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UT / History / ARH 303 / who sculpted st. george tabernacle?

who sculpted st. george tabernacle?

who sculpted st. george tabernacle?

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School: University of Texas at Austin
Department: History
Course: Survey of Renaissance Through Modern Art
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Art History, ARH303, dr. johns, and Exam 1
Cost: 50
Name: ARH303 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers material - Key Images, Reading Images, Key Terms, and Key Concepts both from the textbook and online lectures - for Dr. Johns' ARH303 Exam 1. Disclaimer: I do not own any of the images in this document.
Uploaded: 02/15/2016
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ARH 303 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE


who sculpted st. george tabernacle?



JAN. 25 (M)

Vasari’s “primi lumi”: the New Art of the Early Renaissance

KEY IMAGES

Anonymous, St. Francis Preaching to the Birds, fresco. 1290s

- Scene from the frescoes in the nave of the Upper Church, in  

the Basilica of San Francesco Assisi

- huge church built in his honor; large enough to accommodate  

the numerous pilgrims it attracted.

- consisted of a single long nave where crowds could gather;  

small windows; large expanses of wall surface; brick vault  


who painted mona lisa?



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supported by Gothic pointed arches

-elimination of lower side aisles simplified the space and made  

the walls more prominent.

- Wall surfaces became a magnet for artists from across Europe — “laboratory” for the  development and dissemination of 14th century Italian art

- most visible frescoes in the nave were painted below the windows – depicted life/ achievements of St. Francis

- important theme: St. Francis’ veneration of nature as a manifestation of divine workmanship - expressed Francis’ attitude that all creatures are connected

- scene is set outdoors; figures framed with trees and a blue background - figures are rendered naturalistically – the light upon their forms suggests their mass and  weight

- Francis if focus point of image: central position, halo around his head, downward glance - Body language expresses his intense engagement with the birds  


how high is David sculpture?



Don't forget about the age old question of ekkehard sinn

- Simplicity of the composition makes the fresco easily legible and memorable Page 1 of 42

Nicola Pisano, pulpit, marble. 1260, Baptistery, Pisa

-Hexagonal marble pulpit made for the Pisan Baptistery If you want to learn more check out cancusion

-Six sides rest on colored marble columns supported by classically

inspired capitals

-Above the capitals: small figures symbolizing the virtues

-In the spandrels: figures of the prophets

-One of the figures in the spandrels, Fortitude: male nude with a lion  

cub on his shoulder and lion skin in hand

-Either Greek hero Herakles, or Biblical hero Daniel

-Stands for the Christian virtue of Fortitude

- Body, proportions, and stance show Pisano’s study of Roman and Early Christian sculpture - Heroic nudity, posture, and stance all inspired by ancient models

- Relief scene: Nativity

- Densely crowded composition: combines Annunciation with the Birth of Christ - Carved in the manner of Roman sarcophagi (shallow box relief with solid convex shapes) - Virgin reflects tradition of Byzantine images of the Nativity

- Largest, most central figure, not proportionate to the rest

- Midwives washing the child, Jospeh’s wandering eyes ! give relief a human touch - Broad figures wrapped in classicizing draperies give the scene gravity and moral weight Don't forget about the age old question of which party system is most common in a dictatorship

Giotto, Scrovegni (Arena) Chapel, frescoes (The Lamentation) 1305-6, Padua

- “Arena Chapel” or “Scrovegni Chapel”  We also discuss several other topics like (b) Based on the formula in class, which ignores the mismatch between futures maturity and hedge period, how many futures contracts (in whole number) would the fund manager long or short, intending to eliminate the exposure to the market over the next tw
Don't forget about the age old question of comm-425 class notes

– the site once housed a Roman arena,  

but it was also built by Enrico Scrovegni,  

a Paduan banker

-structure:

-one-room hall covered with a barrel  

vault

- painted entirely in fresco

- walls divided into three registers, with narrative scenes representing the lives of the Virgin  and Christ

Page 2 of 42

- The Lamentation: moment of last farewell between Jesus, his mother, and friends - Tragic mood created by the formal rhythm of the design + gestures and expressions of  figures

- Low center of gravity, hunched figures, cool colors, bare sky = somber quality of scene - The “frozen” grief of the human mourners is set against the frantic movement of the angles in  the clouds

- Simplistic setting heightens the drama

- Slope of the hill directs our attention towards the heads of Christ and his mother - Barren and isolated tree on the hill symbolizes all of nature’s sorrow over Christ’s death + the  Tree of Knowledge (which will be restored to life through His sacrificial death) - Giotto’s frescoes in the Arena Chapel established his fame among his contemporaries

Duccio, Maestà, tempera/panel. 1308-11, Siena

- Large tempera altarpiece for the high altar  

of the cathedral

-“polyptych” – multi-paneled work

-Cathedral was dedicated to the Virgin Mary  

– represented Siena’s protector and patron

-Mary and child sit on a throne draped on  

golden cloth

- Virgin is largest and most impressive figure, surrounded by a balanced arrangement of saints  and angels with golden halos

