Intro to sociology exam 1 study guide
Intro to sociology exam 1 study guide 01:920:101
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 01:920:101 at Rutgers University taught by Kristen Springer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 175 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 02/14/16
Sociology Introduction to Sociology (Springer) Study Guide for Exam #1 KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES 1. Ex. What is a modern day example of Marxist theory? a. Class conflict. The 99% against the 1% b. Wealth distribution 2.Several key theorists a. Durkeim i. “Social facts”: people can be studied just as natural science can be studied. ii. Interested in social order iii. Research exemplar: Suicide (1897) iv. Found that suicide rates in Europe in the late 19 century were highly patterned: v. Unmarried > married vi. Childless > parents vii. Protestants > Catholics viii. “If suicide were purely an act of individual desperation, then we would not expect to see noticeable changes in rates from year to year, or society to society.” b. Weber i. Technological and scientific development “rational society”, where social and economic life is based on efficiency and technical knowledge. ii. McDonaldization 1. McDonaldization is a term coined by George Ritzer, in McDonaldization of Society. 2. Rationalize a task and break it down into smaller parts to make it more efficient, faster, cheaper and very predictable no matter where c. Marx i. communism ii. “All human history thus far is the history of class struggles.” 3.Several key theoretical paradigms ex. functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic interactionism (which guide much of the research in sociology) a. Functionalism i. What are “functions?” 1. Manifest: obvious and intended purposes of institutions, practices and behaviors. 2. Latent: not obvious or unintended purposes of institutions, practices, and behaviors ii. Functional vs. dysfunctional? iii. Critiques iv. Emphasis on balance, status quo v. Does not ask “for whom” is something functional? b. Conflict theory i. Karl marx is the father and is a component of the 4 paradigms of sociology. 1. Functionalism 2. Conflict theory 3. Symbolic interaction 4. Feminists perspective c. Symbolic interactionism i. Looks at how individuals interact with one another. SPECIFIC CONCEPTS/TOPICS: Introduction to Sociology What is sociology? o is the systematic study of human social life, groups, societies and the social context in which behavior occurs. The “sociological imagination” (Mills) o Human lives are of biology and history. The world around us shapes our lives. From the book, “each of us live in a very small orbit, and our worldview is limited by the social institutions we encounter on a daily basis…. the average person according to mills doesn’t really understand our personal problems as part of any kind of larger framework or series of goingson. Mills argues that we all need to overcome our limited perspective. What is necessary is a certain quality of mind that makes it possible to understand the larger meaning of our experiences. This quality of mind is the sociological imagination.” (pg 5) Personal troubles versus public issues (Mills) o Personal troubles “occur within the character of the individual and within the range of his immediate relations with others” Someone may have low selfesteem and become anorexic because they want to be thinner. This could be a personal trouble because this person is making these choices, or could have a mental/medical condition. o Public issues “have to do with matters that transcend these local environments…and have do with the organization of…the institutions of a society as a whole.” Someone may have low selfesteem and become anorexic because they want to be thinner. This could be a public issue because they media, movies, and the fashion industry portray skinny as the preferred body type. There is also certain statistics that go into why someone might become anorexic such as a certain amount of women every year are diagnosed with such a condition. social structure o “the underlying regularities or patterns in how people behave and in their relationships with one another.” (pg 5) o Hierarchy of society, respect your elders, listen and obey authority, you do as your told. o You sit quietly and take notes while the professor is talking. No one told you to do that, you just know that is what you are supposed to do and if you do any different it would be out of the social norm and considered taboo. o Frame works that constrain and permit behaviors o Give societies coherence social norms o “principles or rules of social life that everyone is expected to observe” o Stopping at red light, going on green. o See ex. Above in social structure. o Wearing clothes in public. Socialization o The learning of the social norms through growing up and following them. o “the social processes through which children develop and awareness of social norms and values and achieve a distinct sense of self. Although socialization processes are particularly significant in infancy and childhood, they continue to some degree throughout life. “ (pg 8) theory o A set of ideas that provides explanations for a broad range of phenomena. sociological theory o a set of ideas that explains a wide range of human behaviors. globalization o “Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa” (Giddens, 1990: 64). social construction of reality o “An idea or practice that a group of people agree exists. It is maintained over time by people taking its existence for granted.” o “How are things that we take to be natural socially constructed? People tend to see their own way of thinking and doing as natural What people see as natural, sociologists see as created by human beings What people think and do are products of culture and history o Ex. Racism. o Blue was once for girls and pink was for boys. Now it is the opposite but we (past few generations) never saw/knew it used to be different. agency/structure o agency the capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free choices o structure those factors of influence (such as social class, religion, gender, ethnicity, customs, etc.) that determine or limit an agent and his or her decisions. Auguste Comte’s main contribution to sociology o French philosopher who coined the term sociology o Believed accurate observation and description are highest form of knowledge. o Scientific knowledge can be used to improve people’s lives Emile Durkheim and his study of suicide o “Social facts”: people can be studied just as natural science can be studied. o Interested in social