×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to CSU - ANEQ 328 - Study Guide
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to CSU - ANEQ 328 - Study Guide

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

CSU / Science / ANEQ 328 / What is Haploid?

What is Haploid?

What is Haploid?

Description

School: Colorado State University
Department: Science
Course: Foundation in Animal Genetics
Professor: Milton thomas
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide: ANEQ 328 Fondations in Animal Genetics
Description: Exam 1 Study Guide. This study guide contains material covered in class from 1/21/16-2/16/16. This study guide contains important vocab terms, fill in the blanks, and questions that focus on the main points learned in class. All definitions and answers to these questions can be found within the notes weeks 1 through 4. Although an answer key is provided, I strongly suggest filling out the study gui
Uploaded: 02/15/2016
25 Pages 10 Views 7 Unlocks
Reviews

Erica Monjeau (Rating: )



ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics


What is Haploid?



Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

Exam 1 Study Guide 

This study guide contains material covered in class from 1/21/16-2/16/16. This study  guide contains important vocab terms, fill in the blanks, and questions that focus on the  main points learned in class. All definitions and answers to these questions can be found  within the notes weeks 1 through 4. Although an answer key is provided, I strongly  suggest filling out the study guide by yourself first, and then use the answer key to check  your answers.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics We also discuss several other topics like How do government regulation made?

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

Week 1 Review (1/21/16) 

1.) Define the following terms:

∙ Sire

∙ Dam

∙ Progeny

∙ Selection

∙ Genetic Improvement

∙ Molecular Genetics

∙ Transmission Genetics


What is Diploid?



We also discuss several other topics like What is Net Present Value (NPV)?

∙ Population Genetics

2.) What are the five big idea’s in animal breeding?

3.) List and describe the three main ways animal breeding can be defined as.

Week 2 Review (1/26/16-1/28/16) 

1.) Define the following terms:

∙ Phylogeny

∙ Phylogenetics

∙ Species

∙ Breed

∙ Breed Association

∙ Open Registry

∙ Closed Registry

∙ Breed Standard

∙ Population

∙ Geographical Classification

∙ Biological Classification

∙ Parental Trait

∙ Maternal Trait

∙ Dual Purpose Breeds

∙ Function/Performance Breeds

∙ Purbred

∙ Linebred

∙ Crossbred

∙ Mixed-Breeds

∙ Composite (Synthetic) Breed

∙ Hybrid Vigor (Heterosis) We also discuss several other topics like The lowermost layer of the atmosphere, is what?

∙ Mongrel Breed

∙ Wild-Type Breed

∙ Composite (Breed)

∙ Cultivar

∙ Karyotype

∙ Genome


What is Ribosome?



∙ Haploid

∙ Diploid

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

∙ Ribosome

∙ Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

∙ Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

∙ Golgi Apparatus

∙ Mitochondria

∙ Nucleus  

∙ Telomere

∙ Centromere

∙ Acrocentric

∙ Chromatid  

∙ Chromatin

∙ Euchromatin Don't forget about the age old question of Why is crystallized intelligence important?

∙ Heterochromatin

∙ Locus

∙ Alleles

∙ Gene

∙ Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

2.) Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of genetically related species based on  ________. While Phylogenetics is the evolutionary history of genetically related  species based on _______.

3.) Review and know the different types of animal breeds, genus, species, and  common scientific name associated with the following animals:

Animal

Genus

Species

Common Scientific  Name

Cattle (Angus/Holstein)

Bos

Bos taurus

Bovine

Cattle (Brahman)

Bos

Bos indicus

Bovine

Domestic Sheep

Ovis

Ovis aries

Ovine

Domestic Goat

Capra

Capra aegagrus

Caprine

Alpaca

Vicugna

Vicugna pacos

Camelid

Llama

Lama

Lama glama

Camelid

Pig (Swine)

Sus

Sus scrofa

Porcine

Chicken

Gallus

Gallus gallus

Avian

Domestic Turkey

Meleagris

Meleagris gallopavo

Avian

Horse (Wild)

Equus

Equus ferus

Equine

Horse (Domestic)

Equus

Equus caballus

Equine

Donkey

Equus

Equus africanus

Equine

4.) Compare and contrast an open breed and closed breed registry.

5.) Breeds can be characterized based on ________ classification, which classifies a  breed’s unique characteristics based on graphical location. While ___________  classification, classifies a breed’s unique characteristics based on genetics and  behavior/purpose.Don't forget about the age old question of What is the strongest acid that can exist in water?