- Reminiscent of Cimabue’s Madonna, but the rigid, angular draperies of Cimabue’s are  relaxed

- Gothic representation in the fluidity of the drapery, naturalness of the figures, communicating  glances

- On the back are small scenes from the lives of Christ and Virgin

- Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin: uses foreshortening to imply death - Uncluttered room, isolated figures – enhances the narrative

- Christ Entering Jerusalem:  

- Christ is placed closer to the apostles, more on the left side

- Conveys depth by the walls leading to the city, the gate framing the crowd, and the  buildings on the background

Page 3 of 42

- Figures are the same scale throughout

READING IMAGES

Andrea Pisano, South doors, Florence Baptistery

-New pair of bronze doors for the baptistery of Florence

-Finished and installed in 1336

-Bronze cast, gilded

-28 separate panels across the two panels of the doors

-represent scenes from the life of John the Baptists

-each vignette is framed by a Gothic quatrefoil (like those found on the  

exterior of French cathedrals

-within each frame is a projecting ledge to support the figures,  

landscape, or architectural background

- one relief, The Baptism of Christ, shows Pisano’s compositional technique: - Christ at the center, framed by John on the right in the act of baptism and an angelic  witness on the left

- the dov e symbolizing the Holy Spirit appears above Christ’s head

- emphasis on key figures, with little detail to distract from main narrative - simplicity of landscape and composition recall the frescoes at Assisi

Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned

-Cimabue of Florence

-large tempera panel depicting the Madonna Enthroned to sit on an altar in  the church of Santa Trinita in Florence

-Altarpiece is more than 12 feet high – devotional focus of the church

-Composition recalls Byzantine icons

-Mary occupies a heavy golden throne, with rows of angels on either side -Hebrew Bible prophets form a foundation for Mary’s throne  

-This shows the relationship between the Hebrew Bible and the New  

Testament

-Towering scale of Madonna + royal blue gown against a gold-leaf  

background draws the viewer’s attention to her

-o She gestures toward her son, to emphasize his presence

Page 4 of 42

- Cimabue uses linear gold elements to enhance her dignity – network of gold lines follows  the line of her body instead of creating abstract patterns

- Severe design and solemn expression emphasizes the monumental scale of the painting

Siena, Palazzo Pubblico

-Built a town hall as an expression of their city’s wealth and status

-Palazzo Pubblico served to house the city government + frame  

the Piazza del Campo, where the city’s economic, political,  

religious, and social life was played out

-Expresses the city’s rivalry with Florence and the Palazzo della  

Signoria

-Rises to three stories, supports a tower, terminates in castle-like  

battlements at the roofline  

-Has more windows and other openings, more ornamental and  

elegant façade

- Tower is intentionally taller than Florence’s

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Good Government in the Country

-View of the Sienese farmland

-First true landscape piece since ancient Roman times

-Depicts vineyards, farms, and pastures

-Represents an orderly hillside that results from a fruitful nature  

possessed by well-governed humans  

KEY TERMS

- Altarpiece: a work of art, especially a painting on wood, set above and behind an altar. - Baptistery: the part of a church used for baptism.

- Basilica: a large oblong hall or building with double colonnades and a semicircular apse,  used in ancient Rome as a court of law or for public assemblies.

- Cathedral: the principal church of a diocese, with which the bishop is officially associated. - Chapel: a small building for Christian worship, typically one attached to an institution or  private house.

Page 5 of 42

- City-state: a city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state. - Donor: a person who donates something, especially money to a fund or charity. - Franciscan order: A religious order founded by Francis of Assisi, known, like Francis, for  devotion to poverty.  

- Fresco: a painting done rapidly in watercolor on wet plaster on a wall or ceiling, so that the  colors penetrate the plaster and become fixed as it dries.

- Gold leaf: gold that has been beaten into a very thin sheet, used in gilding. - Medium: the intervening substance through which impressions are conveyed to the senses  or a force acts on objects at a distance.

- Modeling: the art or activity of making three-dimensional models.

- Naturalism: a style and theory of representation based on the accurate depiction of detail. - Panel: a flat or curved component, typically rectangular, that forms or is set into the surface  of a door, wall, or ceiling.

- Pulpit: a raised platform or lectern in a church or chapel from which the preacher delivers a  sermon.

- Sinopia: a dark reddish-brown natural earth pigment, whose reddish color comes from  hematite, a dehydrated form of iron oxide.

- Tempera Painting: a method of painting with pigments dispersed in an emulsion miscible  with water, typically egg yolk. The method was used in Europe for fine painting, mainly on  wood panels, from the 12th or early 13th century until the 15th, when it began to give way to  oils.

