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Summary of the chapter 1,2,3,4 and 5

by: Dannit Cohen

Summary of the chapter 1,2,3,4 and 5 STC 350

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Hi! Here you have a detailed summary of the first 5 chapter of the book that are going to the midterm test. Hope it helps! Good luck!
STC 350 International and Intercultural Advertising
Wanhsiu Tsai
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dannit Cohen on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to STC 350 at University of Michigan taught by Wanhsiu Tsai in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see STC 350 International and Intercultural Advertising in Strategic Communication at University of Michigan.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
STC 350 Chapter 1: Melting Pots, Multiculturalism, and marketing to the New America  Marketers try to understand the America of today, and what each new wrinkle in the fabric of society means for products, our brands, our companies. If we are able to crack the code in complex issues like assimilation and ethnic identity, we stand to make a lot of money.  Melting pot or Salad Bowl? o In order to better grasp how to market to today’s new immigrants in America, it’s important to predict how they might integrate with the mainstream. o In the early twentieth century, cities like New York and Chicago swelled with immigrant populations from Poland, Italy, and Germany.  In 1910 Chicago, 70% of the people were either immigrants or children of immigrants. o It took a while for groups like Irish, Italians and Jews to find their way into the mainstream.  In 1930, the children of immigrants were still being vilified as foreigners. o The biggest immigrant group at the start of the 21st century is Hispanics.  One factor that may preclude the assimilation of Latinos is the fact that they came from a single region, Latin America, and speak the same language, Spanish.  From 2000 to 2006 one third of the immigrants were from Mexico. o In the early twentieth century ethnic media helped maintain a sense of community, and hundreds of newspapers sprung up in urban areas throughout the Northeast and Midwest. o In the US Hispanic market, one TV network (Univision) has reached behemoth status, on occasion trampling all other networks in English or Spanish.  Univision primetime telenovelas reach between 20 and 30 percent of Hispanic households.  Univision has been a tremendous unifying force, and it has allowed advertisers unprecedented reach to sell products to Latinos around the country. o An important difference between then and now is the current atmosphere of tolerance for diversity in the US. This is called: “culture of multiculturalism.”  San Diego’s city stopped using the term “minority” in official documents in 2001. o Multiculturalism: two sides  It makes it okay foe ethnic groups to maintain an identity that is distinct from the mainstream.  It makes it easier for those immigrants who choose to assimilate to do so. o Richard Alba and Victor Nee argue that the process of assimilation Works in much the same way as it always has.  What is needed is a reformulation of assimilation:  Immigrants are changed by the mainstream.  Reality of the mainstream has evolved through incremental inclusion of ethnic and racial groups that formerly were excluded.  Assimilation is a two way Street:  Immigrants are transformed by America, and vice versa. o Even if the term melting pot applied 100 years ago, it doesn’t fir today. o Demographers have adopted a new term “salad bowl” to describe a united nation of people who bum pinto reach other and share the same space (and laws), but retain what makes them “special”, ad prefer not to blend in, at least not too much. o “Mutt” term used by Obama as a self-effacing way of saying that he is the sum of many identities. o Nobody can say how US will be in the future:  A salad bar: the nation will fracture into many disconnected communities with no shared commonality or propose.  It will become something between a salad bar and a salad bowl: a pluralistic society with some core values about capitalism and citizenship, but with minimal interaction among groups.  The new multicultural market o Multicultural market is based on the idea that there are discrete cultures in America that have distinct identities that separate them from the mainstream.  It assumes that they have unique needs when it comes to the type of brands or products they buy and that they need to be communicated with differently in order to be persuaded to come consumers.  Based on the premise that they do not respond to advertising the way the mainstream does. o Hispanics, Asian Americans and African Americans makes the 30% of the population in the US. o Multicultural consumers mean big money:  In 2007 Hispanics, Asian Americans, and African Americans made up 2.2$ trillion in purchasing power. (If we take into account gays and lesbians it will be 2.94). o The pioneers of multicultural marketing were the African- Americans advertising agencies that were created in the 1960s and 1970s. o Hispanic agencies are facing a challenge: assimilation, or acculturation. o The idea of marketing Hispanics began when a group of Cuban immigrant’s pre- revolution advertising executives from Havana found an opportunity for non- English speakers who were not being reached by mainstream advertising. o New Generation Latino Consortium (NGLC) was founded with the proposed of raising the marketing profile of the US Hispanic Population (new generation Latinos). o Assimilation include first generation who lose their customs, and US born.  