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BIOL 201 Dr. Margulies Unit 10.2

by: Maya Lee

BIOL 201 Dr. Margulies Unit 10.2 201

Marketplace > Towson University > 201 > BIOL 201 Dr Margulies Unit 10 2
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These notes cover everything that is going to be on Examlet 10.2
Intro to Cell BIOL & Genetics
Dr. Margulies
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maya Lee on Sunday February 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 201 at Towson University taught by Dr. Margulies in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.


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Date Created: 02/14/16
Maya Lee Bio 201 Unit 10.2 Translation The Structure of tRNA and Ribosomes  The ribosome is the key organelle in translation, but requires participation of mRNA,  tRNA and other factors.  Critical to this process is the interaction of the ribosomes with tRNA and mRNA.  For protein synthesis to proceed each amino acid must be attached to a tRNA with the  correct anticodon. This is a covalent bond. Aminoacyl­tRNA synthetases is the enzyme  needed to attach amino acids to tRNA.   tRNA Structure   Transfer RNA must be able to interact with mRNA and with amino acids  The structure of tRNA can be formed into a cloverleaf type of structure based on  intramolecular base­pairing that produces double=stranded regions.  This primary structure is then folded in space to form an L­shaped molecule that has two  functional ends: the acceptor stem and the anticodon loop  The loop at the bottom of the cloverleaf contains the anticodon sequence, which can  base­pair with codons in the mRNA  Amino acids are attached to the free, single­stranded­ OH end of the acceptor stem. The  acceptor stem is the 3’ end of the molecule, which always ends in 5’ CCA 3’. Trp operon Purpose is encodes enzymes to synthesis the amino acid tryptophan from scratch.  There’s a promoter, an operator, trp E, trp D, trp C, trp B, trp A (structural genes that  code enzymes) When there’s no tryptophan around is when we need to transcribe these genes The trp repressor binds to the operator, we want this bind to happen when there’s a lot of  tryptophan around.  When there’s low tryptophan the repressor is going to fall off the operator The operators do not change shape the repressor changes shape. Control at the Promoter At the promoter there’s a TATA box In order to get turned on for transcription there are special proteins called transcription  factors bind at a promoter for a gene now RNA polymerase gets glued to the promoter  and transcription can begin.  Eukaryotic mRNA’s can get spliced. Splicing is when Translation in bacteria occurs in the cytoplasm because that’s where the ribosomes are  located. Translation in a Eukaryotes occurs in the cytoplasm because that’s where the ribosomes  are located.  Transcription occurs in the nucleosome of a bacteria because that’s where DNA is  located.  Transcription in Eukaryotes occurs in the nucleus because that’s where DNA is located.  Transcription and Translation are coupled…they happen at the same time.  The Charging Reaction  The aminoacyl­tRNA synthetases must be able to recognize specific tRNA molecules as well as their corresponding amino acids.   Some aminoacyl­tRNA synthetases must be able to recognize more than one tRNA,  but each recognizes only a single amino acid Questions 1. How many aminoacyl­tRNA synthetases are present for each of the 20 common amino  acids? ­ One 2. The acceptor stem and the anticodon loop are the two functional ends of tRNA. 3. The enzymes that catalyze the attachment of amino acids to tRNA molecules are known  as aminoacyl­tRNA. 4. A charged tRNA molecule is composed of the tRNA attached to a (n) amino acid. 5. In translation, the initiation, elongation, and termination steps take place on which  structure? ­Ribosome 6. Which of these is not one of the three sites where RNA binds to the ribosome? ­ Polypeptide site  ­ RNA binds to these three: Exit site, Peptidyl site, and Aminoacyl site 7. The charging reaction attaches a particular amino acid to the transfer RNA. 8. The three stages of translation are initiation, elongation, and termination. 9. Put the events of elongation during translation in order from first to last starting at the  top: 1. Matching the tRNA anticodon up with an mRNA codon 2. Peptide bond formation 3. Translocation of the ribosome 10. The prokaryotic translation initiation complex consists of:  ­ A special initiator tRNA charged with N­formylmethionine ­ An mRNA molecule ­ The small ribosomal subunit 11. Match the type of chromosomal mutations with its definition:  Deletion: loss of a portion of a chromosome  Duplication: copying a portion of a chromosome  Inversion: segment of chromosome is broken in 2 places, reversed, and put  back together  Translocation: a piece of a chromosome is broken off and joined to another  chromosome 12. For proteins that are targeted to the ER, where is the signal sequence usually located? ­ At the beginning of the protein (first several amino acids added during translation) 13. Ribosomes move relative to which of the following RNAs? ­mRNA and tRNA 14. In eukaryotes, translation can occur either in the cytoplasm or on the Rough ER. 15. The start codon specifies which of the following amino acids? ­Methionine 16. This type of mutation happens when a single base in DNA is substituted with another base,  for example, an A becomes a G.  ­ PointO


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