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

6.) Define and give an example of a paternal, maternal, and dual purpose trait and  an example of a breed of animal that possesses that trait.

7.) Review the definitions of the words used to describe an animal: Purebred,  Linebred, Crossbred, Admixed, Mixed-Breeds, Composite (Synthetic) Breed,  Hybrid Vigor (Heterosis), Mongrel, and Wild Type.

8.) Cattle such as Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Limousin all have a ___________ origin,  and possess ___________ traits.

9.) Sheep such as the Columbia, Suffolk, and Hampshire possess _______ traits, and  the Merino, Finn, and Romanov possess ________ traits. While, the rambouillet is  an example of a __________ sheep.

10.) The Boer goat is known as a _______ breed, while the Spanish goat is known as a  ________ breed, and the Angora and American Cashmere goats are known as  ________ breeds?

11.) The Thoroughbred and Clydesdale equine breeds are known as _______breeds. We also discuss several other topics like What is the temperature of a K type star?

12.) The Landrace, Pietrian, and Duroc pig are known as _______ breeds, while a  Meushan pig is known as a _____________ breed.

13.) What are breed composites?

14.) What is cultivar?

15.) What is Norman Borlaung famous for?

16.) Review the number of diploid and haploid chromosome an animal has. ∙ Each animal genome is composed of haploid autosomes and sex  chromosomes (X or Y).

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

Animal

The Number of  

Chromosomes a  Haploid (Gamete)  Cell Has

The Number of  

Chromosomes a  Diploid (Somatic)  Cell Has

Horse (Equine)

32

64

Cattle (Bovine)

30

60

Sheep (Ovine)

27

54

Pigs (Porcine)

19

38

Dog (Canine)

39

78

Cat (Feline)

19

38

Human

23

46

17.) Review Genome and cytology vocab.

Week 3 Review (2/2/16-2/4/16) 

1.) Define the following terms:

∙ Homology

∙ Deoxyribose Acid (DNA)

∙ Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

∙ Messenger RNA(mRNA)

∙ Transfer RNA (tRNA)

∙ Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

∙ Purines

∙ Pyrimidines

∙ Chargaff’s Rules

∙ Nucleosomes

∙ Epigenetics

∙ Genetic Imprinting

2.) Which organelles of a eukaryotic cell contain DNA?

3.) What are the four different characteristics of DNA?

4.) Compare and contrast the different components between DNA and RNA. 5.) What are the different forms of RNA.

6.) Compare and contrast purines from pyrimidines.  

7.) What does Chargaff’s Rule state?

8.) The complementary strand (sense) runs in the _____ direction while the template  strand (anti-sense) runs in the ______ direction.

9.) What are the different ways DNA can be extracted/collected from an animal?

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

10.) How is DNA packaged and what is the role of histones?

11.) What is epigenetics?

12.) What is genetic imprinting?

13.) How does epigenetics affect livestock?

Week 4 Review (2/9/16-2/11-16) 

1.) Define the following terms:

∙ Exons

∙ Introns

∙ Transcription Factor Binding Site (TFBS)

∙ Steroid Response Element (SRE)

∙ Promoter Enhancer Region

∙ TATA Box

∙ Start Codon

∙ Stop Codon

∙ Short Sequence (Base) Repeat (SSR)

∙ Micro-Satellite

∙ Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)

∙ Indel

∙ Copy Number Variant (CNV)

∙ Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

∙ SNP-Chip

∙ Transcription

∙ Splicing

∙ Polyadenylation

∙ Translation

∙ RNA Polymerase

∙ Codon

∙ Anti-Codon

∙ Synonymous SNPs

∙ Non-Synonymous SNPs

∙ Radical Non-Synonymous SNPs

∙ Protein

∙ Peptide

∙ Amino Acid

∙ Primary Structure

∙ Secondary Structure

∙ Tertiary Structure

∙ Quaternary Structure

∙ Prion

2.) Compare and contrast exons and introns.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

3.) Know the basic structure of a gene.

4.) What does a short sequence (base) repeat show?

5.) Look at the following difference between animal 1 and 2:

Animal 1: AG C T  

 Animal 2: AG G T  

 

The difference in the base pair demonstrates __________________.

6.) Look at the following examples:

Ex. 1: AGCT????AGGCT

Ex. 2: ACTC????ATC

The insertion of an additional G in the first example and the deletion of the C in  the second example demonstrates the concepts of _____.

7.) What is a copy number (CNV)?

8.) What occurs during transcription?

9.) Why is splicing and polyadenylation important?

10.) What is translation?

11.) What is the difference between codons and anti-codons?

12.) What occurs during post-transitional modification?