KEY CONCEPTS

- Humanism

- Neutralism

- Painting materials and techniques (fresco and tempera)

- The influence of Byzantine art

- The growth of self-governed city-states

KEY LOCATIONS

Assisi, Pisa, Padua, Siena, Florence

Page 6 of 42

JAN. 27 (W)

Van Eyck, Bosch, and Netherlandish painting in the 15th century

KEY IMAGES

Limbourg brothers, July, Très Riches Heures, color, ink, parchment

- Astrological signs for July

- Cancer the crab, God as Apollo, Leon the Lion

- Detail: sheep shearing and harvesting (small but full of detail)

- Manuscript — mainly made on parchment (animal skin)

- typically the gold foil is added first

- After it is finished, Rubris (red) labels are added to tell what is happening  in the images.

-Les Tres Riches Hueres du Duc de Berry = luxurious book of hours

-most famous pages are devoted to the calendar – depicts seasonally

appropriate human activities and the cycle of nature for each month of the year  - semicircular section at the top marks the days numerically, includes astrological signs - labor of the month: peasants harvesting wheat and shearing sheep

- orderly harvesting of fruitful earth, peaceful peasantry

- features Jean de Berry’s Chateau du Clain

- idealized view of feudalism: combines the castle and naturalistic details of the sheep with an  artificial space that rises up the picture place instead of receding into depth

Robert Campin, Mèrode Altarpiece (triptych), oil/panel. ca. 1425-30

-“Birds-eye” view or perspective

- Central scene is set in a room that is very  

flemish.  

- Coats of arms in the room (wealth)

- system for creating illusionistic space/trying  

to convince the viewer that you are looking  

Page 7 of 42

into some sort of alternative//parallel reality.

- Virgin of the Annunciation

- Painting has a lot of hidden meanings/symbols/signs

- Coming through the window is baby Jesus

- Mary is a vessel of Purity

- Left wing: Donors kneeling in a garden with symbols of the Virgin Mary - space shifts

- Right wing: St. Joseph in his shop making mousetraps

- mouse is a longstanding symbol for sin in the middle ages

- Netherlandish city in the background

- “triptych” = triple-panel art piece

- central panel: the Annunciation scene

- Virgin and Gabriel the angel are placed in the main room of a bourgeois house – open  shutters, well-used fireplace, cushioned bench

- Viewer “looks through” the surface of the panel into a world that mimics reality (although the  events are supernatural)

- Fits figures into boxes of space

- Every object is concrete in shape, size, color, and texture

- Uses two kinds of light:

- Diffused: creates soft shadows and delicate gradations of brightness

- Direct: casts shadows on the wall

- Color scheme unifies all three panels

- muted tonality

- bright colors have richness and depth

- smooth transitions between lights and darks

- made possible by the use of oil – creates a much more thorough illusion of reality

Jan van Eyck, The “Arnolfini” Portrait, oil/panel. ca. 1480-1515

- man and woman standing in a richly furnished room

- Jan signed the painting above the mirror – “Jan Eych was here, 1434” - Features are specific enough to be a portrait – Giovanni Arnolfini, a rich Italian merchant - Two figures hold hands, with Giovanni raising his right as if in a solemn oath - Mirror between them reflects two men: perhaps Jan van Eyck and the bride’s father?

Page 8 of 42

-Witnesses to whatever is happening in the room – wedding or

engagement

-Lots of symbolism:

-Woman lifting her heavy gown: may suggest her wish for children

-Bed behind her: suggests consummation of marriage

-Carved figure of St. Margaret (whom pregnant women prayed to for  

safe delivery): may suggest this image is a commemoration of a wife  

who died in birth

-Shoes on the floor: implies they are standing on “holy ground”, in the  

presence of God

-Little dog: beloved pet, or an emblem of fidelity

- Pieces of fruit on the window: expressions of wealthy, or the temptation of Adam and Eve

Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights, oil/panel. ca. 1480-1515 - Triptych but NOT an altarpiece

- Left side: paradise/garden of Eden (series of  

creatures/apple tree/cat with mouse (satan), evil  

lurks even in the garden of Eden, unicorn: symbol  

of purity, duck-fish-thing reading a book)

-Middle: central panel of garden (birds: symbol  

for vapors, serpent wrapped around the tree,  

naked people frolicking, Crucible, red “fruit”/philosophers stone/elixir of life/eternal life,  “Alchemical Lapis”.