order o Research exemplar: Suicide (1897) th o Found that suicide rates in Europe in the late 19 century were highly patterned: o Unmarried > married o Childless > parents o Protestants > Catholics o “If suicide were purely an act of individual desperation, then we would not expect to see noticeable changes in rates from year to year, or society to society.” anomie o a social factor that Durkheim attributed to suicide o a feeling of aimlessness or despair provoked by modern social life social facts o from Durkheim who believed they should be studied scientifically. o Aspects of social life that shape our actions as individuals such as the state of the economy or the influence of religion. division of labor o the specialization of work tasks by means of which different occupations are combined within a production system. sociological ideas of Karl Marx o communism o “All human history thus far is the history of class struggles.” modern day example of Marx’s ideas o class conflict o socialism capitalism o economic system based on the private ownership of wealth which is invested and reinvested in order to produce profit. Max Weber’s main contributions to sociology o Technological and scientific development “rational society”, where social and economic life is based on efficiency and technical knowledge. o The rationalization of society is a concept that was created by Max Weber. bureaucracy o type of organization marked by a clear hierarchy of authority and the existence of written rules of procedures and staffed by full time salaried officials. rationalization o the process by which modern society has increasingly become concerned with: Efficiency: Achieving the maximum results with a minimum amount of effort. Predictability: A desire to predict what will happen in the future. Calculability: A concern with numerical data, i.e. statistics and scoring. Dehumanization: Employing technology as a means to control human behavior. functionalism: its core assumptions and limitations o Core assumptions o Society is greater than sum of its parts. o All social institutions contribute to balance and continuation of society o manifest versus latent functions o manifest functions functions of a type of social activity that are known to and intended by the individuals involved in the activity. o Latent functions Functional consequences that are not intended or recognized by the members of a social system in which they occur. functional versus dysfunctional o functional is with regard to order and balance as the normal state of society o dysfunctional aspects of social behavior means to focus on features of social life that challenge the existing order symbolic interactionism: its core assumptions and limitations o Core assumptions Symbols are the basis of human communication. Human interaction requires a “shared definition of the situation.” Social behavior is emergent and interactive, not predetermined. o Historical roots Social theorists like G. H. Mead and Blumer were opposed to notions of “empiricism” and “facts.” o Critiques Neglects social structures and persistent structured inequalities. Overemphasizes human need for cooperation and shared understanding. Symbol o One item used to stand for or represent another as on the case of a flag, which symbolizes a nation. key concerns of feminist theories o Gender relations and gender inequality are central to the study of society o Intersection of gender, race, and social class in social stratification and inequality intersectionality o a methodology of studying "the relationships among multiple dimensions and modalities of social relationships and subject formations" (McCall 2005). rational choice theory o Core assumptions Humans seek to maximize rewards and minimize punishments. Humans will engage in behaviors that are rewarded and cease behaviors that are punished (or where rewards are removed) o Critiques Humans viewed as overly rational and calculating. Ignores human ingenuity, creativity, agency, emotion and irrationality. Harriet Martineau o First women sociologist o Womens rights and for the abolition of slavery o Argued that when one studies society, one must focus on all its aspects, including key political, religious and social institutions. And must include all members because women were once not included in these studies. o First to turn sociological eye on ignored issues and institutions such as marriage, children, domestic and religious life and race relations W.E.B. Du Bois o First black to earn doctorate from Harvard. o Double consciousness A way of talking about identity through the lens of the experiences of African americans micro/macro sociology o micro study of human behavior in contexts of face to face interactions o macro study of large scale groups, organizations, or social systems Research Methods Steps in the research progress o After conducting a literature review, a researcher forms a hypothesis (study time affects exam grade) stating a potential relationship between two or more variables (study time, exam grade). o predictions o experiments or on site studying o report results and come to a conclusion independent and dependent variable o independent causes a change o dependent the thing that changes because of the independent variable’s presence exogenous variables o An exogenous variable is an acknowledgement that the variable exists only for setting arbitrary external conditions, and not in achieving a more realistic model behavior. correlation versus causation o correlation a relationship between two variables o causation a relationship in which one variable causes another variable to change qualitative and quantitative methods o quantitative research put into numbers surveys, experiments, content analysis etc o qualitative research put into words texts, interviews, photos, and recordings to help us understand social life. ethnography, participant observation, interviews. openended and closedended interviews o opened ended allows person to talk as much as they want o closed ended allows person to answer questions with only a choice of answers best methods for the four research questions/puzzles posed during class hypothesis o a testable statement linking two or more variables together in a relationship. Institutional Review Board o a group of scholars within a university who meet regularly to review and approve the research proposals of their colleagues and make recommendations for how to protect human subjects. The purpose and ethical issues raised by Humphrey’s Tea Room Trade study o ‘Watchqueen’ o License plates o 54% of the men were married o 38% were neither bisexual nor homosexual o Most of the men