The long road to visibility: o Minorities have to be portrayed in commercials in a way that would make people of the mainstream feel good about themselves, not threatened.  But in the past, because an appearance was so rare, minorities were glad just to see themselves. o The earliest attempts of advertisers to show people of color were seeing as shocking, consisting of exaggerated images of black slaves to sell products to White consumers. o In 1940 ads featuring distorted images of blacks were popular.  Ex: black kids were often labeled as pick ninnies. o African Americans were ignored as consumers until 1960. o 1963 a breakout when the NY herald tribune present an ad that portrays a non- stereotypical black man walking to a phone booth. o Hispanics were portrayed as cartoon-ish  Chiquita Banana:  Started as a cartoon, but years after were portrayed by a person.  Developed by the United fruit Company.  Lazy Peon:  By Brand California avocados.  Depictt a man sleeping under a giant sombrero with a cactus.  Frito Bandito:  By Frito Lay  Cause a lot of controversy because of the Mexican accent, Mexicans were portrayed as gun-toting thieves. o First presentation of Asian Americans in 1800s, were depictions of Chinese men used to sell rat poison and laundry products to White.  Lavine Soap, sported Chinese mascots because an endorsement from a Chinese laundry man suggested the soap must be effective.  1972 Colon water featured a Caucasian woman picking up her cloth at a Chinese laundry. o Gays and lesbians were the least visible of all groups.  The times they were shown, only gays people could understand it.  In 1900 was a coded affair.  In 1917 an ad for Ivory soap was illustrated by a gay artists, and it proceeded naked Young man in the shower.  In 1923 an ad foes Standard Plumbing fixtures.  A print ad of Smirnoff Vodka in 1958 featured two man in business and drinks in their hands.  In the last years has been a growing interest in gays and lesbians.  Bisexuals and transgender are often ignored in real-world marketing.  An increasingly companies are looking at gays as another multicultural segment that deserves attention.  Hitting the bull’s eye o There are emerging multicultural markets that are getting more attention today: eastern Europeans, Middle EastEnders, and Africans. o Toad’s multicultural groups may assimilate into the mainstream or change it so profoundly that they will no longer be considered part of multicultural marketing’s interest. Chapter 2: Hispanics Americans  Hispanics living in the US since Spays started roaming around Florida looking for the Fountain of Youth.  In 1980 census: 14.6 million Hispanics living in the US, an increase over 50% from 1970.  By 1990 the number increased to 22.4 million.  By 2000: there were 35.3 million.  It is expected to grow to 133 million by 2050.  ¾ of Hispanics from 1970-2000 come from Mexico.  According to the National Center of Health Statistics from 2000 to 2007 the Hispanic population grew by 10.2 million- 58.2 percent.  States with the highest Hispanic growth: North Carolina, Arkansas, Georgia, Tennessee, South Carolina, Alabama, Kentucky, Nevada, Atlanta, Cape Coral, Florida, Charlotte, Indianapolis, Nashville, and Raleigh.  Hispanics will not assimilate to a monolithic America that is Anglo-Saxon and withe; they will assimilate to a new and improved multicultural America.  Toads ¾ of Hispanic immigrants are either immigrants or children of immigrants.  First, Latinos were embraced of being Latin. o Many second third generation during 1980s and 1990s were told by their parents not to speak Spanish; teachers told the parents not to speak Spanish in front of their children. o Ex: Paula who was miss loss Angeles.  Retro acculturation: yearning by second and third generation, even fourth generation. o Is not unique to Hispanics. o Ex: Jews that decide to learn Yiddish.  88 percent of second generation and 66 percent of third generation Young Hispanics say that at least half of their Friends are Hispanics.  Toads third generation Hispanics may be losing their Spanish but they are not becoming gringos.  The common notion that Hispanics do not want to integrate into US society is false.  To ciudad Magazine and the Boundaries of Assimilation o To ciudad magazine was a hailed as a bold experiment in targeting an enormous but elusive demographic: children and grandchildren of immigrants who still feel connected to their cultural roots. Angelo Figueroa told the L.A times: I’m not convinced that highly assimilated US born, English dominant Hispanics necessarily want a Latino L.A times; they just want “to be included in the L.A times”. o Assimilated Latinos do not want to be targeted as a group. o “one of the benefits of being bicultural is that you notice things others might not”  The new immigrants o Studies have shown that the party that woos Hispanics most effectively can control electoral politics as far as the eye can see. o Ex: Univision had to cancel a Republican presidential debate because only one candidate was willing to come. o Illegal immigrants is a big issue in the US.  