- Right wing: HELL (war-like images, people who have lived through war, musical instruments  = sinful, scary face)

- Noah-like biblical flood that has washed away the sins

- God up in a corner looking at an newly cleansed world

- “For be spake and it was done; be commanded, and it stood fast”

- NOT a traditional altarpiece – secular work that belonged to Count Henry III of Nassau - Interpretations suggest Bosch was a pessimist sermonizing about the depravity of humankind

Page 9 of 42

- Interpretation 1: that the image depicts an alternative view of history in which the Original Sin  did not happen and therefore humans continue to live in a state of innocence - Interpretation 2: the painting is an allegory of redemption

- Closely linked to the practice of allegory

- Many strangely shaped rocks and fountains refer to the tools and vessels used in alchemy - Interpretation 3: the painting warns its audience against too much concern for sensual  pleasures in the world  

READING IMAGES

Rogier van der Weyden, Descent from the Cross

-Altarpiece that depicts the moment when Christ’s  

followers lower his body from the Cross

-Mourners crowd into a shallow box of space

-Goal: to increase the expressive content of the art

-Emphasizes the emotional impact of the scene through  

the participants’ faces and postures – clearly express  

grief

-John the Evangelist and Mary Magdalen are bowed in  

pain

-Virgin’s swoon echoes the pose/expression of Jesus

- Her intense pain and grief is meant to evoke the same compassion in a viewer - Scene is staged in a shallow niche, not a landscape

- Focuses the viewer’s attention on the foreground

- Emphasis on the body of Christ refers to the celebration of the Eucharist Page 10 of 42

Mary of Burgundy, Hours of Mary of Burgundy

-Colors and ink on parchment

-Complex and lavish illuminated book

-Mary may have been depicted in the book as the elegantly dressed  

young woman reading from a book of hours

-Costume and surroundings indicate status

-Golden brocades, transparent veils, jewelry, flowers, little dog on her  

lap

-A picture within a picture: the woman sits in a private chapel with a  

window that opens onto a view of a light-filled Gothic church

-The Virgin Mary is seen seated in the sanctuary with Jesus

-The artist treats the border as a spatial entity that links the border and  

the main image

Michael Parcher,St. Wolfgang Altarpiece

-Church of St. Wolfgang, Austria

-Carved wood with life-size figures + oil on panel (wings)

-Corpus = altarpiece with sculptures as their central element

-Depicts the coronation of Mary as the Virgin Queen of Heaven

-Carved out of soft wood with lavish gilt and colored forms

-Figures and setting in the central panel melt into a pattern of twisting  

lines – only the heads stand out as separate elements

-Complexity and surface ornamentation of the corpus contrast with the  

narrative paintings on the wings

-scenes of life from the Virgin Mary on the wings:

-oil on panel

-feature large figures, clear light, deep space  

-viewer’s vantage point is taken into account: upper panels are  

represented as if seen from below

Martin Schongauer, Temptation of St. Anthony

- Schongaur of Colmar: goldsmith, printmaker, painter

Page 11 of 42

-Complex design, spatial depth, and rich texture of his engravings  

make them competitors to panel paintings

-Print represents the climax of St. Anthony’s resistance to the Devil

– demons are sent to torture him

-Displays a wide range of tonal values and textures via differing  

types of marks on the plate – spiky, scaly, leathery, furry

-Enhances the expressive impact of the image

KEY TERMS

- Glaze: overlay or cover (food, fabric, etc.) with a smooth, shiny coating or finish. - Iconography: the visual images and symbols used in a work of art or the study or  interpretation of these.

- Labors of the month: cycles in Medieval and early Renaissance art depicting in twelve  scenes the rural activities that commonly took place in the months of the year. (Très Riches  Heures)

- Manuscript Illumination: a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such  decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.

- Oil Painting: the art of painting with oil paints.

- Perspective: the art of drawing solid objects on a two-dimensional surface so as to give the  right impression of their height, width, depth, and position in relation to each other when  viewed from a particular point.

- Polyptych: a painting, typically an altarpiece, consisting of more than three leaves or panels  joined by hinges or folds.

- Triptych: a picture or relief carving on three panels, typically hinged together side by side  and used as an altarpiece.

KEY CONCEPTS

- Book of Hours

- Manuscripts

Page 12 of 42

- Oil painting

- Iconography

- Perspective

- Portraiture

KEY LOCATIONS:

Flanders, Burgundy, S’Hertogenbosch

FEB. 1 (M) & FEB. 8 (M)

Antiquity and Religion: Architecture and Sculpture in Renaissance Florence and  Renaissance Painting: The Rise of secular Art and Private Patronage

KEY IMAGES

Filippo Brunelleschi, Dome of Florence Cathedral (Duomo). 1420-36 - Filippo Brunelleschi is a crucial figure for Renaissance art, especially in  architecture.  

- Lost the competition for the baptistery doors to Lorenzo Ghiberti

-Discovered linear perspective

- Problem: huge size (solved through Bruno’s studies of Gothic, Roman,  Byzantine, and Persian buildings)

- Project came to symbolize Florentine inventiveness, piety, ambition, and  skill.  

