mistresses, paid pros:tutes, molested children 

- Women hated sex 

- Saw sex as civic duty to control men If you want to learn more check out hisn-001

- Devoted to rearing children/raising families 

- Many parents performed excision on their daughters (cuHng off clitoral glands) We also discuss several other topics like mgt 315

- Doctors saw proxism/handjobs as treatment for hysterical women  

  2.  What is true about sexual aBtudes and behavior across cultures?  

All socie)es have:  

- Strong sexual norms, but the exact norms vary greatly 

- Incest taboos are almost universal 

- Adult exposure of genitals is taboo especially for women 

- Fairly similar ra:o of heterosexual & homosexual ppl across socie:es We also discuss several other topics like chem 252

- Generally similar expressions of jealousy  

  Socie)es respond differently to:  

- Kissing 

- Inflic:ng pain 

- Masturba:on 


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide

- Premarital sex 

- Extramarital sex 

- Sex with same-gendered partners 

- Sexuality prac:ce varies by social class  

  3.  Major differences and similari)es in sexual behavior between species including how they compare to humans.  What  species has sex for emo)onal bonding more frequently than humans?

Most sexual behavior found in humans is found in other mammals

- Humans are unique: 

- Less hormonally controlled 

- Less ins:nctual 

- Generally more used for emo:onal bonding & pleasure  

  4.  For what are Anthony Comstock, and Margret Sanger famous?  

  Comstock Laws: Mail worker Anthony Comstock went to US congress to make pornographic mail illegal  - Resul:ng laws prohibi:ng discussion about sex or contracep:on 

- Applied to doctors 

- Lots of unwanted pregnancies  

  Nurse Margaret Sanger distributed condoms & info on safe sex

- Illegally imported condoms from Canada & Europe 

- Founder of planned parenthood  

  5.  What is the major contribu)on to sexuality by Sigmund Freud and by Henry Havelock Ellis?  Sigmund Freud  

- Major advances in psychological aspects of human sexuality 

- Brought sex to the aFen:on of the general public 

- Suggested sex as a topic for scien:fic research 

- Saw sex as one of the key forces in human life 

- Discussed erogenous zones (areas sensi:ve to s:mula:on/pleasure) 

- Stages of psychosexual behavior in children  

  Henry Havelock  

- Forerunner of modern sex research 

- Medical & anthropological findings 

- Case histories published 

- Believed women to be sexual creatures too 

- Urged society to accept "deviously" viewed behavior as normal  

  6.  What caused and what ended the two American sexual revolu)ons?  About when did they occur?  First American Sexual Revolu)on

- 1920s  

- Work of Freud 

- New technologies 

- Women obtaining right to vote - more empowered women, more openly sexual ideas 

- Sex before marriage (but s:ll Comstock Laws) 

- Stopped by the Great Depression  

Second American Sexual Revolu)on

- Mid - Late 60s into the 70s 

- Inven:on of birth control pills 

- Work of Masters & Johnson research/book on Human Sexual Response 

- Playboy 

- General disregard of authority 

- Stopped more or less by disillusionment, herpes & AIDS (early 80s)  


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide 2 - Sexual Anatomy  

  1.  Recognize from verbal descrip)on or from diagrams the: areola, Bartholin gland, breast, cervix, clitoral crura, clitoral  glans, clitoral prepuce, clitoral sha^, endometrium, fallopian tube, fimbriae, G-spot, inner labia, outer labia, mons,  nipple, ovary, perineum, pubococcygeus muscle, Skene's gland, vagina, vaginal introitus, ves)bular bulbs, vulva;  ||  corona, corpus cavernosum, corpus spongiosum, Cowper's gland, epididymis, frenulum, inguinal canal, inters))al cells  (aka Leydig's cells), penile glans, penile prepuce, penile sha^, prostate gland, scrotum, seminal vesicle, seminiferous  tubules, sperma)c cord, tes)s, vas deferens  

  2.  Know the sexual sensi)vity and func)on of the above.  

  Male External Organs

- Penis 

- Prepuce 

• Foreskin

- Glans 

• Penis head

• More sexually sensi:ve than shaj

- Corona 

• Rim around the head

• Corona & glans most sexually sensi:ve

- Frenulum 

• Bit of skin btwn corona & shaj

• Most sensi:ve tac:le region of male body  

- Shaj 

• Main length of penis

• BoFom more sensi:ve than the top

• Peron's Disease - penis curves so much it pains the man or makes it impossible to enter a vagina  

- Scrotum or scrotal sac 

• Pouch holding testes

- Perineum 

• Skin between scrotum & anus

  Male Sexual & Reproduc)ve Organs

- Crura 

• Con:nua:on of penis into the body, about half as long as the erec:on

- Epididymis 

• Where sperm are stored

• Ejaculates into vas deferens tube

- Vas Deferens 

• Tube through which sperm travel from epididymis

- Corpus Cavernosum  

• Fill with blood during erec:ons

- Corpus Spongiosum 

• Tube connec:ng to urethra

- Seminiferous Tubes 

• Manufacture & store sperm (spermatogenesis)

