Test 2 Study Guide
Test 2 Study Guide ANTH 1102
Popular in Introduction to Anthropology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
verified elite notetaker
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1102 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Birch in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.
Reviews for Test 2 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/14/16
Test 2 Study Guide Term Identification Define term. What is its importance in the context of this class and its material? 1. Evolutionary tree: a branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics. 2. Carl von Linné (Linnaeus): characterized living things into species based on overall similarities and the ability of animals to interbreed; viewed these changes as part of the Creator’s orderly plan 3. Charles Darwin: naturalist who published “The Origin of Species” explaining natural selection. (selection favored biological forms through differential reproductive success) – “it is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change” 4. “Mitochondrial Eve”: In human genetics, Mitochondrial Eve is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA), in a direct, unbroken, maternal line, of all currently living humans, who is estimated to have lived approximately 100,000–200,000 years ago. 5. Genes: area in a chromosome pair that determines, wholly or partially, a particular biological trait; portion of DNA molecules that do the actual directing of the synthesis of proteins 6. Genotype: the genetic (hereditary) makeup of an organism 7. Phenotype: the physical makeup of an organism 8. Catastrophism: the theory that changes in the earth's crust during geological history have resulted chiefly from sudden violent and unusual events. 9. Uniformitarianism: belief that natural forces at work today also explain past events 10. Natural selection: selection of favored forms through differential reproductive success 11. Biological variation: biological differences between human beings are real, important and apparent 12. Mutation: the ultimate source of evolutionary change is the mutation of genes through error in the copying of DNA 13. Macroevolution: larger-scale or more significant genetic changes in a population or species, usually over a longer time period, which result in speciation 14. Microevolution: genetic changes in a population or species over a few, several, or many generations, but without speciation 15. Punctuated equilibrium: certain events can cause rapid and dramatic change; there may also be long periods of time with no significant change between these dramatic episodes 16. Race: an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis – not biologically extinct; cultural 17. “Great races”: mongoloid, negro, Caucasian 18. Haplogroups: lineage or branch of human family tree marked by one or more genetic mutations 19. Chromosome: double helix, genes coiled tightly together, DNA combined with protein, inherited from both parents, 23 pairs in each human being 20. DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, genetic material, a complex molecule that contains information that can direct the synthesis of proteins, unzip on central axis to duplicate 21. Melanin: a natural sunscreen produced by skin cells responsible for pigmentation 22. Vitamin D production: produced from contracting sunlight, needed for strong bones 23. Thomson’s nose rule: association between nose form and temperature for those who have lived for many generations in areas they now inhabit – the colder your climate is, the longer your nose will be to give the air time to warm before entering the respiratory system 24. Bergmann’s rule: smaller of two bodies similar in shape has more surface area per unit of weight – the cooler it is, the shorter and stockier your body will be 25. Allen’s rule: relative sizes of protruding body parts increase with temperature 26. Primatology: the study of nonhuman primates, including their behavior and social life 27. Jane Goodall: studied chimpanzees and their environment, one of the most influential primatologist 28. Prosimians: the primate suborder that includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers; more distant relative of humans 29. Anthropoidea: monkeys, apes, humans 30. Playrrhines: new world monkeys with broad septum, flat nose, and arboreal characteristics 31. Catarrhines: old world monkeys, apes and humans with narrow septum, sharp nose, some arboreal and some terrestrial 32. Sexual dimorphism: marked differences in male and female biology besides the contrasts in breasts and genitals – males tend to be larger than females due to terrestrial nature and greater temperament/aggression 33. Affiliative behavior: grooming, hugging, kissing, picking bugs, cooperative behavior 34. Geological timescale: system of chronological measurement that relates stratigraphy to time, and is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other Earth scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred throughout Earth's history 35. Paleocene: 66-56 