- Dome is much larger than other Florence structures

- Ribs rise sharply upward and culminate in a marble cupola/lantern (lantern disguised to tie  the exterior ribs together)

- Materials and techniques:

- built the dome in two spate shells — common method in Islamic architecture - lifted the dome on a drug above the level of the nave

- shells supported by a series of ribs

- vertical ribs linked by horizontal ribs

- system maybe inspired by the coffered dome of the Pantheon

- strategies both reflect Gothic practice

Page 13 of 42

- Herringbone-pattern brickwork serves to resist cracks caused by settling, and lessens the  weight as the courses of brick get thinner as they rise

- Bruno’s innovations:

- knew he couldn’t use the traditional wooden centering across the span of the dome  because it required huge pieces of timber

- new system involved temporary scaffolding cantilevered out from the walls of the drum - reduce size and amount of timber needed during building

- Confidence of the Florentines: building a dome without knowing how to do it, very  competitive, thought competition would spur capital achievements

- no such thing as an architect yet (person responsible: Brunelleschi)

Donatello, St. George Tabernacle, marble. ca 1410-1417, Orsanmichele, Florence -Built for the Guild of Armorers

-Niche so shallow that figure seems to step out of it

-appear to be able to easily move his limbs

-stance suggest he is ready for war combat

-originally held a sword and wore a helmet — showing off the guild’s  

wares

-energy of his body is reflected in his eyes — seem to scan the horizon

-portrayed as Christian soldier

-Below the niche is a relief panel (illusion of infinite depth, landscape  

behind the figures = surface modulations that catch light from varying  

angles, St. George and the dragon

- Schiacciato style: Squashed, flattened — very low, pictorial, and variable caring - Image of a dragon being stabbed - horse and dragon are going in and out of the pictorial  space (ancient technique, probably seen in Rome)

- sculptor’s chisel creates shades of light and dark

- whole work is an image of watchfulness and preparedness for danger

- One of his least classical statues

Page 14 of 42

Lorenzo Ghiberti, “Gates of Paradise”, gilt (gilded) bronze. 1425-1452, east doors, -Ghiberti’s baptistery doors impressed the Guild of Wool Merchants so  

much that they had hi m make a second pair (took almost 30 years)

- Five large panels in simple square frames — larger field for reach  

image

- Panels depict scenes from the Hebrew Bible

- Bronze reliefs were completely gilded and framed with figures of  

prophets in niches, portrait heads in roundels, and foliate decorations

- lost wax bronze casting method

- high relief (left and right) vs. low relief (middle) [high relief is incredibly  

expensive and time-consuming]

- Ghiberti started as a goldsmith - he is used to attention to detail

- Door had 3 narratives: The Story of Jacob and Esau, Blessing of Jacob, Rebecca praying - Scientific perspective - rationally created - decreasing size of figures to give the impression  that the space is receding in a regular fashion

- Perspective scheme: grid system created to show the diminution of size - orthogonal - lines receding into space, meet at a vanishing point

- transversal - perpendicular lines to the orthogonal

- vanishing point - where the orthogonal lines meet

Donatello, David, bronze. ca. 1420s-1460s

-Stands with left foot atop the severed head of Goliath, but still holds  

the stone in his hand

-nude, which suggests his status as a hero in the ancient model,  

however, he is also an adolescent boy with a softly sensuous torso  

unlike the full-grown heroes of Greece

- looks like he has slight boobs lmao

- Contropposto alludes to antiquity and gives him a languid, sexually  

suggestive pose and stance that indicates movement.  

-Inscription on the base identified David as the defender of the  

fatherland — patron of Florence, symbol of civic virtue

-Might also celebrate a military victory, a Medici political victory, the  

symbol of republican victory over tyranny

Page 15 of 42

- Presence in the Medici palace turns it into a symbol of dynastic power - No documents on this figure - no clue when it was made or who for

- nearly life size, first large nude figure since antiquity

- shift in hips means he could move forward - increases naturalism (the effect that the figure  could suddenly talk to us)

- Shows that Donatello also knew about antiquity - learned from looking at ancient sculpture.  * * * * * * * * * * * * * Pablo Uccello, Battle of San Romano, tempera/silver/panel. ca. 1438 -One of the three panels depicting battle between  

Florence and Lucca in 1432

-Series hung in Lorenzo de’ Medici’s bedroom

-records a ceremony, rather than a war

-Orthogonal grid of discarded weapons, armor,  

and fallen soldiers

-Thick bushes define the foreground

-Background landscape rises up rather than  

receding deep into space.

- Tempera/silver foil/wood panel

- not commissioned for the Medici family but he liked them so much he took them for his  bedroom in the Palace.

- very important battle that Florentines won against eh Pisans

- Secular work

- Mercenary general, wearing funny hat - would not have been worn in battle but used as a  pictorial device.

- no question who is the higher general; very obvious because of the hat - uccello did a lot of perspective drawings

- a grid made from swords, bodies, and horses that creates this stage, this illusionistic/fictive  space.

- but the back ramps up and comes flat

- trying to remind Florentine’s of a late medieval tapestry

- very aristocratic thing to have, covered the stone walls.