13.) Name and explain the three different types of SNPs?

14.) What’s the difference between an amino acid, peptide, and protein? 15.) How many different types of amino acids are there?

16.) Name and explain the four different type of protein structures.

17.) What is a prion?

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

Exam 1 Study Guide Answer Key 

Week 1 Review 

1.) Define The Following Terms:

∙ Sire

o A male parent.

∙ Dam

o A female parent.

∙ Progeny

o The offspring that is produced from the sire and dam.

∙ Selection  

o The process in which one determines the sire, dam, how many  

offspring will be produced, and how long they will remain in the  

breeding population.

∙ Genetic Improvement

o To increase the frequency of desirable genes, and to decrease the  frequency of undesirable genes.

∙ Molecular Genetics

o Improving one’s genotypic and phenotypic appearance.

∙ Transmission Genetics

o Focusing on inheritance and polygenetic traits.

∙ Population Genetics

o Looking at both good and bad mutations and how they affect the  population as a whole

2.) What are the five big idea’s in animal breeding?

 Sire Dam

Progeny

Selection

Genetic Improvement

3.) List and describe the three main ways animal breeding can be defined as. ∙ Molecular Genetics

o Improving one’s genotypic and phenotypic appearance.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

∙ Transmission Genetics

o Focusing on inheritance and polygenetic traits.

∙ Population Genetics

o Looking at both good and bad mutations and how they affect the  population as a whole.

Week 2 Review 

1.) Define the following terms:

∙ Phylogeny

o The evolutionary history of genetically related species based on  

phenotype. 

∙ Phylogenetics

o The evolutionary history of genetically related species based on  

genotype.

∙ Species

o A group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile  offspring.

∙ Breed

o A race of animals within a species.

∙ Breed Association

o A non-profit organization that controls the registry of a specific breed. ∙ Open Registry

o A registry in which animals may be registered even if their parents or  earlier ancestors are not registered.

∙ Closed Registry

o A registry in which all parents of an offspring (and offspring) must be  registered and no other breed besides that specific breed (i.e.  

Thoroughbred) can be registered to make sure that breed maintains  a purebred linage dating all the way back to its founder stud.

∙ Breed Standard

o A set of guidelines for what or how a breed of animal should look like,  work or perform.

∙ Population

o The total amount of a group of organisms or species.

∙ Geographical Classification

o Classifying a breed’s unique characteristics based on graphical  

location.

∙ Biological Classification

o Classifying a breed’s unique characteristics based on genetics and  behavior/purpose.

∙ Parental Trait

o Traits such as carcass size, the amount of growth of the animal, and  the amount of muscle the animal has.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

∙ Maternal Trait

o Traits such as the mothering ability and milking ability of the animal. ∙ Dual Purpose Breeds

o When an animal possess both parental and maternal traits. ∙ Function/Performance Breeds

o Breeds of animals that are known for their production of goods such  as hair/wool or service.

∙ Purbred

o A breed of animal that consists of only one breed or line.

∙ Linebred

o A breed of animal that consists of an inbred (the mating of closely  related individuals) line.

∙ Crossbred

o A breed of animal that consists of having parents from two different  breeds.

∙ Mixed-Breeds

o A breed of animal that is made up of two different breeds. ∙ Composite (Synthetic) Breed

o A breed made up of two or more breeds in order to achieve hybrid  vigor.

∙ Hybrid Vigor (Heterosis)

o An increase in performance of hybrids over that of purebreds most  noticeably in traits like fertility and survivability.

∙ Mongrel Breed

o An animal that isn’t categorized into a particular breed due to  random mating, which leads to that specific animals progeny not  better off than when you started.

∙ Wild-Type Breed

o The original genetic material of a breed.

∙ Composite (Breed)

o A breed of animal that is made up of two or more breeds designed to  retain heterosis in future generations without crossbreeding and  being maintained as a purebred.

∙ Cultivar

o A plant or grouping of plants selected for desirable characteristics  that can be maintained by propagation.

∙ Karyotype

o An image of a cell’s genetic material through the mapping of  chromosomes.

∙ Genome

o All the genetic material of an animal or population.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

∙ Haploid

o When cells have half the number of usual chromosomes.

o Gametes (sperm and egg cells) are the only haploid cells in  the body that will contain a half of a set (1 of each  

chromosome) of chromosomes.

∙ Diploid

o When cells have a complete set (2 of each chromosome) of  chromosomes.

o Somatic Cells which is any cell in the body excluding gamete  cells (sperm and eggs cells) that contains a full set of one’s  chromosome.