Bank of America open accounts for people without social security number, this caused many problems.  Hundreds of financial institutions now accept ulna Maricela consular, an official identification card issued by the Mexican government.  In 2004 Congress voted down a motion to prevent banks from accepting these IDs.  MTV decided to take the immigration issue head-on by sponsoring an immigration Forum on MTV TR3S (which targets Latinos).  Immigration by numbers o In 2006 Pew Hispanics Center published a study called “Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population:”  In 2005 there were approximately 11 million undocumented residents in the US, meaning that about 30 percent of the foreign-born population was undocumented.  About 80 to 85 percent of the immigration from Mexico in recent years has been undocumented.  Undocumented people usually lived o California, New York, Texas, Illinois, and New Jersey.  Culture Clash o Latin Americans have always had a love hate relationship with the Anglo-Saxon country to the north. o Malinchismo: an expression in Mexico which means a preference for things foreign, particularly Americans. o The majority of post 1964 immigrants come from Latin America, specifically Mexico, and most of them come here to work and raise a family in a safe and stable environment. o When Latin Americans emigrate their motivations are mostly economic. o They see gringos being very different tan themselves. o “gringos live to work, Latinos work to live”: hard work is a fundamental Hispanic value , it is not an end itself o For Latin people children and family is the most important thing, gringos are more concerned with themselves, and with material things. o Music and Latin food is a part of the culture that Latinos are really proud about. o Latins are also proud about their values.  Related to family values.  Respect other people is very important (parents, grandparents, teachers).  Discipline  Education: which often has little to do with anything scholastic and everything to do with having a proper upbringing. o Is about being polite, well behaved, and sensitive to the needs of others. o For Hispanics family is central:  It is normally for a Hispanic mother to spend all day preparing fresh food for their children.  The idea that family is supreme gets passed on from one generation to the next.  Advertising images that center on the family tend to be the most durable.  Arianism: a women learns that her role is to sacrifice everything for her family. o Research shows that the focus of recent arrivals remains on Latin America and a nostalgia for the past. They are interest in their culture, and the majority plans to return home one day.  But, their children are born in the US, and had develop their lives there. They feel as foreigners in the country of their parents.  After many years when the parents visit their native country, they feel that some things have changed, and that they got used to the comfort, convenience and safety of the US.  Viva la Familiar o The US Hispanic mom market research  Hispanics moms have the highest birth rates, and the largest families.  The Hispanic mother takes pride in her role as mother, she puts their family as a priority.  The goal is a happy family, not wealth or individual success.  Have Hispanic cultural influences but also American.  Successful marketers integrated this.  Keeping their family healthy is a primary motivation:  According to the American Journal go Public health, Hispanic mothers tend to think that a chubby child is a happy and healthy child.  They considered that anything natural is good while artificial is bad. (fried lard phenomenon) o Ex: they think that low fat milk is bad because when they remove the fat, they are also taking away his vitamins. o Hispanics are very concerned about preservatives.  From a marketing perspective, that means that educating Hispanics about nutrition might be an efficacious approach to get them to try healthy products that might not match their idea of healthy. o Archetypes of Hispanic culture and how they impact the way that Hispanics respond to marketing:  Hispanics believe that it is the duty of the parents to endure sacrifice for their children.  Beliefs in curanderos present challenges to the health care and pharmaceutical industry.  Negative associations with money: “pair but proud”: challenge for financial institutions: they tend to pay cash for everything. o Hispanic culture is based on hierarchy and respect for Rank:  Older people are treated with reverence, especially parents. o 2002 National study of Hispanics:  Hispanic immigrants had significantly stronger family oriented values and conservative attitudes toward gender roles tan those born in the US.  With acculturation this values started to change, and become more like American mainstream.  Not that the US born stop thinking like Hispanics.  Hispanics are still more likely non-Hispanics to emphasize the importance of the family.  As Hispanics acculturate, they will retain certain aspects of their culture and eliminate others. o Shopping behavior changes drastically. o They begin to incorporate more elements of the American food, but the overall importance of traditional food never completely goes away.  Shopping: o 2005 study co-sponsored by ADVO, FMI, and New American dimensions:  Hispanics spend more money in food than non-Hispanics: 130$ per week vs 91$.  