Page 16 of 42

Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus, tempera/canvas (NOT panel). ca. 1485 -Central figure is Venus, as she floats towards the  

shore.

-Movement is aided by Zephyr, the West Wind, and  

Chloris (Flora)

-Space behind the figures opens into the distance

-Sky and water create a light, cool tonality

-Shallowing modeling and emphasis on the outline  

produce an effect of low relief, rather than solid, 3D shapes

- bodies appear drained of all weight — floating even when touching the ground - ethereal figures retreat ancient forms

- Venus looks like Aphrodite of Knidas

- the whole artwork seems related to Homer’s “hymn to Aphrodite”

- Tempera on canvas, NOT panel (book says canvas)

- modeled after antiquity (modeled after the ancient Venus Pudica)

- Lots of hidden symbolism and mythical figures

- orthogonal = receding shoreline

- Botticelli has an interest in using perspective but also using surface decoration - blue cornflowers: part of the fabric, or surface decoration?

- gives it a rich, tapestry-like experience

Piero della Francesca, Battista Sforza and Federico da Montelfeltro, oil/tempera/panel. -Double portrait of duke and duchess—diptych  

featuring their profiles (shows the Dukes good side,  

right eye poked out in jousting incident)

-facing each other in front of a deep, continuous  

landscape.

-Demonstrates Piero’s mastery of spatial  

representation and clarity of form—rich hues, varied  

texture (made possibly by oil paint)

- Battista was probably dead for two years when this was made

Page 17 of 42

- Rigid profiles agains the low horizon and deep landscape give them an unapproachable,  monumental appearance

- the balanced and spacious composition results in an image of calm authority and triumph. - oil/tempera/wood panel

- introduction of the oil technique into Italy—increased knowledge about what is happening up  North.

- Can see the translucency in her skin and pearls, and the rich redness in his hat/coat - Almost looks Flemish, but its not

- On the back of each panel:

- courtly portraits with landscapes and classical inscriptions  

- in ceremonial carts associated with victory and antiquity

- low relief sculptural look to it

- meant to suggest Federico is the Lord of this large area

- Relationship between Battista Sforza and Arnolfini bride (Netherlandish) - Portrait may have been based upon a death mask

- About the oil paint technique:

- Dry pigment ground into oil

- oil can hold much more pigment than water or egg—highly saturated

- can continue to blend and add to a painting for hours and days

- allowed for very specific color choices, beautiful depictions of light, thickness, or  translucent layers (good for painting skin)

Andrea Mantegna, Camera Picta, frescoes. 1465-74. Ducal Palace, Mantua - Painted a room for the marquis of Mantua

- Multipurpose vaulted room with portraits of the Gonzaga family, children, and possessions.  Page 18 of 42

- Celebrates the marquis’ court, dynamic accomplishments and wealth using art to improve  social and political positions.

- used architecture of the room to create an illusionistic glimpse of the Gonzaga family at  home.

- Specific features of people, naturalism of details, and mastery of perspective connect the  painted world to the real world.

- Drapery fluttering in breeze and trompe l’oeil reliefs create illusions

- Secular art- used for rich people in court environment or wealthy home - Technique is fresco and fresco secco (tempera over fresco, dry fresco) - after the plaster has dried, you paint on top of it

- fresco secco tends to come off very easily - very gorgeous in the beginning but bad for  posterity.  

- fictive space: obviously you cant go through the walls, but it looks like a window into another  reality

- The entire room is planned using Renaissance grid system of perspective - the dog is a symbol of being lordly — them trying to “up their status” by showing a dog  - portraits straight out of classicism and antiquity - hyperrealistic, verist  - mix of real people and little cherubs - light hearted and humorous  

READING IMAGES

Brunelleschi, Church of San Lorenzo, Florence. ca. 1421-69

-Plan of the church is more conventional than the  

baptistery:

-basilica form, with nave and aisles

-terminates in a square east end

-limits ornament

-emphasis on symmetry and regularity

-composed units of space in regular square blocks –  

each bay of the nave is twice as wide as its side aisles

- static order replaces the flowing spatial movement of Gothic church interiors - from the portal, a viewer can clearly see the entire structure, as if looking at it from “scientific  perspective”

- antiquity architecture: uses round arches and columns (not piers) in the nave arcade Page 19 of 42

- columns are larger and more closely spaced, so they screen off the aisles from the nave Masaccio, The Holy Trinity with the Virgin, St. John, and Two Donors, fresco. -fresco originally stood above a tomb slab

-lowest section depicts a skeleton lying on a sarcophagus

-large scale, balanced composition, and sculptural volume – origins in  

Giotto

-figures are “clothed nudes” – drapery falls in response to their bodies

-reveals an awareness of Brunelleschi’s new architecture and system of  

perspective  

-Masaccio create an illusion of space where none exists

-All ines perpendicular to the picture plane converge below the foot of the  Cross