∙ Ribosome

o The place in which protein synthesis takes place.

∙ Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

o An organelle that doesn’t contain ribosomes and synthesizes lipids,  metabolizes carbohydrates, detoxifies the cell of drugs and poisons,  and stores calcium ions.

∙ Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

o An organelle that contains membrane bound ribosomes and makes  secretory proteins, creates membranes for the cell, and assembles  and transfers proteins to the Golgi apparatus.  

∙ Golgi Apparatus

o An organelle in which it is active in the synthesis of modification,  sorting, and secretion of cell products.

∙ Mitochondria

o An organelle in which where cellular respiration occurs and ATP is  produced.

o Contains maternal DNA.

∙ Nucleus  

o Where genetic material (DNA) is stored within a cell.

∙ Telomere

o A special nucleotide sequence at the end of each chromosome that  postpones the erosion of genes near the end of DNA molecules. ∙ Centromere

o Where the two chromatids are most closely attached.

∙ Acrocentric

o A chromosome in which the centromere is either missing or is located  at the very bottom of a chromosome.

∙ Chromatid

o An individual chromosome.

∙ Chromatin

o A complex of DNA and protein that condenses in chromosomes  during cell division.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

∙ Euchromatin

o Important genetic information needed in order for the organism to  physically function.

∙ Heterochromatin

o As far as we know, genetic information that isn’t useful.

∙ Locus

o The location of a gene on a chromosome.

∙ Alleles

o Different versions of a gene.

∙ Gene

o A part of a chromosome that contains the information to make 1  protein.

o Also known as units of heredity.

∙ Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

o Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a double stranded molecule that contains  genetic information (a blueprint) to make proteins.

2.) Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of genetically related species based on  phylogeny. While Phylogenetics is the evolutionary history of genetically related  species based on phylogenetics.

3.) Review and know the different types of animal breeds, genus, species, and  common scientific name associated with the following animals:

Animal

Genus

Species

Common Scientific  Name

Cattle (Angus/Holstein)

Bos

Bos taurus

Bovine

Cattle (Brahman)

Bos

Bos indicus

Bovine

Domestic Sheep

Ovis

Ovis aries

Ovine

Domestic Goat

Capra

Capra aegagrus

Caprine

Alpaca

Vicugna

Vicugna pacos

Camelid

Llama

Lama

Lama glama

Camelid

Pig (Swine)

Sus

Sus scrofa

Porcine

Chicken

Gallus

Gallus gallus

Avian

Domestic Turkey

Meleagris

Meleagris gallopavo

Avian

Horse (Wild)

Equus

Equus ferus

Equine

Horse (Domestic)

Equus

Equus caballus

Equine

Donkey

Equus

Equus africanus

Equine

4.) Compare and contrast an open breed and closed breed registry. ∙ Open Breed Registry

∙ A registry in which animals may be registered even if their parents or earlier  ancestors are not registered.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

∙ Closed Breed Registry

∙ A registry in which all parents of an offspring (and offspring) must be  registered and no other breed besides that specific breed (i.e.  

Thoroughbred) can be registered to make sure that breed maintains a  purebred linage dating all the way back to its founder stud.

5.) Breeds can be characterized based on geographical classification, which  classifies a breed’s unique characteristics based on graphical location. While  biological classification, classifies a breed’s unique characteristics based on  genetics and behavior/purpose.

6.) Define and give an example of a paternal, maternal, and dual purpose trait and  an example of a breed of animal that possesses that trait.

∙ Paternal Trait

∙ Traits such as carcass size, the amount of growth of the animal, and the  amount of muscle the animal has.

▪ Ex. Duroc Pigs

▪ Ex. Belgium Blue Cow

∙ Maternal Trait

∙ Traits such as the mothering ability and milking ability of the animal. ▪ Ex. Yorkshire

▪ Ex. Holstein

∙ Dual Purpose Breeds

∙ When an animal possess both parental and maternal traits.

▪ Ex. Beef Persian

▪ Ex. Shorthorn

7.) Review the definitions of the words used to describe an animal: Purebred,  Linebred, Crossbred, Admixed, Mixed-Breeds, Composite (Synthetic) Breed,  Hybrid Vigor (Heterosis), Mongrel, and Wild Type.

∙ Purbred

∙ A breed of animal that consists of only one breed or line.

∙ Linebred

o A breed of animal that consists of an inbred (the mating of closely  related individuals) line.

∙ Crossbred

o A breed of animal that consists of having parents from two different  breeds.

∙ Mixed-Breeds

o A breed of animal that is made up of two different breeds.