million years ago 36. Eocene: 56-39 million years ago 37. Oligocene: 34-23 million years ago 38. Fayum Depression: Egypt, once a tropical rainforest, fossils of Oligocene primates 39. Miocene: 23-5 million years ago 40. Proconsul: the last common ancestor of old world apes and monkeys before they split 41. Gigantopithecus: late Miocene primate with massive jaw bone and teeth, around 1200 pounds standing 3 meters tall – largest ape ever to live (not an ancestor) 42. Sahelanthropis tchadensis: discovered 10 years ago in Chad approximately 7 mya. May be related to chimps and humans but could be its own dead end 43. Hominid: the superfamily to which apes and human belongs; any fossil or living human, chimpanzee or gorilla 44. Hominin: hominids excluding the African apes; all the human ancestors that ever existed 45. Foramen magnum: when forward, shifts the center of gravity to support bipedalism 46. Orrorin tugenensis: the hole in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes 47. Ardipithecus ramidus: approximately 4.4 million years old; pelvis is transitional between arboreal and terrestrial – shift to bipedal existence due to drying out of African climate 48. “Ardi”: famous Ardipithecus ramidus found in 2010 49. Kenyanthropus platyops: discovered in Kenya 1999; approximately 3.5 million years old – raised the possibility that two hominin lineages existed as far back as 3.5 million years ago 50. Australopithecines: an extinct genus of small-brained,large-toothed bipedal hominids that lived in Africa between one and four million years ago 51. A. Anamensis: approximately 4 mya, likely bipedal, fragmentary fossil record, still had longer forelimbs but similar pelvis to humans 52. A. Afarensis: approximately 3-3.8 million years, ape-like crania, bipedal, sexual dimorphism 53. Lucy: female A. afarensis found in the 1970’s 54. Laetoli Footprints: 3.6 million years old footprints found in volcanic ash – evidence of human-like bipedal locomotion (two parents and a child?) 55. A. africanus: 3-2 mya, erect bipedals about 1-1.5 meters tall, ape-like skull, teeth for chewing in hominin fashion 56. A. boisei: (robust australopithecines) 2-1 mya, thick bones for their size with prominent muscle markings, enormous teeth and jaw, sagittal crest for chewing muscles, chewing machine adapted to arid environment 57. A. robustus: (robust australopithecines) 2-1 mya, thick bones for their size with prominent muscle markings, enormous teeth and jaw, sagittal crest for chewing muscles, chewing machine adapted to arid environment 58. Sagittal crest: a bony ridge on the top of the skull to which the jaw muscles are attached 59. Oldowan tradition: pattern of stone making ~2.6 mya, broken to create sharp edges, effective for cutting and scraping, stone fits well into hands 60. Great Rift Valley: 61. Homo habilis: 1.9-1.4 mya, East Africa, bipedal, brain somewhat bigger than australopithecine, same plas as stone tools 62. Homo erectus: 1.9 mya-300,000 BP, East Africa, Asia, Europe, smaller jaws, human-like body, much larger brain 63. Lower Paleolithic: homo erectus, acheulian tools, spear technology, shelters, clothing, language 64. Acheulian tradition: tool tradition solely in this time period; worked on two sides of rock rather than one – chipping on both sides make it a cleaner cutting edge, greater efficiency, tools for specific tasks, more complex production sequence 65. Chert: shiny stone used in acheulian tool making 66. Obsidian: a hard, dark, glasslike volcanic rock formed by the rapid solidification of lava without crystallization 67. Schönningen site 68. Hypoglossal canal: homo erectus had a modern-sized hypoglossal canal, serving as biological evidence to their language abilities 69. Middle Paleolithic: archaic homo sapiens, including Neanderthals, bettwen 300,000 and 30,000 BP 70. H. antecessor: 1.2 mya – 800,000 BP, likely evolved from homo erectus; 8- fossils of 6 individuals found in caves – cabibalism or ritual? 71. H. heidelbergensis: 700,000-200,000 BP, Europe, Asia, Africa; formed two species with phenotypic differences 72. Sima de Los Huesos: homo heidelbergensis fossil site, 300,000 BP – male and female children and adults; deliberately placed remains; best remain basin in the world 73. Levalloisian technique: a method of stone tool manufacturing using a specially prepared core – shape it in a way that the core is a step to a finished product – the actual flake is the tool (spear points or sharp cutting tools) 74. Composite tools: tools made by hafting bifaces and flakes in wood handles (middle Paleolithic) – variety of uses for tools 75. H. neaderthalensis: middle Paleolithic (130,000-50,000 BP in Europe and West Asia), image problem of “cave man”, 99.5% genetically identical to us – same posture, manual capabilities and movements 76. Mousterian tradition: elaborated on Levalloisian techniques – great variety of tool types, increase in complexity of tool kit for hunting and processing, different purposes 77. Shanidar Cave: Iraq; Neanderthal found buried with animal bones and pollen – ritual/ceremony? 