They also go to shop to non-supermarkets such as: butcher shops, bakeries, bodegas, convenience stores, etc.  As Hispanics acculturate they buy more on their food at mainstream supermarkets.  Less acculturated Hispanics are looking for a Spanish shopping experience. o They prefer to shop in a place that have Spanish-speaking employs.  Lies, damned lies, and the Hispanic advertising industry o The same for the Association of Hispanic Advertising Agencies’ (AHAA) biannual conference in the fall of 2007 was “Is Hispanic Advertising Dead?”  They wanted to discuss what was the role of the Hispanic Advertising agencies should be as Hispanic consumers become increasingly acculturated. o Studies show that by third generation a majority of Hispanics become English- speaking monolinguals. o “Spanish vs English Advertising effectiveness study of 1994”, conducted by Peter Rosko.  He conclude that marketing to Hispanics should be done in Spanish.  He repeated this experiment in 2000 and conclude the same. o The stereotyping of Latinos in Spanish-language media was brought to the forefront in a PBS documentary by Phillipe Rodriguez.  They explored how America and Hispanics marketers portrayed a stereotypical image of the Latinos. o The real challenge facing Hispanic ad agencies today is the younger generation.  Second generation like to see TV in Spanish because they have the opportunity to see Hispanic culture portrayed on air. o At the Forefront of Hispanic marketing toads is a new wave of media operating with the understanding that acculturation and a preference for English do not necessarily mean a diminishment of Latino identity. o Gonzalo Perez, formerly director of consumer insights for MTV Tr3s said that the target audience lives a cultural reality, and easily steps back and forth between Anglo and Hispanic cultures.  It not about language, it is about cultural identity.  Hispanic marketing, Version 2.0 o “Latino identity project” by AHHA:  The purpose was to pursue a discussion about why Latinos behave the way they do.  Spirituality, family, interpersonal relations, and to a lesser extent, national origin, play important roles in the decision making of the Hispanic consumers. o Latino identity went a lot deeper than language.  No more stereotypes.  The majority of second and third generation Latinos, rather than resisting US media and language, unequivocally, embrace it. Chapter 3: African Americans  Two Americas o Black or African America?  On a personal level they prefer to be called black.  The race prefer to be called African Americans.  44% prefer African-American; 42% prefer black o Blacks have had their group identity forged in the fires of slavery. o Racisms is experienced in many forms: unemployment, incarceration, crime. o Black people considered that in the US are traded less fairly.  When Obama one, this perception changed.  Economic disparities between blacks and whites. o In 2004 Diversity magazine an article about linguistic profiling: this study how language is used to discriminate. o Names are also a source of discrimination.  History matters o I the early part of the 20th century, a Negro was a person who has a great grandparent Negro. o Race is a social construct  By 1980 the census categories were: White, black, Hispanic, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, American Indian, Asian Indian, Hawaiian, Guamanian, Samoan, Eskimo, Aleut, and other.  Black and White TV o The minstrel show: in 1830s a White actor Thomas Dartmouth Rice, imitated a song and dance from a slave boy. o African Americans were portrayed by White actors. o After the WWII and into the fifties, there was a shift in how African Americans were portrayed...  First, by black soldiers returning home from the front to the segregated country the called home.  When TV took off in the late 1940s, and early 1950s, it reached black to the earlier stereotypical images of the pre-war days for its images of African Americans.  In 1952: first program with an all-black cast: ammos’ Andy.  In the 1960s, African Americans appeared more on TV.  The 1970s would mark the beginning of blacks being portrayed as regular working class people. o Advertising  A study conducted by UCLA professor Harold H. Kasparian show big changes in how blacks were portrayed in the ads.  In 1946 8 of 10 black’s models were depicted in servile Jobs: maid, sale, waiter, field hand.  In 1956 only half were portrayed as servile positions, while over a third depicted as sport heroes and trailers.  In 1965 the number of ads that depicted black athletes had climbed to 60%.  Marketing through the filter of black experience o Black experience has predisposed many Africans Americans to become overly sensitive about feeling stereotyped and not feeling valued, respected, included, and welcomed. o Blacks do not want to be stereotyped. o Want to be portrayed as regular people, with jobs and families, and the same aspirations as the rest of Americans. o Example of the barbershop: their thoughts and perspective from media marketing.  Acknowledge us. Represent us. Respect us.  Show us as we are, portray the rich spectrum of Africans Americans and our experiences, not more stereotypes.  Be authentic. Get to understand us. Show you understand us.  