-Chapel opens out behind them, moves backward into space

-barrel-vaulted chamber is a deep space in which the figures can move  

freely

- vault is subdivided by square coffers

- space is measurable, palpable

- theme of the Holy Trinity:

- God holds his son on the cross while the dove of the Holy Spirit flutters on his chest - Triangular composition begins with the donors and rises to the halo of God - Opposing reds and blues unite in the garment worn by God

- Tragic and solemn feel

- The Virgin calmly points to the crucifixion

- St. John the Evangelist’s obvious grief

• Theme: reality of death but promise of resurrection

Michelozzo di Bartolemeo, Medici Palace, Florence, began 1444 -Design recalls the fortresslike Florentine palaces  

of old

-Three stories form a graded sequence:

-Lowest features “rusticated” masonry

-Second has smooth-surfaced blocks

-Third has an unbroken surface

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- Building seems heavier on the bottom and lighter above

- A projecting cornice rests on top of the structure, like a lid

- Inside is a central courtyard defined by an arcade resting on Brunelleschian classicizing  columns

- Arcade supports a frieze with carved medallions that feature symbols favored by the Medici  family

- Courtyard is ceremonial and practical – provides a splendid setting for Medici familial,  social, commercial, and governmental affairs  

Antonio del Pollaiuolo, Battle of the Nudes, engraving

-Naked men look as if their skin has been  

stripped off to reveal the muscles underneath

-Shows his detailed knowledge of anatomy

-Serves to display the artist’s mastery of the  

nude body in action – advertise his skill

Leon Battista Alberti, Saint’Andrea, Mantua

-Primary goal: synthesis of ancient forms and  

Christian functions

-Wanted to merge classical temple forms with the  

traditional basilican church

-Triumphal arch motif with a classical temple front

-Uses flat pilasters to stress the primacy of the wall  

surface

-Smaller pilasters support the arch over the huge  

central niche, and larger ones support the  

unbroken architrave and strongly outlined pediment

- Larger pilasters form the colossal order (more than one story high) and balance the horizontal  and vertical elements of the design

- Entire design is inscribed in a square

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- The exterior façade offers a “preview” of the interior: same colossal order, proportions, and  triumphal-arch motif appears on the walls of the nave

- Plan of the church is extremely compact – no transept, dome, or choi

- Planned only a nave ending in an apse

- Replaced the aisles with alternating large and small vaulted chapels

- Eliminated the clerestory

- Colossal pilasters and arches support a massive coffered barrel vault

- Reminiscent of ancient Roman baths and basilicas

Giovanni Bellini, S. Francis in the Desert

-Displays a synthesis of Flemish oil technique with  

Florentine spatial systems and Venetian light and color

-St. Francis steps out of his hermit’s cell and looks  

ecstatically to the sky

-Scene might illustrate the Hymn of the Sun, or the  

Feast of the Holy Cross

-Expresses Franciscan ideals – the splendor of nature

-Cave symbolizes the road to salvation in the life of the  

hermit

-Donkey symbolizes St. Francis himself (“Brother Ass”)

- Other animals are solitary creatures in Christian lore

- St. Francis is seeing God revealed as the light divine, not the sun

- Miraculous light is so intense it illuminates the entire scene

- Background: Italian country side

- St. Francis’ visible awe of nature directs a viewer to respond to the viewer with the same  such awe

- Uses deep space, detailed textures, soft colors, and glowing light to create a warm vision of  natural beauty

Pietro Perugino, The Delivery of the Keys, Sistine Chapel

-Sistene chapel fresco

-Symmetrical design highlights the special importance  

of the subject: Christ giving St. Peter the keys to the  

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Kingdom of Heaven  

- Clear background and foreground

- Scientific perspective

- Clear use of the grid system of octagonal and transversals

KEY TERMS

- Buttress: a projecting support of stone or brick built against a wall.

- Centering: framing used to support an arch or dome while it is under construction. - Classicism: the following of ancient Greek or Roman principles and style in art and literature,  generally associated with harmony, restraint, and adherence to recognized standards of form  and craftsmanship, especially from the Renaissance to the 18th century.

- Contropposto: an asymmetrical arrangement of the human figure in which the line of the  arms and shoulders contrasts with while balancing those of the hips and legs. - Dome: a rounded vault forming the roof of a building or structure, typically with a circular  base.

- Drum: something resembling or likened to a drum in shape, in particular. - Engraving: the process or art of cutting or carving a design on a hard surface, especially so  as to make a print.

- Foreshortening: portray or show (an object or view) as closer than it is or as having less  depth or distance, as an effect of perspective or the angle of vision.

- Gilding: the process of applying gold leaf or gold paint.

- Illusionism: the principle or technique by which artistic representations are made to  resemble real objects or to give an appearance of space by the use of perspective. - Lantern: a square, curved, or polygonal structure on the top of a dome or a room, with the  sides glazed or open, so as to admit light.