were successful, well educated, economically stable, and highly praised in the community. o Only 14% of the men he observed were homosexual and part of the gay community o Ethical question raised was that the subjects did not know they were being surveyed, may not have want to be watched. He basically stalked them to find out their license plates and then went to their houses and posed as a surveyor. Strengths and weaknesses of different research methodologies (surveys, observation, interviews, experiments) random sampling o sampling method in which a sample is chosen so that every member of the population has the same probability of being included comparative research o research that compares one set of findings on one society with the same type of findings on other societies Culture What is culture? o the entire way of life for a group of people (including both material and symbolic elements). o It is a lens through which one views the world and is passed from one generation to the next. o So tightly woven into the fabric of our lives that we barely acknowledge it. “Taken for granted” assumptions about how the world works. o Cultures serve as an important source of conformity necessary for a society’s social order. o Norms o the formal and informal rules regarding what kinds of behavior are acceptable and appropriate within a culture. o Specific to culture, time period and situation. o Can be formal such as the law, illegal and legal. o Or rules for playing soccer. o Or informal which are those that are not written down and are not spoken. Values o shared beliefs about what a group considers worthwhile or desirable, guide the creation of norms More o a norm that carries greater moral significance, is closely related to the core values of a group, and often involves severe repercussions for violators. Taboo o a norm engrained so deeply that even thinking about violating it evokes strong feelings of disgust, horror, or revulsion for most people. Folkway o is a loosely enforced norm that involves common customs, practices, or procedures that ensure smooth social interaction and acceptance. Society o Group of people living in a given territory governed by a common political authority and guided by a common culture Material versus symbolic culture (and examples) o Material any physical object to which we give social meaning. Objects associated with a cultural group, such as tools machines, utensils, buildings and art work Ex. High heelswomen and feminine. Hamburger fast food, big portions, obesity. The mall sign shopping culture o Symbolic the ideas associated with a cultural group ways of thinking (beliefs, values, assumptions) and ways of behaving (norms, interactions and communication) ex. The American flag is the symbol of freedom the peace sign is a symbol of peace the voters box is a symbol of voting for our elected officials and the freedom to do so signs or symbols such as the traffic signal are to meaningfully represent something gestures are the signs we make with our body, these gestures carry meaning middle finger, the L on the forehead and fingers crossed. Cultural universals o Grammatically complex language o Family systems and marriage o Incest prohibition o Art, dancing, and body adornments o Games, gift giving, and joking o Rules of hygiene Nacerima o People drill holes in their bodies. o Eat dead animals. o Paint their faces. o Ingest potions and substances that make them act silly. o Scrape their teeth everyday with foreign objects, as part of a “mouth rite.” o Engage in “ritual fasts” where they eat very little or nothing. o Burn their hair and skin. o Come together by the tens of thousands to watch groups engage in violent behavior. o Where is it? USA Ethnocentrism o the principle of using one’s own culture as a standard by which to evaluate another group or individual, leading to the view that cultures other than one’s own are abnormal Cultural relativism o the principle of understanding other cultures on their own terms, rather than judging according to one’s own culture. Multiculturalism o values diverse racial, ethnic, national, and linguistic backgrounds and so encourages the retention of cultural differences within society, rather than assimilation Assimilation o Acceptance of a minority group by a majority population in which the new group takes on the values and the norms of the dominant culture Subcultures o a group within society that is differentiated by its distinctive values, norms, and lifestyle. On the whole, they still abide with basic principles of dominant culture. Counterculture o a group within society that openly rejects and/or actively opposes society’s values and norms. Nationalism o Set of beliefs and symbols expressing identification with a national community. Academic Integrity Types of academic integrity violations o Plagiarism o Cheating o Fabrication o Facilitation of Dishonesty o Academic Sabotage o Violation of Research or Professional Ethics o Violations Involving Potentially Criminal Activity” consequences of these violations o separable A grade of XF (disciplinary F) for the course Disciplinary probation Dismissal from a departmental or school honors program Denial of access to internships or research programs Loss of appointment to academicallybased positions Loss of departmental/graduate program endorsements for internal and external fellowship support and employment opportunities Removal of fellowship or assistantship support Suspension for one or more semesters Dismissal from a graduate or professional program Permanent expulsion from the University with a permanent notation of disciplinary expulsion on the student’s transcript o Nonseparable Required participation in a noncredit workshop or seminar on ethics or academic integrity An assigned paper or research project related to ethics or academic integrity A makeup assignment that may be more difficult than the original assignment No credit for the original assignment A failing grade on the assignment A failing grade for the course Disciplinary warning or probation File with the Office of Student Conduct (All files kept for 10 years) separable and nonseparable offense o Separable offenses major infractions for which the possible sanctions include suspension or expulsion. o Nonseparable offenses less severe infractions for which the possible sanctions do not include suspension or expulsion from the University Section Terms read the handouts. Linneman's main finding and potential explanations How someone 'becomes' a marijuana user Spuriousness Barriers faced by lowwage workers o Housing o Insurance? o transportation
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