Racism, advertising and myth of mainstream: o African American buying power is projected to reach $1 trillion by 2010/. o During the late sixties, there were pressure to include the African Americans in advertising. o Toad’s African American advertising agencies face increased competition from general-market agencies that have successfully convinced advertisers that they can deliver the same services. o Marketers still need to better understand what moves African American consumers. o How do African Americans behave as consumers?  African American consumers allocate a greater portion of their budgets to eating at home.  Are trendsetters and influencers.  African American shoppers devote more time to shopping, visit a larger variety of stores, are more likely to enjoy shopping and chases.  BET is the most popular cable outlet among African Americans views.  Fewer African Americans say they don’t like advertising.  Consequences of stereotyping o Had negative direct impact on buying habits of black consumers.  The higher the income, the more likely they are to view racially offensive images or words in the media as reflecting upon the sponsors.  Boycotting is the most popular method used by blacks to let a Company know that a show it sponsors is offensive to them.  55% said they had stopped buying a product because of racial discrimination allegation,  Life after Obama o According to the Washington post in 2008, with the election of Barack Obama, African Americans have entered the “no-excuse zone”. o Election marks a sea change in blacks ‘perception of themselves o People are talking about race in terms more honest than ever before. Chapter 4: Asian Americans  In American popular culture, the image of the Asian has run the gamut; from exotic orientalism to turn of the century fears of the Yellow Perl; from the sexuality emasculated Chinese laundryman to the lascivious and predatory Chinatown shopper; from the Viet Cong to the Japanese corporate samurai.  Growing up Asian in America carried with it a bundle of stereotypes, some friendly.  What makes today’s Asian stereotypes unique is that they lack the perniciousness of other stereotypes, at least at face value.  In the American psyche, Asians are thought of as highly intelligent, technically skilled, hardworking, disciplined, serious, and thrifty, all solid American values.  Asian students are expected to exceed their allotment f spaces at top universities, fill the upper economic brackets, and quietly fall into the shadows of society’s consciousness.  Over 25% Asian Americans over get 25 hold a bachelor’s degree compared with only 16% of the general American population.  Model minority: o The general impression of Asian American is that they are very success- oriented. o Critics of this terminology point to the struggling refugee populations to show that the label is overly abroad and damaging to Asian communities that need assistance. o Puts too much precision on Asian Americans. o The stereotype of Asian super achiever persists.  According to the marketers there is nothing wrong with employing these stereotypes.  This locally is attractive to advertisers, because they help convey ideas and images quickly easy.  Stereotyping Asians might be great for marketing to a mainstream nuisance, particularly if it gets a laugh, but it is not always funny to the group being stereotyped. o Stereotyping reminds Asians that they are different, foreign.  Research shows that Asian Americans want to be shown in the media and in the ads as they rely are.  They respond passively to ads that show Asians represented as part of multicultural cast. o Many responded negatively to ads that had a purely Asian cast. o Their aspiration to be included as part of the group, was often denizen to them because of race.  The perpetual foreigner o 4 characteristics of how Asian-American experience differs from the withe ethnic experience:  Asian ethnics exercise a great deal of flexibility regarding the cultural elements they wish to keep or discard from their personal lives.  How they chose to identify, however, is not a private affair and they experience pressure top identify in ethnic or racial terms.  Despite their generational longevity in this country, an assumption of foreignness stubbornly clings to them.  Asian ethnics are not considered real Americans.  Asian Americans relate differently to the experience of growing up Asian in the US.  They have all being exposed to stereotypes, in real life and in media.  The benefit tat van be obtained by respectfully including Asian Americans in a company’s marketing effort can greatly pay off.  The Balled of East and West o There are distinct differences between Asian and Western culture; where they do meet is in the lives of Asian Americans. o According to the book: Chinese Americans and their parents:  These cultural differences are also a source of conflict for Asian Americans.  There is a constant parental disapproval or emotional withholding (it’s never good enough).  Inadequate or mistaken guidance (from parents).  Role reversals.  Puzzling beliefs.  They often feel unsure of themselves, not knowing who they are.  Common problems that they may face:  Lack of assertiveness, either in school or on the job: Americans are thought to develop their own opinions, to speak, to assert themselves. Asian children are generally thought not to speak their minds.  Desire to maintain harmony at all costs.  Japan I as collectivistic culture, one take care of the others.  