- Seminal vesicle 

• Make about 2/3rds of the semen a man ejaculates

- Prostate gland 

• Produces other 1/3rd semen

- Cowper's gland 

• Releases lubricant

• Neutralizes acids in the urethra to preserve sperm

- Sperma:c cord 

• Tube of veins, arteries, nerve, & vas deference tube connec:ng testes to body


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide

- Testes 

• Reproduc:ve glands

• Manufacture sperm & sex hormones (testosterone)

- Cremateric muscles 

• Muscle pulling testes up & down

• Keeps temperature maintained in testes  

Female External Organs

- Collec:vely known as the vulva 

- Clitoris (connec:ng point of inner labia) 

• S:mulates pleasure

• 4-5 inches long

• Glans (:ny buFon within clitoris)

• Has shaj, crura, etc.

• Ves:bular bulbs

• Crura

- Ves:bular tubes 

• Erec:le :ssue, lie close to the crura of the clitoris

• Curve around vaginal walls

• S:mulated by vaginal contact

- Skene's gland 

• G-Spot

• 1/3 to 2/3 of women have one

• Female prostate

• Btwn wall of urethra & wall of vagina

• Can ejaculate

• Especially ero:cally sensi:ve (varies considerably)

- Clitoral hood/prepuce 

- Mons pubis 

- Outer labia (outermost lips)  

- Inner labia (pink :ssuey lips) 

- Ves:bule/Bartholin gland (area btwn outer & inner  


- Urethral meatus (urina:on area) 

- FourcheFe (boFom of vaginal opening)  

- Perineum 

• Skin btwn vaginal opening & anus

- Pubococcygeus muscle 

• Pelvic floor muscle surrounding the vaginal  


  Female External Parts

- Breast 

• Contain mammary glands

• Human females are the only animals with enlarged breasts before pregnancy

- Signifies fer:lity 

- Helps humans visually dis:nguish females from males 

• Areola

- Dark area surrounding nipple 

- Almost as sensi:ve as the nipple 

• Nipples

- More sensi:ve than the rest of the breast 

- Where milk ducts open 

- Supplies nerve endings 

- Ero:cally s:mulated  

Female Internal Organs


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide

- Vagina 

• The tube-shaped organ in the female into which the penis is inserted during coitus and through which a baby  passes during birth

• Internal walls not typically separated unless in labor or sexually aroused

• Vaginal length ~3 inches

- Hymen 

• Thin membrane par:ally covering vaginal opening

• All look different, can tear from coitus, tampons, sports, etc.

• Can some:mes remain intact even ajer coitus  

- Introitus 

• Vaginal opening

- Cervix 

• Entrance to uterus

- Uterus 

• Size/shape of upside down pear

- Endometrium 

• Inner layer of the uterus

• Comes out during menstrua:on

- Fallopian tubes 

• Extend from the upper sides of uterus

• Oviducts/egg ducts

• Pathway by which egg travels toward uterus & sperm reaches egg

- Ovary 

• Produces eggs

• Manufacture sex hormones estrogen & progesterone

- G-spot (1/3 to 2/3 of women have one) (varies in loca:on & sensi:vity) 

- Fimbriae 

• Create a current to guide the ovary into the fallopian tube

- Female Gametes 

• Follicle protects oocytes  

- Oocyte ~400 (women are born with all of them) 

• Ovum

- Mature oocyte  

  3.  Generally, how o^en should women douche?  


  4.  What causes erec)ons: both in the general sense and specific mechanisms?  

- Generally: Sexual aFrac:on / anything 

- Specifically: Blood flow to the penis  

  5.  What part of the nervous system maintains the penis in its flaccid state and what part creates and maintains erec)ons?  Flaccid - Sympathe:c Nervous System  

Erect - Parasympathe:c Nervous System  

  6.  What chemical involved with erec)ons is controlled by Viagra?  


  7.  What is smegma?  

Odorous build-up of penile leakage underneath the foreskin of a natural penis  


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide

3 - Hormones, Menstruation, & Menopause  

  1.  What are the func)ons of estrogen, follicle-s)mula)ng hormone (FSH),  gonadal-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing  hormone (LH), oxytocin, progesterone, and testosterone What gender differences are there in the amount and func)on of  the hormones listed above?  