∙ Composite (Synthetic) Breed

o A breed made up of two or more breeds in order to achieve hybrid  vigor.

∙ Hybrid Vigor (Heterosis)

o An increase in performance of hybrids over that of purebreds most  noticeably in traits like fertility and survivability.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

∙ Mongrel Breed

o An animal that isn’t categorized into a particular breed due to random  mating, which leads to that specific animals progeny not better off  than when you started.

∙ Wild-Type Breed

o The original genetic material of a breed.

8.) Cattle such as Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Limousin all have a European origin, and  possess paternal traits.

9.) Sheep such as the Columbia, Suffolk, and Hampshire possess paternal traits, and  the Merino, Finn, and Romanov possess maternal traits. While, the rambouillet is  an example of a dual purpose sheep.

10.) The Boer goat is known as a dual purpose breed, while the Spanish goat is  known as a paternal breed, and the Angora and American Cashmere goats are  known as maternal breeds?

11.) The Thoroughbred and Clydesdale equine breeds are known as paternal breeds.

12.) The Landrace, Pietrian, and Duroc pig are known as paternal breeds, while a  Meushan pig is known as a maternal breed.

13.) What are breed composites?

∙ A breed of animal that is made up of two or more breeds designed to retain  heterosis in future generations without crossbreeding and being maintained  as a purebred.

14.) What is cultivar?

∙ A plant or grouping of plants selected for desirable characteristics that can be  maintained by propagation.

15.) What is Norman Borlaug famous for?

∙ He is known for the renowned research in wheat.  

16.) Review the number of diploid and haploid chromosome an animal has. ∙ Each animal genome is composed of haploid autosomes and sex  chromosomes (X or Y).

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

Animal

The Number of  

Chromosomes a  Haploid (Gamete)  Cell Has

The Number of  

Chromosomes a  Diploid (Somatic)  Cell Has

Horse (Equine)

32

64

Cattle (Bovine)

30

60

Sheep (Ovine)

27

54

Pigs (Porcine)

19

38

Dog (Canine)

39

78

Cat (Feline)

19

38

Human

23

46

17.) Review Genome and cytology vocab.

∙ Karyotype

o An image of a cell’s genetic material through the mapping of  chromosomes.

∙ Genome

o All the genetic material of an animal or population.

∙ Haploid

o When cells have half the number of usual chromosomes.

▪ Gametes (sperm and egg cells) are the only haploid cells in the  body that will contain a half of a set (1 of each chromosome)  

of chromosomes.

∙ Diploid

o When cells have a complete set (2 of each chromosome) of  

chromosomes.

▪ Somatic Cells which is any cell in the body excluding gamete  

cells (sperm and eggs cells) that contains a full set of one’s  

chromosome.

∙ Ribosome

o The place in which protein synthesis takes place.

∙ Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

o An organelle that doesn’t contain ribosomes and synthesizes lipids,  metabolizes carbohydrates, detoxifies the cell of drugs and poisons,  and stores calcium ions.

∙ Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

o An organelle that contains membrane bound ribosomes and makes  secretory proteins, creates membranes for the cell, and assembles  and transfers proteins to the Golgi apparatus.  

∙ Golgi Apparatus

o An organelle in which it is active in the synthesis of modification,  sorting, and secretion of cell products.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

∙ Mitochondria

o An organelle in which where cellular respiration occurs and ATP is  produced.

▪ Contains maternal DNA.

∙ Nucleus  

o Where genetic material (DNA) is stored within a cell.

∙ Telomere

o A special nucleotide sequence at the end of each chromosome that  postpones the erosion of genes near the end of DNA molecules.

∙ Centromere

o Where the two chromatids are most closely attached.

∙ Acrocentric

o A chromosome in which the centromere is either missing or is located  at the very bottom of a chromosome.

∙ Chromatid

o An individual chromosome.

∙ Chromatin

o A complex of DNA and protein that condenses in chromosomes  during cell division.

Week 3 Review 

1.) Define the following term:

∙ Homology

o The similarity in the sequences of proteins within organisms.

∙ Deoxyribose Acid (DNA)

o The genetic material found in the nucleus and mitochondria  

(maternal DNA only) of a eukaryotic cell.

∙ Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

o A nucleic acid that codes for protein.

∙ Messenger RNA(mRNA)

o Contains the blueprint (genetic information) needed to synthesize  proteins.

∙ Transfer RNA (tRNA)

o Transfers amino acids to ribosomes for protein synthesis.

∙ Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

o Links amino acids together to form proteins.