Because Asians as a whole are affluent, they are a popular segment for financial institutions to target.  Asians often will pay a Premium only if they feel that they are getting value for their money. o Upscale Asians  On the first moment they used to be located in Chinatowns, but knee it is possible to find Chinese people in every neighborhood.  The Pan-Asian segment: the ties that bind o US- born Asians and acculturated Asian Americans of different ancestries find they have many things in common with each other: similar experiences with immigrant parents who struggled to adapt to the new country; parents who stressed similar cultural values like education, discipline, respect for family. o Many US born Asians undergo return to their ethnic roots. o What does it mean to be Asian?  Facts about Asian American market:  There were 15 million Asian American in 2007.  Chinese make up the largest subgroup of Asians.  As a group, Asian Americans are educated and affluent: nearly half have bachelor degree.  Asian Americans are primarily an immigrant population, with slightly over two-thirds being foreign born.  Asian American market is extremely diverse because some of them speaks different languages, and have different customs.  In 2006 a report n the Asian market called: Asian Americans in the US share this facts:  Asian Americans enjoy shopping, significantly more than the national average. o Are more frequent shoppers, and more likely to pay attention to advertising.  As consumers, Asian Americans are more driven by Price and more likely to seek out bargains where they shop.  They over-index in credit cards, allocate more of their budgets to designer clothing, are health counscious about food and have a preference fos presription medicine carryng a Brand name.  Are big consmers of electronics.  Love online shopping.  Many Asian Americans that are foreign born preffer to be marketed to in their own languages.  Japanese pop culture: techno-geek chic o For the first time in its history, Japan is a giant exporter of popular culture, not just cars, appliances, and other gadgets. o Asian culture, Japanese and otherwise, is cool, and Young Asian Americans are forging a unique popular culture in the US.  Asian American popular cultures are merging and Asian Americans are the ambassadors of this hybrid culture. o Asian Echo-Boomers  According to results of a survey Asian American Young people tend to see themselves as trendsetters in three distinct cultural categories: technology and gadgetry, anime and manta, and vide-gaming.  Major findings:  Technology/gadgets and anime/manga are the top two areas where Asian Americans are influencing trends.  Asian American youth are more likely to identify and seek out trends through Word of mouth messaging than trough any other media cannel or network.  Hip, techno-savvy, game-building and game-using Asian Americans represent the future for marketers who want to make stronger inroads in the Asian American market.  One way for savvy marketers to tap into the emerging Asian American pop culture scene is by sponsoring events that are frequented by Young Asian American.  To see and be seen: portrayals of Asians in the media o The experience of being either ignored or stereotyped in advertisers collective vision of America has made Asian Americans sensitive to how they are portrayed. o Asian Americans want to be include in commercials, and shown as the really are. o There has been a steady increase in Asian faces cast in regular roles in prime time television shows. o Asian faces in to do mean that Asian American experiences are being portrayed. o Asian Americans consider Asians on TV to be a measure of integrating themselves into the fabric of American culture.  Which group to focus on? o In spite of the diversity of cultures lived and languages spoken in the Asian segment, the real future of Asian marketing is trough English. o Asian Indians in the US: Quickly acculturating  Asian Indians in the US are becoming attractive to marketers:  They are proud of their heritage, but consider themselves to be both, Indians and Americans.  Most express interest in enjoying Indian food, music, etc.  Despite their family recent arrival, first generation Indian Americans appear to be quite comfortable with life in the US.  A high number said they felt welcome in stores and are willing to shop retailers that aren’t close to home or that don’t speak their native language. They end to make purchase desertions without relying recommendations.  They like English media.  Family is a top priority. They want to provide a college education for their kids  The end of the model minority o That image is not completely accurate given the diversity of Asian-American’s students. o Like those of other Americans, Asian students ‘academic achievement correlates with the income level and education of their parents. o Asian American are associated with academic excellence and overachievement. o The tragic shootings at the Virginia Tech campus in March 2007 put a bit of distance between Asians and the model minority stereotype. Chapter 5: LGBT Americans  Transgender: gat man who wear women’s cloth and identify as essentially female.  Transvestites/ cross dressers: straight men who like to wear women’s clothes.  Some people add a Q for the LGBT to make reference to those who are questioning.  