Levels fluctuate: catalyzes changes in  puberty to feminize women, menstrual  cycle, female sex hormone


Levels fluctuate: Sex hormone secreted by  ovaries, helps menstrual cycle,  

maintains pregnancy


Consistent levels: secreted in mens’  testes, masculinizing/sex hormone,  s:mulates/maintains testes’ sperm  produc:on

Lower levels


"Cuddling hormone" releases tranquilizing  hormones ajer intense sex, similar levels  in men & women

Releases milk, helps in contrac:ons  during birth, plays role in bonding with  infants & btwn female friends, associated  w. orgasms


S:mulates pituitary gland for puberty,  regulates level of LH

S:mulates pituitary gland for puberty


Controls sperm produc:on

Regulates levels of estrogen &  

progesterone, matures ovaries


Controls testosterone produc:on

Regulates levels of estrogen &  

progesterone, ovula:on in women,  signals ovary to release ovum

  2.  Know the four phases of the menstrual cycle in order.  

  1.  Follicular phase  

  2.  Ovula:on  

  3.  Luteal phase  

  4.  Menstrua:on  

  3.  During each phase of the menstrual cycle, what's happening with the ovaries & oocytes, the endometrium, the cervix,  the follicle & corpus luteum, and the relevant hormones?  

  1.  Follicular phase

- Prolifera:ve or preovulatory phase 

- Pituitary releases FSH hormones, s:mulate follicles & mature oocytes 

- Endometrial :ssue thickens in the uterus 

- Oocyte enters the ovary 

- Ovum shoots out of ovary 

- Ovum leaves fimbriae  

  2.  Ovula)on

- FSH decreases 

- Replaced by LH, tells the ovary to release an ovum  


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide

  3.  Luteal phase

- LH & FSH decrease 

- Progesterone & estrogen thicken uterine wall 

- Secretory or postovulatory phase  

  4.  Menstrua)on  

- Excess endometrium :ssues from the uterine wall released as menstrual flow  

  4.  What hormone signals the brain that a woman is pregnant?  

HCG - Human Corionic Triptohormone  

  5.  If a woman complains of PMS, in what phase of the menstrual cycle does it occur?  

Luteal phase  

  6.  What is the average age of menopause for women?  

~51 years old, varies a lot  

  7.  How does sexual and reproduc)ve func)oning change in men with age?  

Biological Changes:  

- Andropause = decline, not cessa:on 

- 22-25 yrs old testosterone declines 

- Noncancerous enlargement of prostrate gland  

Psycho-social Changes:  

- Male midlife crisis 

- Genera:vity vs. stagna:on 

- Family rela:onships 

- Ajer peak in 30: frequency of sex declines  

4 - Reproduction  

1. How many sperm in a typical single ejacula)on?  How long does it take a man to make that many sperm?     200-300 million sperm, takes around 3 months/74 days  

2. Where in a woman’s body does concep)on occur?  

    Outer third of the fallopian tube (near the ovary)  

3.  What are the parts of sperm, what part contains an enzyme to dissolve the zona  


-  Head

• Contains DNA

• Also contains acrosome, a chemical reservoir- secrets enzyme called hyaluronidase  

- Mid piece  

which dissolves the zona pellucida surround the egg  

• Contains mitochondria (energy)

- Tail 

• Flagella:on (swimming sperm)

4.  What surrounds the ovum that sperm have to get through in order to fer)lize the  


Zona Pellucida  

5.  How long do sperm and ova live in a woman’s body?  What is the op)mum )me for  

coitus with respect to ovula)on if a couple desires to conceive a child?

- Sperm live in women’s bodies up to 5 days 

- Ovary may be fer:lized for 12 - 24 hours ajer ovula:on 

- Op:mum :me for coitus/concep:on: 14 days before menstrua:on 

6.  How accurate are home pregnancy tests?

    Not well enough researched to determine effec:veness

7.  What is the placenta?  

    Placenta: the mass of :ssue that surrounds the conceptus early in development and nurtures its growth 8.  What psychological changes occur in women during pregnancy?  What factors seem to influence these changes?  What  differences exist by trimester and when comparing first-)me mothers to women who had been pregnant previously?  


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide

   1st Trimester  

- Many factors contribute to emo:onal state:  

• AHtude towards pregnancy

• Social class- link between low income and depression during pregnancy. More unwanted pregnancies among low income women.

• Availability of social support- women w/ suppor:ve partner less likely to be depressed

• Depression not uncommon during this :me- due to fa:gue and lack of energy

• Women’s anxiety in this trimester ojen center on concerns about miscarriage  

   2nd Trimester  

- Period of calm and well-being  

- Fear of miscarriage has passed due to fetal movement  

- Discomforts of 1st trimester past and tensions with labor and delivery are not yet present  

- Depression is less likely in 2nd trimester if woman has partner  

- Women who have had previous pregnancy are more distressed during this :me, reflec:ng the demands associated  with the care of children while one is pregnant  

- Feelings of nurturance or maternal responsiveness to the infant increase steadily from prepregnant to the postpartum  period (not related to hormone levels)  