∙ Purines

o A group of nitrogen bases (base pairs) that make up DNA and RNA  such as Guanine, Adenine, and Steroids.

∙ Pyrimidines

o A group of nitrogen bases (base pairs) that make up DNA and RNA  such as Thymine, Cytosine, and Uracil.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

∙ Chargaff’s Rules

o Purines (Adenine and Guanine) always bind with Pyrimidines (Thymine  and Cytosine).

▪ Therefore there will always be an equal amount of A’s and  

T’s and G’s and C’s with a DNA sequence.

∙ Nucleosomes

o The double helix DNA strand wraps around a protein called histone. ∙ Epigenetics

o The study of changes that occur in the base pairs (gene expression)  due to the addition of a methyl (CH3) group or through histone  

modification as a result of environmental processes and embryo  modification.

∙ Genetic Imprinting

o When epigenetic traits are inherited from the dam/sire to progeny.

2.) Which organelles of a eukaryotic cell contain DNA?

∙ Nucleus

o DNA is stored in the nucleus in the form of chromatin.

∙ Ribosome

o Ribosomal DNA contains the “blueprint” for rRNA.

∙ Mitochondria

o The DNA from mother/dam is located here.

3.) What are the four different characteristics of DNA?

∙ DNA has the ability to accurately replicate through the use of DNA  polymerase.

∙ DNA is very stable and doesn’t degrade as quickly as RNA.

∙ DNA can contain many variation of genes.

o Although DNA can vary from people to people and species to  species many gene sequences are preserved within one’s species. ∙ DNA pays a major role in the central dogma (DNA????RNA????Protein) and in  heritance.

4.) Compare and Contrast the different components between DNA and RNA. ∙ Components of DNA and RNA

o DNA (Deoxyribose Acid) Components

▪ Located in the nucleus and mitochondria.

⮚Chemical Make Up of DNA

❖ Double Stranded

✔ Stable

❖ Phosphate Group

❖ Sugar  

✔ Deoxyribose (Meaning without  

alcohol (OH) base).

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

❖ Nitrogen Bases

✔ Adenine

✔ Thymine

✔ Guanine

✔ Cytosine

∙ RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) Components

o Located outside the nucleus (cytoplasm) and near ribosomes. o Transcribed from DNA sequences within the nucleus.

o Uses the nitrogen base Uracil instead of Thymine.

▪ Uracil is the unmethylated form of Thymine.

⮚The use of uracil is the reason for RNA’s instability.

o RNA polymerase is used to transcribe DNA into RNA.

▪ Chemical Make Up of RNA

⮚Single Stranded

❖ Unstable

⮚Phosphate Group

⮚Sugar

❖ Ribose (Meaning with alcohol (OH)  

base).

⮚Nitrogen Bases

❖ Adenine

❖ Uracil

❖ Guanine

❖ Cytosine  

5.) What are the different forms of RNA?

∙ Messenger RNA (mRNA)

o Contains the blueprint (genetic information) needed to synthesize  proteins.

∙ Transfer RNA (tRNA)

o Transfers amino acids to ribosomes for protein synthesis.

∙ Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

o Links amino acids together to form proteins.

∙ Non-Coding RNA, snRNA, siRNA, miRNA

o Destroys/modifies RNA that codes for proteins.

6.) Compare and contrast purines from pyrimidines.  

∙ Purines

o Consists of the base pairs Guanine, Adenine, and Steroids.

o Made up of a double ring structure.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

∙ Pyrimidines

o Consist of the base pairs Thymine, Cytosine, and Uracil.

o Made up of a single ring structure.  

7.) What does Chargaff’s Rule state?

∙ Purines (Adenine and Guanine) always bind with Pyrimidines (Thymine and  Cytosine).

o Adenine (A) always pairs with Thymine (T) and are held together by 2  hydrogen bonds.

o Guanine (G) always pairs with Cytosine (C) and are held together by  3 hydrogen bonds.  

▪ Therefore there will always be an equal amount of A’s and  

T’s and G’s and C’s with a DNA sequence.

8.) The complementary strand (sense) runs in the 5’ to 3’ direction while the template  strand (anti-sense) runs in the 3’ to 5’ direction.

9.) What are the different ways DNA can be extracted/collected from an animal? ∙ Blood Test

o Uses the DNA found in white blood cells since they possess a nucleus. o Blood cells do not have a nucleus.

∙ Hair Root Sample

o DNA is found at the root tip of hair.

10.) How is DNA packaged and what is the role of histones?