50-60,000 BP; cared for injured and elderly 78. Cro-Magnon: rock shelter in France; setting of first homo sapien remains found from approximately 31,000 BP 79. Upper Paleolithic: Neanderthals disappear, only homo sapiens remain by the end of the period, 50,000-10,000 BP, blade tools Short Answer Questions 1. Discuss the origins of the theory of evolution and the earlier concepts from which it drew. Evolution was an idea first developed by Charles Darwin with his concept of natural selection. The abler an organism is to genetically adapt to environmental changes, the more likely they will survive. Herbert Spencer also suggested the concept of “survival of the fittest”. 2. Describe the process of natural selection and provide an example of natural selection operating upon phenotypic change in a species according to this process. Natural selection is when an organism has a better chance at survival due to its great genetic adaptability to its environment. An example may be the increased population of long-necked giraffes due to a decline in low shrubbery. 3. What is the difference between genotype and phenotype, and what is the connection between them? Genotype is an organisms genetic make up. Phenotype is its expressed, physical and observable make up based on this genotype. 4. How does the concept of a population influence evolutionary change? A population is a group of organisms in which breeding and reproduction may occur. As a population evolves, mutations occur that either help or hurt the species as a whole, allowing or disallowing its continued existence. 5. What are the 4 major sources of change in evolutionary theory? Briefly define each source of change. Mutation: a mistake in the copying of DNA producing a new gene Genetic drift: chance fluctuations in the gene pool Gene flow: when new alleles are introduced by a nearby population Natural selection: adaptation 6. What is meant by the term “Mitochondrial Eve” (as used by Spencer Wells) and about how long ago did she exist? She is the single person we are all genetically related to as a common ancestor. She was the basis of all mitochondrial diversity in the world today, existing about 200,000 years ago. 7. What are clines, and what is their relationship to the concept of “race”? Clines are the gradual change in certain characteristics exhibited by members of a series of adjacent populations of organisms of the same species. These “clines” create different races in the homo sapiens species. 8. What are some of the problems with the concept of ‘race’ as it was conceived in the 18 and 19 century? Many viewed “race” as a difference in skin color, but it takes culture into account as well. The “great races” – negroes, Caucasians, and mongoloids – do not cover all populations – no single trait can be used as basis for racial classification. 9. What are some of the differences between human biological variation and forms of racial classification? Human biological variation is genetic, science tested fact of adaptation and natural selection whereas racial classification is a product of socially structured categories. 10. What is the connection between skin color and latitude? Skin color is a product of genes adapting to the environment. The greater amount of UV radiation, the darker the skin is due to melanin, a natural sunscreen, to which is responsible for skin pigmentation. 11. Think back to the Guess Who game you played in class. This game was based on a study. What was one of the major findings from this study about how Americans deal with race? Why is this finding important? This study showed that a great deal of people was reluctant to ask about race when playing the game. Even fewer players said “African American” or “black” when they were playing with a black partner. This dis-comfortability demonstrates how complicated the social dynamics are when talking about race today. 12. What is lactose tolerance, and how did this adaption evolve? Lactose tolerance is a genetic mutation, allowing humans to digest lactose properly with the enzyme lactase. This allows for them to eat and drink dairy products. This adaption may have evolved due to the increased amounts of lactose in the human diet thousands of years ago. 13. By exploring altitude as a feature of the environment, what can we learn about human biological adaptation? Humans are naturally adapted to lowland environments. By studying humans in lower and high altitudes, we can see how the human body must adapt to increase its chances of survival regarding air pressure, temperature, and sunlight exposure. 14. What are the two suborders of primates? List two species within each suborder? Prosimmi (prosimians): more distant relatives of humans – tarsiers, lemurs, lorises Anthropoidea (anthropoids) monkeys, apes, humans 15. What are the primary differences between Old and New World primates? Old world: narrow spectrum, sharp nose, some arboreal and some terrestrial – monkeys, apes, humans New world: broad spectrum, flat nose, all are arboreal – monkeys 16. In your own words, discuss the main reasons why anthropologists study primates. By studying primates, anthropologists are in a sense studying ourselves. We are able to look at their evolution and compare it to ours, we are able to look at their social communities and compare them to our own societies. 