   3rd Trimester  

- PaFerns noted earlier con:nue into 3rd trimester

- First :me mothers report a significant increase in dissa:sfac:on with their husbands from 2nd to 3rd trimester - Couples who report higher levels of affec:on exchanged also report lower levels of anxiety and of insomnia in the 3rd trimester  

  9.  How long can women who have a normal, healthy pregnancy con)nue to have coitus?  What major category of pregnant  women is most likely to be advised not to have sex?  What, if any, changes in frequency of coitus occur with pregnancy?  - Given a normal, healthy pregnancy, intercourse can con:nue safely un:l 4 weeks before the baby is due - In cases where a miscarriage or preterm labor is threatened, couples are advised not to have sex 

- Most pregnant women con:nue to have sex during pregnancy; the most common paFern is a decline in the 1st trimester, varia:on in the 2nd, and an even greater decline in the 3rd 

  10.  What are Braxton-Hicks contrac)ons?  

- Occur during 3rd trimester  

- Painless contrac:ons of the uterus, not apart of labor; thought to strengthen the uterine muscles, preparing them for  labor  

  11.  What sexual posi)on is most frequently the best one during the last stages of pregnancy?      Side to side posi:on probably most suitable  

  12.  Know the stages of labor and the major events that occur in each stage.  

Beginning of Labor  

  1.  May be a discharge of a small amount of bloody mucus (plug in cervical opening during pregnancy which prevents  germs) or water breaks (10% of women- more commonly breaks at the end of the 1st stage)  

  2.  24 hours ajer this , labor usually begins  

  3.  Proposed that increased produc:on of an:progesterone reduces the inhibi:ng effect of progesterone and labor  begins  

1st Stage  

  1.  Regular contrac:ons start causing the cervix to experience effacement (thinning out) and dila:on (opening up).  Must dilate 10 cm before baby can be born  

  2.  Divided into another 3 stages: early, late, and transi:on  

  1.  Early- contrac:ons 15-20 min apart. Quite comfortable  

  2.  Late- cervix dilated about 5-8 cm. Generally shorter than 1st stage and contrac:ons are more frequent and  more intense  

  3.  Transi:on- cervix dilated 8-10 cms and is short and difficult. Pain and exhaus:on    3.  1st stage can last anywhere from 2-24 hours; averages about 12-15 hours for 1st pregnancy and about 8 for later  pregnancies  

  4.  Women told to go to hospital when contrac:ons are 4-5 min apart  

2nd Stage: Delivery  


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide

  1.  Starts with baby’s head coming out and moving into the vagina or birth canal.  

  2.  Lasts from a few min to a few hours and is generally much shorter than the 1st stage    3.  May perform episiotomy  

  4.  Baby comes completely out of womb and takes first breaths. S:ll connected to umbilical cord  3rd Stage

  1.  Placenta detaches from the walls of the uterus and the ajerbirth (placenta and fetal membranes) is expelled. Can’t  take from a few min to an hour. May be accompanied by several contrac:ons  

  2.  The episiotomy is sewn up  

  13.  What is an episiotomy?  What does research say about its benefits?    

- Incision of slit made in the perineum 

- Physicians believe it will prevent impaired sexual func:oning in later life, reduce the severity of perineal lacera:ons,  and reduce post delivery pain and medica:on use

- However recent research didn’t find that any of those benefits result  

  14.  How does the rate of Cesarean deliveries in the USA compare with other Western countries?  Do Cesarean deliveries  improve mortality?  Does having one Cesarean delivery mean a woman will have a Caesarean for all subsequent  deliveries?  

- US has considerably higher rates than Europeans countries 

- Associated with higher rates of complica:ons requiring hospitaliza:on for mother or baby  

- Women may perform vaginal birth ajer a Cesarean 

  15.  What is the minimal wai)ng )me a^er giving birth vaginally, without an episiotomy, to have coitus?  According to Hyde et  al’s (1996) data how long before about 90% of couples have resumed normal sexual ac)vity?  

- Should wait at least 2 weeks in order to avoid infec:on and hemorrhage 

- In the month following birth, only 17% of couples resumed sex. 9/10 couples resumed by the 4th month ajer    16.  What recommenda)on is made about whether mothers should breasoeed their newborn infants?  What effect does  breasoeeding have on coital ac)vity?  