- Latin cross (plan): An architectural plan for a church that is shaped like the cross on which  Christ was crucified, the central event in the Christian story of salvation.

- Nave: the central part of a church building, intended to accommodate most of the  congregation. In traditional Western churches it is rectangular, separated from the chancel by  a step or rail, and from adjacent aisles by pillars.

- Orthogonal: of or involving right angles; at right angles.

- Picture Plane: in perspective, the imaginary plane corresponding to the surface of a picture,  perpendicular to the viewer's line of sight.

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- Relief: a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid  background of the same material.

- Rustication: an architectural feature that contrasts in texture with the smoothly finished,  squared-block masonry surfaces called ashlar.

- Schiacciato: Stiacciato relief is an extremely subtle type of flat, low relief carving - Transept: (in a cross-shaped church) either of the two parts forming the arms of the cross  shape, projecting at right angles from the nave.

- Transversals: (of a line) intersecting a system of lines

- Trompe L’oeil: visual illusion in art, especially as used to trick the eye into perceiving a  painted detail as a three-dimensional object.

- Vanishing Point: the point at which receding parallel lines viewed in perspective appear to  converge.

KEY CONCEPTS

- Scientific Perspective

- Classicism

- Antiquity

- Humanism

- Medici Patronage

- Rise of Non-Religious Painting

- Renaissance Courtly Culture

KEY LOCATIONS

Florence, Urbino, Mantua

FEB. 10 (W)

The changing status of the artist in 16th Century Italy: Leonardo, Michelangelo, and  Titian

KEY IMAGES:

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Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, oil/panel. ca. 1503-05

-Famous for formal qualities

-Both Mona Lisa and Ginevra de’Benci break with the 15th century  

tradition of depicting young women in profile

-both women are three quarter poses against landscape backgrounds

-simple garments, no jewels or brocades—concentrates on features

-half-length, so the hands are included

-entire composition forms a stable pyramid

-mastery of oil technique: panel appears to glow due to thin layers of  

glaze

-sits in front of an evocative landscape

- cool sfumato backdrop

- landscape envelopes her—not just backdrop

- much character: high brow, crossed hands, sly smile

- “how faithfully art can imitate nature”

- oil/wood/pane

- 3 IMPORTANT PAINTING QUALITIES:

- Sfumato = “hidden by smoke”

- sense of haze/smokiness

- gives the atmosphere a palpable quality—no harsh boundaries between colors - more accurate of our vision, which blurs the background

- Chiaroscuro = light/dark

- drama—highlighting the composition of the portrait

- juxtaposition of light and dark

- very pale skin, dark hair, light and dark background

- Disegno = “design” and/or drawing

- artists were drawing/choreographing the composition of their work

- artists learn through drawing

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Michelangelo, David, marble. 1501-4, Florence

-18 feet high

-partly carved by an earlier sculptor, but Michel made it memorable

-was eventually put in front of the Palazzo della Signoria, the seat of  

the Florentine government—emblem of Republican values

-circlet of gilt bronze leaves around his hips

-gilt bronze wreath on his head

-guardian of the city instead of victorious hero (no Goliath head)

-Eyes focus on opponent in the distance

-Calm and tense, active yet static

-has the potential for movement, rather than showing the expression of  

it.

-Originally planned for the buttress of the Duomo dome

- Florentines wanted a big statue of David to represent their city

- Michel used the thinness of the black to his advantage

- Very interested narrative moment—depicted not when he is standing not he head of Goliath,  but the movement when he is sizing up Goliath (most cognitive moment in whole process) - Very classical format—naked, heroic/muscular proportions

- Gives this crowning glory of a mop of hair

- Head is exaggerated so that people on the ground can see it

- Used stone to his advantage—some of the gray in the stone mimics veins and the  arrangement of muscles

- perfection of naturalism

- less youth-like musculature

Michelangelo, ceiling fresco. 1508-12, Sistine Chapel, The Vatican, Rome -Entire ceiling composition is given an  

illusionistic/fictive framework

-your eye thinks it is seeing architecture, but it is  

not—surface is flat

-9 center panels = Creation through Noah

-creation of Eve is in the middle, NOT Adam

-Eve is a symbol of the Church

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- Genesis stories go from right to left

- Prophets and Sibyls surround the center panels

- Spandrels: OT scenes prefiguring Jesus

- Pendentives and lunettes: Ancestors of Jesus

- Michelangelo complained the entire 4 years

- Can see the development of him as a painter in one space

- Difference in skill and composition

- The Deluge:

- painted early by Michelangelo, but appears later in Genesis

- full of figures

- relatively hard to read from so far below

- God separating light and dark:

- painted late by Michelangelo, but appears early in Genesis

- Sky has been punctured, we are looking up at God—foreshortened chin and beard - