Music History II - Test 1
Music History II - Test 1 MUTH 25600
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by sconsidine on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUTH 25600 at Ithaca College taught by Dr. Mark A. Radice in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see History and Literature of Music II in Music at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Music History II - Test 1 Study Guide -Enlightenment - based on reason, nature, and progress and knowledge being used to improve the human condition -Jean-Philippe Rameau - wrote Traite de l’harmonie in 1722 (treatise on harmony) -identiﬁed characteristic features of functional harmony, chord, and fundamental bass and understood root position and inversions -Style galant - French word for modern. Mostly written during 1740-1770 by Germans (mainly Nürnberg, Augsburg) -featured: periodic structure, homophonic texture, motifs rather than melodies, murky bass, easy to intermediate, uses hand crossings, amateur, female keyboard players, diatonic, and ﬂexible division of the beat -Versuch über die wahre Art das Klavier zu spielen - essay on true art of playing keyboard, written in 1753 by Carl Phillipp Emanuel Bach, gives modern keyboard ﬁngering -Empﬁndsamer Stil - emotional style, features unpredictable changes in harmony, chromaticism, and rhythms, utilized by Carl Phillipp Emanuel Bach -ex. Fantasy in F, Wq 59 No. 5 -features: clavichord, graduated dynamics, very improvisatory, surprising harmonic shifts, constantly changing texture, unusual performance instructions -Carl Phillipp Emanuel Bach - wrote a multitude of music in a variety of styles, court of Frederick the Great, music director of 5 churches, wrote Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments -favored the clavichord, but gradually began writing for the pain -Prussian and Württemberg sonatas showed a new style of writing for keyboard -established 3 movement sonata form -showed expressiveness outside of baroque style -utilized galant style (important melody, clear sections, frequent cadences, little accompaniment) -slow movement show off empﬁndsamer style -ex. NAWM 114 Sech Clavier-Sonaten für Kenner und Liebhaber - IV, second movement -opera buffa - comic opera, derived from the intermezzo -featured: small casts of 2-3, acts of 10-15 minutes, reduced orchestra (often just basso continuo and strings), usually with basso buffo -ex. Giovanni Batista Pergolesi, La serva padrona (the maid as the mistress), 1733 -da capo aria - 1) ritornello 2) vocal 3) contrasting B section, modulation? 4) repeat ritornello 5) vocal -ex. NAWM 107,“Son imbrogialto” from La serve padrona -opera seria - serious opera, main librettist was Pietro Trapassi -opera reform - worked to abandon d.c./d.s. arias, eliminate coloratura ornamentation, imbue the overture with dramatic purpose, and extended, highly integrated scene -main people behind this: Christoph Willibald Gluck, Ranieri di Calzibighi, and Jean- Georges Noverre -ex. NAWM 110, Christoph Willibald Gluck, Orfeo ed Euridice, 1762 -lied - German song, features: periodic structure, folk-like melodies, syllabic declamation, strophic form -composers: Telemann, Carl Philippe Emanuel Bach, Carl Heinrich Graun -William Billings- 1746-1800, composer from New England colonies, wrote plain tunes and later fudging tunes, but with bad counterpoint because he was not classically trained -ex. NAWM 112, Continental Harmony, 1794 -chamber ensembles - string quartet, accompanied sonata, piano trio -quatuor brillante (virtuostic), quatuor d’airs connus (of known melodies) -ex. Romanus Hoffstetter, Andante cantabile of “Haydn’s” Op. 3, No. 5 -orchestra - usually included ﬂute, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 12-16 strings, keyboard with possible additions of trumpet, timpani, clarinet -Heinrich Christoph Koch - wrote Introductory Essay on Composition, set of guidelines fro sonata form and symphony form -sonata: 2 large, repeated sections -symphonies: 3 movements - exposition, development, and recapitulation with possible coda -Mannheim - extremely renowned orchestra who played works of Johann Stamitz -characteristics: uniﬁed section bowing, four-movement plan, singing allegro ﬁrst movement in sonata form with contrasting secondary theme, pairs of oboes and horns, minuet and trio as third movement, energetic, presto ﬁnale, Mannheim “rocket” (arpeggiation of whatever tonic key the piece is in), and Mannheim “steam roller” (reiteration of an idea, every time it is repeated the instrumentation is expanded and dynamic is increased) -ex. NAWM 116, Symphony in E-ﬂat, ca. 1755 -sinfonia concertante - features: orchestral work of 2-3 movements, 2-9 soloists, orchestra as accompaniment, public concert repertoire, “easy listening,” slow movements no slower than Andante -ex. NAWM 117, Johann Christian Bach, Concerto for Keyboard and Strings, E-ﬂat, Op. 7, No. 5, ca. 1770 -Franz Joseph Haydn - 1732-1809 -went to Catholic school in Hainburg where he sang in Vienna Choir Boys -hired by the Esterhazy family -1761 - Haydn hired by Paul Anton Esterhazy -1766 - Nikolaus I very enthusiastic about music with multiple venues at residence (opera house, large concert hall, etc.), wrote chamber music, orchestral music, opera, mass compositions, church music -1790 - Anton II dismissed musical staff -1794 - Nikolaus II married to Princess Marie Hermengild who was enthusiastic about Roman Catholic church music, wrote masses/oratorios -1779 - Haydn signs a contract allowing him to sell music -Fürnberg Symphonies -features: fourteen early symphonies, seven in 4 movements, six in 3 movement, 4 movement design sometimes sonata da chiesa format -Sturm und Drang symphonies -features: preference for minor keys, 4-movements organized as sonata da chiesa, quotations of Gregorian chant, increased attention to dynamics, unison forte passages, use of syncopations, wider melodic leaps, slow movements at adagio tempo with strings con sordini, revival of canon, fugue, and counterpoint, occasional departures from 4-movement plan -String Quartets -Op. 1,2 - 1764, 1766, arrangements of divertimentos -Op. 9, 17 - 1770, 1771, quatuor brillante style, written for Luigi Tomasini -Op. 20 - Sun Quartets, 1772, conceived as set of 6, characteristics of Sturm und Drang especially with contrapuntal writing, achieved equality of four instruments -Op. 33 - Gli Scherzi/Russian Quartets, 1781, written in “new” style, regular periodic structure, humor, appeal to average listener -ex. NAWM 118, String Quartet in E-ﬂat Major, Op. 33, No. 2 (The Joke) -Oratorios -inﬂuence of G.F. Handel (as a consequence of London visits) -1798 Die Schöpfung/Creation -libretto intended for Handel; translated into German by Gottfried van Swieten, unusually large orchestra with trombones, clarinets, and contrabassoons, and adventurous harmonic idiom -ex. Part I: “Depiction of Chaos” 1801 Die Jahreszeiten/Seasons
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