Gay life that consisted of a Saturday night in a hidden away bar is now a broad and diverse movement of all kind of gay lifestyles.  According to a 2008 Packaged Fact study, there are 15 to 16 million LGBT adults living in the US with a purchasing power of $712.  LGBT marketing is about belonging to a group with a shared sense of history and a vision of unity  It’s not easy being gay o Like African Americans, the collective history of gays has not been without its stings. o A majority of gays have experienced discrimination. o Long time ago, the presence of gays in the media was disguised and hidden behind a curtain.  Yep, I’m gay o Ellen’s coming out was significant, story line son the show began to center on gay themes.  When the character Ellen came out, millions of Americans were forced to look at sexual orientation in a more open light. o A 2007 Pew survey showed that support for gay marriage among the millennials (generally aged 18, 19) was nearly 20 points higher than for all adults. o An entire generation is coming of age in an era where being gay or lesbian is no big deal. o The growing acceptance of gays and lesbians showed up in various polls.  Ex: a 2008 Zogby International survey showed that more than six in ten Americans were open to a gay president. o Is gay the new black?  Advertising to gays and lesbians in the gay and lesbian press is coming, but otitis emerging in mainstream media as well. Examples off ads:  A man is waiting for another man with a bouquet of flowers, and ignores al the beautiful women that are next to him, and he says: Philadelphia and it countryside have a long history of making everyone feel welcome and free”. Another man walks up to him. The tagline says: “Come to Philadelphia. Het your history straight, and your nonlife gay”.  Two Snapple’s bottles: one as a bride and one as a groom. Are walking down the aisle, when another bottle of Snapple dress as a man, appears, and live the church with the groom, abandoning the bride. o Ikea has been successful in not just showing gays as stereotypical singe, party people, but it also pioneered in showing the nesting behavior of many gay men.  Ikea shows gays as being part of an ad’s ensemble. o Gays and lesbians ask themselves if advertisers really care about them, or only want their money.  Getting your company’s house in order o LGBT community closely watches what companies do behind scenes. o Ads are not enough to reach gays and lesbians. o Home depot had to agree to prove domestic partnership benefits for its gay’s employees.  United we stand o American earliness had a problem, when they didn’t let a person with AIDS to an airline. So, they decided to incorporate LGBT issues into the diversity of strategy of the company.  During the past years, American Airlines earned a lot of money by outreaching gay people.  Dirty Dancing with the religious right o Supporting the gay community is not without risks. That’s one reason why support is so appreciated by LGBT consumers. o The antigay American Family Association (AFA), regularly does battle against what is calls the radical homosexual agenda, and is notorious door urging boycotts of companies that support the gay community, like Propter and Gamble, Kraft, Walgreen… o In 2000 P&G run an ad in a Toronto gay publication. Aside from the Toronto gay market, the ad went largely unnoticed. Until for years later, when P&G came in support of a measure to repeal a 1993 amendment to gays. Pretty certain that no Company  AFA set up a website: P& to highlight the ad and spotlight what it considered to be the company’s dirty laundry.  AFA asked to boycott three P&G products: Cres toothpaste, Tide and Pampers.  African American and gay o It is very difficult to come out of the closet in the African-American community, at church, with their Friends, and with their parents. o Many of the woman had children and were in partnered relationships. o The women were equally as likely to identify strongly with being woman. o For men, identification was more about race ad sexual orientation. o Africa-American lesbians felt pretty certain that no Company would dare to focus on them; it would be too much of a stretch. o Woman identified strongly with clearly delineated groups: “studs” who tended to wear baggy clothes and baseball caps; and “femmes” who conformed more closely to the traditional image of women. o For gay African Americans, choosing with identity to embrace is difficult, because usually face strong resistance from black Friends, family, and church, who are unable to acknowledge that African Americans, are engaging in the same sex relations  New American pride o Gay culture is mainstream, we have gay networks, gay sitcoms and gay westerns. o In the realm of corporate America, companies compete for gay customers and face boycotts for not standing by the gay community. o A Gallup poll conducted in May 2007, found that 89 percent of US citizens believe that gays and lesbians should have protection against workplace discrimination.  Employs could be fired simple for being gay in 30 states o Today’s generation of lesbians and gay men are forging a new consciousness that is based on having the ability to define one’s self on one’s own terms. o The rise in the visibility and acceptance of gays has been precipitous relative to the other segments.


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