-   At both 1 month and 4 months ajer, women who were breasweeding reported significantly less sexual ac:vity and  lower sexual sa:sfac:on. This is because lacta:on suppresses estrogen produc:on, which in turn decreases  vaginal lubrica:on  

-   Health ins:tutes strongly encourage breasweeding since breast milk is the ideal food for a baby and provides the  baby with the right mixture of nutrients, contains an:bodies that protect from diseases, is free from bacteria,  and is always the right temperature  

-   Breasweeding is associated with a reduced risk of obesity at ages 5 and 6  

-   “Breasweeding ensures the best possible health as well as the best developmental and psychosocial outcomes for  the infant”  

  17.  What is the most common cause of infer)lity in men today? In women today?  

- In women, pelvic inflammatory disease caused by sexually transmiFed infec:on, especially gonorrhea or Chlamydia, is  the most common cause

- In men, most commonly caused by infec:ons in the reproduc:ve system caused by sexually transmiFed diseases    18.  Recognize ar)ficial insemina)on, in vitro fer)liza)on, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)  - Ar:ficial Insemina:on: involves ar:ficially placing semen in the vagina to produce a pregnancy; thus it means  accomplishing reproduc:on without sexual intercourse. Can be done by husband when he has a low sperm  count or donor when the husband is sterile

- In Vitro Fer:liza:on: scien:st make sperm and egg meet in test tube. The fer:lized egg is then implanted in the uterus  of a woman. Great for infer:le couple where the woman’s fallopian tubes are blocked. 42% successful births  in the US. Expensive

- Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT): improvement in some cases over IVF. Sperm and eggs are collected then  inserted together into the fallopian tube, where natural fer:liza:on can take place, followed by natural  implanta:on. Success rates not yet reported  


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide 5 - Contraception  

  1.  What issues should be considered when choosing a form of contracep)on?  

- Effec:veness  

- Reversibility  

- Known personal & family medical history  

- Cost  

- Ethical considera:ons  

- Personal preferences & desires  

- Availability  

  2.  What are erotophobes and erotophiles?


- Responds posi:vely to associa:ons with sex      


- Responds nega:vely & avoids any associa:ons with sex 

  3.  Contracep)ve myths  

- Douching 

- Coitus in a hot tub 

- Mountain dew consump:on by a man 

- Coitus standing up (or any other posi:on) 

- Being a virgin 

- Woman jumping up & down  

  4.  How may men be helpful with birth control in general and if they have a girlfriend using birth control pills, patch, or ring.  - Discuss contracep:on before coitus 

- Do not pressure for coitus 

- Keep condoms immediately available 

- Emo:onal support, pa:ence, without nagging 

- Contribute financial support  

  5.  What are the strengths, limita)ons, and risks for abs)nence, combina)on pills, depo-provera injec)ons, diaphragms,  female condom, implants, IUDs, male condoms, mini-pills, patch, ring, spermicides, steriliza)on, rhythm method, and  withdrawal?      


- 0 failure rate *if actually followed  

- Advantages: 0 health risks, easily reversible, 0 cost  

- Limita:ons: Possible sexual frustra:on, may limit range of roman:c partners  

- Risks: May lead to impulsive coitus w.o protec:on  

Combina)on pills

- 8% typical failure rate  

- Advantages: Simple, safe, convenient, allows for spontaneity, reduces risk of ectopic pregnancy, ovarian/endometrial  cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, anemia, regulates menstrual cycle, reduces menstrual discomfort, reduces  vaginal dryness & painful intercourse, easily reversible  

- Limita:ons: May forget to take it, less effec:ve for very overweight women, cost varies, certain medicines/supplements  may interfere, vomi:ng & diarrhea may interfere w. func:on, many side effects (breast tenderness, spoHng,  nausea, weight gain, depression, libido changes, mood swings)  

- Rare health risks: Heart aFack, stroke, high blood pressure, liver tumors, gallstones, jaundice  

Depo-provera injec)ons

- 3% typical failure rate  

- Advantages: Allows for spontaneity, lasts 3 months, no need to remember something, reduces risk  of endometrial cancer  & PID, reduces menstrual discomfort, fewer/lighter periods, may cause cessa:on of menstrua:on  

- Limita:ons: Cannot be reversed in 3 months, return to fer:lity may be delayed, some:mes heavier/longer periods, may  lower libido, many first-:me users don’t repeat, cost varies  


- 16% typical failure rate  


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide

- Advantages: Readily available, can be inserted a few hours before use, partner knows it’s being used, reversible  - Limita:ons: Must plan for use, may disrupt spontaneity, requires partner coopera:on, may get dislodged, must be resized  for weight changes of 15 lbs, difficult for obese women to insert  

- Risks: Toxic shock syndrome, allergies, vaginal soreness, urinary infec:ons  

Female condom

- 20% typical failure rate  

- Advantages: Readily available, provides STD protec:on, partner knows it’s being used, reversible, may enhance sex play,  clitoral s:mula:on for some women, stays in place, may be used in anal sex  

- Limita:ons: Must plan for use, may disrupt spontaneity, requires partner coopera:on, loss of sensi:vity, poor taste,  some:mes squeaks  


- 0.01-0.09% typical failure rate  

- MOST effec:ve birth control next to abs:nence  

- Advantages: Allows for spontaneity, lasts 3 yrs, reduces risk of endometrial cancer & PID, reduces menstrual cycle,  reversible  

- Limita:ons: Possible side effects (spoHng, change in periods, rarely: longer/heavier periods) May lower libido, possible  weight gain, being overweight reduces effec:veness, up-front cost  