∙ During DNA replication, DNA condenses from “loosely packed” chromatin  into densely packed chromosomes.

o The double helix DNA strand wraps around a protein called histone to  form what is called a nucleosome.

▪ Differences in the number of base pairs on a histone protein  

can result in epigenetic changes.

∙ Nucleosomes then coil upon themselves to form a more packed DNA  structure called chromatin.  

∙ Chromatin then too coils on itself to form two sister chromatids also known  as chromosomes.

11.) What is epigenetics?

∙ The study of changes that occur in the base pairs (gene expression) due to  the addition of a methyl (CH3) group or through histone modification as a  result of environmental processes and embryo modification.

o DNA Methylation

▪ Occurs when methyl marks are added to DNA base pairs  

(most commonly cytosine) leading to the repression of  

gene expression.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

∙ Histone Modification

▪ When additional molecules attach to histones, affecting the  

way DNA is wrapped around them.

12.) What is genetic imprinting?

∙ When epigenetic traits are inherited from the dam/sire to progeny.

13.) How does epigenetics affect livestock?

∙ Epigenetics is responsible for the coat color differences in cloned (nuclear  transfer) livestock animals, large calf syndrome, and imprinting syndrome.

Week 4 Review 

1.) Define the following terms:

∙ Exons

o DNA that codes for a gene.

∙ Introns

o Non-coding sections of a DNA sequence.

∙ Transcription Factor Binding Site (TFBS)

o Turns a gene on and starts transcription.

∙ Steroid Response Element (SRE)

o Steroids turn on or off a gene.

∙ Promoter Enhancer Region

o Regulates genes by turning them on or off.

∙ TATA Box

o Shows when a gene is going to start.

∙ Start Codon

o The 1st sequence (amino acid) of gene is methylamine (AUG).

∙ Stop Codon

o Signifies the end of a gene with the amino acids UAA of UGA.

∙ Short Sequence (Base) Repeat (SSR)

o It is used in sire determination and it allows us to look for homozygous  base pairs within a sequence.  

∙ Micro-Satellite

o Located outside the gene.

∙ Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)

o A difference in a single base pair.  

∙ Indel

o The insertion or deletion of base pairs (mutations).

∙ Copy Number Variant (CNV)

o When a number of copies of a gene varies from one individual to  another.

∙ Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

o A technique used to make many multiple copies of a DNA sequence.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

∙ SNP-Chip

o Measures multiple genotypes at one time.

∙ Transcription

o The first step in transforming DNA to protein. The DNA template strand  is used as a blueprint, from which messenger RNA (mRNA) is created  with the help of an enzyme known as RNA polymerase.

∙ Splicing

o Where introns are removed and exons are joined together within a  gene.

∙ Polyadenylation

o Once the DNA template has been translated into mRNA, a poly-a-tail  is added to the end of the mRNA strand, protecting it.

∙ Translation

o Once a poly-a-tail has been added to the mRNA it then exits the  nucleus and gets exported to the ribosomes in the rough ER. Where  ribosomes translate the mRNA’s codons into amino acids, which are  then string together to form a protein.

∙ RNA Polymerase

o An enzyme that strings nucleotides together.

∙ Codon

o A sequence of 3 DNA or RNA nucleotides that correspond to a  specific amino acid.

∙ Anti-Codon

o Apart of tRNA, it is a sequence of 3 nucleotides bases that are  complementary to a codon found on mRNA. This is then translated  into an amino acid by the ribosome.

∙ Synonymous SNPs

o When a base pair changes but still codes for the same amino acid. ▪ Ex. CUU????CUC

⮚CUU and CUC both code for Leucine.

∙ Non-Synonymous SNPs

o When a base pair changes and codes for a different amino acid but  doesn’t change the protein.

▪ Ex. CAU????CAA

⮚The amino acid CAU codes for Histidine, while CAA  

codes for Glutamine.

∙ Radical Non-Synonymous SNPs

o When a change in a base pair causes a change in a protein. ▪ Ex. GAG????GUG

⮚The amino acid GAG codes for Glutamic Acid where the  amino acid GUG codes for Valine, this mutation is what  

causes sickle cell disease.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

∙ Amino Acid

o Building blocks that code for a specific protein.

∙ Peptide

o A single linear polymer chain of amino acids.

∙ Protein

o A large biological molecule that consists of one or more peptides.  ∙ Primary Structure

o Where different amino acids are linked together.

∙ Secondary Structure

o Where the amino acids fold upon themselves to form an alpha helix,  beta strand, or beta sheets.