17. List and briefly describe the six evolutionary tendencies of primates. Grasping: opposable thumbs Reliance on sight: good depth perception Brain complexity: enlargement and increased capacity of brains Parental investment: single offspring Sociality: cooperation Hands as primary tactile organs: accurate sense of touch 18. What are some of the differences between chimpanzee, bonobo, and gorilla social groups? Chimpanzee: 50 or more chimps, spread out across within a range, dominant ranking Gorilla: about 20 that are always together, mature silver back male is leader Bonobo: large communities split into ~ 20 bonobo units 19. What is the difference between a hominid and a hominin? Provide two examples of hominins and two examples of non-hominin hominids. Hominid: the superfamily to which apes and humans belong – any fossil or living human, chimp or gorilla Hominin: hominids excluding the African apes – all human ancestors that ever existed 20. What is Ardipithecus ramidus? What clues does its pelvis provide about the development of bipedalism and about the environment at the time that it lived? They lived approximately 4.4 mya with a pelvis between arboreal and terrestrial, showing the transition from living in trees to walking on land. This may relate to the drying out of the African climate. 21. List and describe three major skeletal indicators of bipedalism. Position of foramen is more forward, allowing center of gravity to shift over hips Wider, shorter pelvis Stable arched foot with no opposable big toe 22. What do early stone tools tell us about early culture and cognition? The evolution of stone tool making shows the evolution of the brain and thinking. Older ancestors may have used whatever they had near them to make a single tool whereas more recent ancestors had forethought and intentionality for their products, such as what materials to use and the wide variety of uses they may cover. 23. What was the role of meat consumption in our evolutionary history? Meat seems to be first acquired by scavenging for dead carcasses rather than hunting. Stone tools, however, allow for the addition of meat into primate diet, thus increasing brain size and activity due to the increased about of protein and calorie intake. 24. What was the first hominin to migrate out of Africa, and what are 3 novel behaviors of this hominin as compared to their evolutionary ancestors? The first hominin to migrate out of Africa was homo erectus. They used fire, made systematically produce tools and developed seasonal central places. 25. Explain the biological differences between Homo habilis and Homo erectus. Homo habilis: 1.9-1.4 mya, australopithecine body (bipedal), larger brain than australopithecine Homo erectus: 1.9-300,000 BP, smaller jaw, homo sapien-like body, much larger brain (most likely due to meat) 26. Why was the control and use of fire so essential to Homo erectus in terms of a) biological and b) cultural development? Heat, light, defense – movement into colder territories, protection from predators, cook meat – more protein. 27. What are two cultural behaviors of Neanderthals discovered through paleoarchaeology that indicate that our close evolutionary cousins were more similar to humans than previously thought? There have been fossil remains found with animal bones and pollen, suggesting that Neanderthals may have had specific rituals/burial traditions. A body of an elderly man was also found that had evidence of healed traumas, many of which would have killed the Neanderthal if he did not have help to eat and get around. 28. Explain the differences between these stone tool types and/or traditions: Oldowan, Acheulian, Levallois, Mousterian. Oldowan: rocks broken to create sharp cutting edges Acheulian: tool tradition from lower Paleolithic time period in which rocks were worked on on both sides to create symmetrical tools for specific tasks from carefully selected materials. Levallois: a method of stone tool manufacture using a specially prepared core – the actual flakes of stone were the tools used as sharp cutting edges and spear points. Mousterian: elaborated on ^ to include a greater variety of tool types and more complexity of the tool kit for different purposes. 29. What is though to be the difference between Neanderthal and modern human brains, and why might this have contributed to the reasons for the Neanderthals’ eventual extinction? Although Neanderthals had larger brains and more capacity, much of this was used for vision and body control whereas homo sapiens are abler to act on their feet with a frontal lobe of decision making and social interactions. 30. List 3 features of the H. sapiens crania that are different from other, earlier hominins. A more vertical forehead A diminished brow ridge A chin
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'