- Rare health risks: Heavy irregular bleeding, local infec:on at site, ovarian cysts, breast lumps, migraine headache,  depression  


- 0.8% copper, 0.1% proges:n typical rate  

- Advantages: Extremely effec:ve, allows for spontaneity, lasts 5 years (mirena) & 12 years (copper), no need to remember  something, doesn’t disrupt menstrual cycle, easy to know if in place, quickly reversible, paragard doesn’t affect  hormones, mirena reduces menstrual flow/cramping, ability to become pregnant returns quickly ajer removal,  can be used while breasweeding,  

- Limita:ons: Cramping/backaches at first, may become ejected (rare), ParaGard may increase menstrual flow, (rarely) may  push thru uterus wall during inser:on  

- Risks: Vagini:s, cervici:s, STD or PID during inser:on, temporary low blood pressure & heart rate  

Male Condoms

- 15% typical failure rate  

- Advantages: Readily available, provides STD protec:on, partner knows it’s being used, gives man more  responsibility, may be used in oral or anal sex  

- Disadvantages: Must plan for use, may disrupt spontaneity, requires partner coopera:on, not 100% STD protec:on, loss  of sensi:vity, poor taste if not flavored  

Mini pills

- 4-10% typical failure rate  

- Advantages: Safer for older women, allows for spontaneity, reduces risk of ovarian/endometrial cancer, pelvic  inflammatory disease, reversible, cost varies  

- Limita:ons: May forget to take it, possible irregular menstrual cycle, spoHng Risks: risk of ovarian cysts  Patch

- 1-8% failure rate  

- Advantages: Lasts a week, partner knows it’s being used, simple/convenient, allows for spontaneity, reduces risk of  cancers & PID, regulates menstrual cycle, reduces menstrual discomfort, reversible  

- Limita:ons: Seen by others. less effec:ve in overweight women,possibly irritates skin, depression, weight gain, libido  changes, mood swings, spoHng, breast tenderness (usually clear up in 3 months)  

- Risks: Improper disposal harmful to environment  


- 5-8% typical failure rate  

- Advantages: Easy to insert, allows for spontaneity, reduces risk of endometrial cancer, PID, regulates menstrual cycle  - Limita:ons: Some find it difficult to remove, cost varies, possible side effects (acne, breast tenderness, headaches,  depression, weight gain, nausea, lower libido, mood swings, vaginal irrita:on)  

- RIsks: Elevated blood pressure/sugar, changes in cervical cells, rarely: heart disease, blood cloHng, liver/gallbladder  complica:ons  



PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide

- 26-29% typical failure rate 

- Advantages: Provides lubrica:on, partner knows it’s being used  

- Limita:ons: Must plan for use, may disrupt spontaneity, poor taste 

- Risks: Vaginal irrita:on increasing risk of HIV, allergies 


- 0.10/0.15% typical failure rate for vasectomy 

- 0.5% tubal li:ga:on 

- Advantages: Permanent, allows for spontaneity, no need to remember something 

- Risks: Usual surgery risks (much less for vasectomy), psychological difficulty w. being infer:le, costs, not reversible  Rhythm method

- 25% typical failure rate 

- Advantages: 0 health risks, accepted by roman catholic church, easily reversible, women become familiar w. their bodies,  free unless purchasing ovula:on kit

- Limita:ons: Possible frustra:on during abs:nence, partner cannot be sure used, effec:veness varies  Withdrawal

- 26% typical failure rate 

- Advantages: Always available, 0 cost 

- Limita:ons: Possible frustra:on, partner coopera:on required, limits ability to focus on pleasure 


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide

  6.  Know in detail, specifics of correct use of the male condom.  

- Choose the right type/size  

- Check the date & again immediately before use 

- Store properly, but keep available 

- Be asser:ve about use 

- Tear open carefully 

- Put on while penis is erect & immediately before touching orifice 

- Squeeze-hold by reservoir/:p 

- Roll back foreskin, place on top of glans w. roll up facing out 

- Keep holding the :p, unroll down to the base of the penis 

- Hold boFom :ghtly during ejacula:on 

- Tie up & throw away  

  7.  Why should most men and heterosexual women have two different types of condoms available?      To ensure protec:on is close to 100% effec:ve

  8.  Know the special care needed with contracep)ve pills: i.e., take about the same )me, reduced effec)veness with some  medica)ons (which ones?), etc.  

- Effec:veness interference with: 

• Rifamin an:bio:c

• Yeast infec:on medica:ons taken oral

• HIV medicines

• An:-seizure medicines  

• St. John’s Wort

- Must be consumed around the same :me every day 

- Do not miss one!  

  9.  What is emergency contracep)on?  What does empirical evidence say about how Plan B works?  What other types of  emergency contracep)on are some)mes available?  

Emergency contracep:on:  

- Prevents or delays ovula:on  

- Or inhibits sperm 

- May possibly inhibit implanta:on  

- *No empirical evidence  

- 0.5% to 2% failure rate overall  

Other types:  

- Copper T IUD 

- Ella 

- Plan B/One Step pill  

  10.  What impact does a vasectomy have on a man's func)oning?  

    Everything remains the same except for the excre:on of semen

  11.  What is tubal liga)on?  What other form of steriliza)on is available to women?  

- Fallopian tubes are: 

• Tied

• Cut off

• Cauterized

- Stop the release of ovum & block off sperm 

- Also available: Micro-inser:ons (plugs)  

  12.  How does RU 486 work?  

- Pill that counteracts progesterone 

- Pa:ent takes pill Prolac:n 2 days later to induce contracts 

- Fer:lized egg is expelled basically in a very heavy period  


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide 6 - STDS  

1. What single variable is the best predictor of contrac)ng an STD?  

Having as many partners as possible  

2. What sexual behavior is the riskiest for contrac)ng HIV?  

Sex with men or commercial sex workers  

3. What is the most common bacterial STD in the USA? most common viral STD?  

CMV - Cytomegalovirus  

4. Be able to recognize symptoms/descrip)ons of CMV, hepa))s B, herpes, HIV, HPV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, pelvic  inflammatory disease, trichomoniasis, yeast infec)on, and pubic lice.  

*No obvious symptoms (asymptoma0c) common for: CMV, herpes, HIV, HPV, hepa00s, chlamydia, PID, gonorrhea, &  vagini0s



- Fa:gue, fever, sore throat, swollen glands  

- Majority of adults have no symptoms  

Genital Herpes

- Small, painful bumps or blisters  

- Usually found on labia, penis, or anus  

- Most have no obvious symptoms  


- Yellowing of skin  

- Discolora:on of urine & feces  

- Or could be asymptoma:c



- Most ppl asymptoma:c  

- Men: discomfort in urina:on & clear discharge  

- Women unusual discharge or painful urina:on  

- Undiagnosed: urethral damage, epididymis infec:on, urethral or anal infec:on  

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

- Chronic pelvic pain  

- Lower abdominal pain  

- Fever  

- Unusual & foul smelling discharge  

- Painful coitus  

- Painful urina:on  

- May be asymptoma:c  


- Men: pus-like discharge, burning urina:on  

- Women: vague vaginal or urinary symptoms  

- Both: anal itching, discharge, soreness, bleeding, sore throat with frequent infec:ons, skin lesions, internal abcesses, chronic  pelvic pain  

- Mostly asymptoma:c  


Primary stage:

- Chancres (sores, eventually clear up)  

Secondary stage:  

- Rashes all over the body (eventually clears up as well)

Latent Syphilis:  

- Damages nervous system, liver, & heart  

- AFacks brain :ssue  


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide

- Death  


- Symptoms: White/grey vaginal discharge, fishy odor, burning feeling during urina:on, itching around the vagina, some have no  symptoms  

- Increases risk for other STDs, PID, pregnancy complica:ons if pregnant  

Rare Tropical Bacterial STDs

- Chanchroid: small bumps rupture to create crater-like sores (painful)  

- Granuloma Inguinale: painless pimples that ulcerate & spread  

- Shigellosis: acute diarrhea, fever, pain  


- Men: irrita:on of urethra, penile discharge, many asymptoma:c  

- Women: yellow-green, itchy, frothy vaginal discharge irrita:ng vulva + bad smell, may inflame urethra  Yeast Infec)on

- Itching, burning, white discharge, painful coitus or tampon use, redness/irrita:on of outer labia  

Pubic Lice/Crabs

- Tiny lice, itchy, liFle black things running around on your pubes  

Scabies Mites

- Tiny, itchy mites  

- Redness, soreness, itchiness around genitals  

5. Know about transmission and treatment of herpes.  


- Direct skin to skin contacF  

- Exchange of bodily fluids 


- No cure  

- Some drugs alleviate symptoms, reduce outbreaks, & make somewhat less contagious 

6. What STD can be spread by open mouth kissing alone and decades later may result in oral cancer?       Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

7. In what ways can HIV be transmiqed and recognize ways that it cannot be transmiqed.  

TransmiFed by:  

- Open mouth kissing (slight chance)  

- Human bites  

- Direct exchange of bodily fluids  

- Sex  

- Shared razors & needles  

- Blood transfusion  

- Infected mother during pregnancy, birth, or breasweeding  

NOT transmiFed by:  

- Skin contact 

- Casual contact (hugging, handshakes, social seHngs) 

- Closed mouth kissing 

- Saliva, tears, sweat 

- Insect bites 

- Cats (FIV)  