∙ Tertiary Structure

o When alpha helixes, beta strands, or beta sheets, fold upon each  other to form a three-dimensional single protein molecule

∙ Quaternary Structure

o When multiple tertiary structure proteins bind together.

∙ Prions

o An infectious protein caused by a radical non-synonymous SNP. This  causes a change in the structure of the protein, which then in turn  infects other healthy cells.

2.) Compare and contrast exons and introns.

∙ Exons

o DNA that codes for a gene.

∙ Introns

o Non-coding sections of a DNA sequence.

3.) Know the basic structure of a gene.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

4.) What does a short sequence (base) repeat show?

∙ It is used in sire determination and it allows us to look for homozygous base  pairs within a sequence.  

o Ex. ATATAT (3 base repeat????the animal is homozygous for 3 copies)

5.) Look at the following difference between animal 1 and 2:

Animal 1: AG C T  

 Animal 2: AG G T  

 

The difference in the base pair demonstrates a difference in a single base pair,  also known as Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP).

6.) Look at the following examples:

Ex. 1: AGCT????AGGCT

Ex. 2: ACTC????ATC

The insertion of an additional G in the first example and the deletion of the C in  the second example demonstrates the concepts of indel.

7.) What is a copy number variant (CNV)?

∙ When a number of copies of a gene varies from one individual to another.

 Normal Insertion of   (Consensus) many base pairs.

 Different  

Causes shifts in  

 the locus of a gene,  making  

 it difficult to turn a  

 gene on or off.

8.) What occurs during transcription?

∙ Transcription is the first step in transforming DNA to protein. The DNA  template strand is used as a blueprint, from which messenger RNA (mRNA)  is created with the help of an enzyme known as RNA polymerase.

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

9.) Why is splicing and polyadenylation important?

∙ Splicing allows introns to be removed and exons are then joined together  within a gene.  

∙ Once the DNA template has been translated into mRNA, a poly-a-tail is  added to the end of the mRNA strand, protecting it.

10.) What is translation?

∙ Once a poly-a-tail has been added to the mRNA it then exits the nucleus  and gets exported to the ribosomes in the rough ER. Where ribosomes  translate the mRNA’s codons into amino acids, which are then string  together to form a protein.

11.) What is the difference between codons and anti-codons?

∙ Codon

o A sequence of 3 DNA or RNA nucleotides that correspond to a  specific amino acid.

∙ Anti-Codon

o Apart of tRNA, it is a sequence of 3 nucleotides bases that are  complementary to a codon found on mRNA. This is then translated  into an amino acid by the ribosome.

12.) What occurs during post-transitional modification?

∙ After translation the newly formed protein gets modified in the Golgi  apparatus.

o Amino acids can be removed (cleavage-pro-protein).

o Other biochemical groups such as acetate, phosphate, lipid,  

carbohydrate, sugar-glycosylate can be added.

13.) Name and explain the three different types of SNPs.

∙ Synonymous SNPs

o When a base pair changes but still codes for the same amino acid. ▪ Ex. CUU????CUC

⮚CUU and CUC both code for Leucine.

∙ Non-Synonymous SNPS

o When a base pair changes and codes for a different amino acid but  doesn’t change the protein.

▪ Ex. CAU????CAA

⮚The amino acid CAU codes for Histidine, while CAA  

codes for Glutamine.

∙ Radical Non-Synonymous SNPs

o When a change in a base pair causes a change in a protein.

▪ Ex. GAG????GUG

ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics

Exam 1 Study Guide

Covers Material From 1/21/16-2/16/16

⮚The amino acid GAG codes for Glutamic Acid where the  

amino acid GUG codes for Valine, this mutation is what  

causes sickle cell disease.

14.) What’s the difference between an amino acid, peptide, and protein? ∙ Amino Acid

o Building blocks that code for a specific protein.

∙ Peptide

o A single linear polymer chain of amino acids.

∙ Protein

o A large biological molecule that consists of one or more peptides.

15.) How many different types of amino acids are there?

∙ 20

16.) Name and explain the four different type of protein structures. ∙ Primary Structure

o Where different amino acids are linked together.

∙ Secondary Structure

o Where the amino acids fold upon themselves to form an alpha helix,  beta strand, or beta sheets.

∙ Tertiary Structure

o When alpha helixes, beta strands, or beta sheets, fold upon each  other to form a three-dimensional single protein molecule.

∙ Quaternary Structure

o When multiple tertiary structure proteins bind together.

17.) What is a prion?

∙ An infectious protein caused by a radical non-synonymous SNP. This causes  a change in the structure of the protein, which then in turn infects other  healthy cells.

Page Expired
5off
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here