  8.  Know the three stages of HIV infec)on in order  

1.  Early infec:on  

T4 cells ~1000 cells/cmm  

  2.  Middle Stage  

T4 cells ~500 cells/cmm  

Flu-like symptoms, fa:gue, cold sweats, swollen lymph nodes  

  3.  AIDS  

T4 < 200  

1 of 42 opportunis:c infec:ons  

Recurring pneumonia or hard to treat tuberculosis  


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide

Cervical cancer  

  9.  Know, in a general way, the treatments for HIV and their efficacy.  


- Controlled through Highly Ac:ve An: Retroviral Therapy 

- Mul:ple aFacks on the virus to keep it from developing new strains 

- Works preFy well 

- The earlier the treatment starts, the beFer  


- Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis 

- For partners of individuals with HIV 

- Taken every day to prevent contrac:ng it  


- Post exposure 

- Given immediately ajer exposure 

- Not effec:ve if given a week later  

  10. What three psychological effects are known to slow the progress of HIV?  

Disposi:onal Op:mism

    - Almost as effec:ve as medica:on

Ac:ve Coping  

  - Less likely to develop AIDS  


  - Helps slow progress  

  11.  Know the study by Antoni et al. presented in class.  

- Men tested for HIV at Jackson hospital recruited for a study 

- Half put in a control group (no treatment) 

- Half put in cogni:ve-behavioral stress management  

- 2 weeks later, both groups tested for anxiety & depression: 

• HIV nega:ve pa:ents were much less anxious/depressed than HIV posi:ve pa:ents

• T4 cell count stayed the same for HIV posi:ve CBT pa:ents

• Cell count increased ajerwards even if they were HIV posi:ve  

  12.  Recognize the rela)onship between HIV non progressors and resistors, and CD8 cells, chemokines, and the CCR5 gene  muta)on  

- CD 8 cells & chemokine  

- Gene muta:ons CCR5 

• Fights small pox, bubonic plague, & HIV

• 1 gene = non-progresso  

• 2 genes = resistor  

  13.  At this )me who should take the HPV vaccine and why should they have it?  

- Women between 9 & 26 years old 

- 50% of sexually ac:ve people get HPV 

• Most don't have symptoms

• 90% of cervical cancer cases develop from HPV

• Also associated w. cancer of the mouth, penis, anus, or throat

• No cure for HPV  

  14.  What factors increase the risk of yeast infec)on?  

    Long-term use of birth control pills, menstrua:on, diabetes or a prediabe:c condi:on, pregnancy, and long-term use of  an:bio:cs such as tetracycline. It is not a sexually transmiFed infec:on, but intercourse may aggravate it.    15.  What does safer sex mean?  Understand the methods for making sex safer with respect to contrac)ng STDs.  - Posi:ve health prac:ces that will prevent, or at least reduce the chances of, infec:on. 

• Monogamous rela:onship w. uninfected person

• Limit # of sexual partners

• Condoms & dams help

• Prac:cing outercourse exclusively

• Being appropriately asser:ve


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide

• Careful washing & inspec:ng of genitals

• Urina:ng before & ajer intercourse  

16. What is outercourse?  

  An alterna:ve to intercourse. Outercourse involves ac:vi:es like mutual masturba:on and ero:c massage, which don’t  transmit diseases.

Catania et al. (2007) 

Know and understand the research ques)ons/hypotheses, the major aspects of the methods, the major results and conclusions  and any important limita)ons.

- Research ques:ons:  

• If circumcised women could s:ll feel pleasure during coitus  

- Method: 

• Descrip:ve semi-structured interviews  

• Convenience sampling (self-volunteered par:cipants)  

- Measures:  

• 61 interview ques:ons  

• Used answers to create basis of mul:ple choice ques:ons  

• Used mul:ple choice ques:ons to gather responses  

• No preliminary measures for reliability  

- Results:  

• Basically: women with circumcisions can s:ll orgasm  

• 0% of the par:cipants reported never experiencing orgasm during coitus  

• Of 137 women circumcised, 86% reported orgasm  

• 69% reported orgasming every :me during coitus  

• Somali women with circumcisions reported fewer problems than white European women  

- Limita:ons:  

• Non-representa:ve sample (convenience sampling)  

• No measures for reliability  

• Comparison of FGCM par:cipants to white European women (cultural differences)  

• Linguis:c differences (par:cipants from Somalia)

Practice Questions  

What sexual taboo is common across almost all cultures?  


Where is the Skene’s Gland?  

Between the urethral wall and vaginal wall  

What chemical directly causes ovula)on?  

Leutanizing Hormone  

What chemical directly causes erec)ons?  

Simultaneous release of serotonin and dopamine  

What is the most sensi)ve male part to tac)le s)mula)on?  


Where does concep)on occur in women?  

The fallopian tubes  


PSY 370 Human Sexual Behavior Exam #1 Guide

What are the cremasteric muscles?  

Stringy muscles aFaching testes to the scrotum and moving them up and down  

What is the average age of menopause?  

Around 51 years old


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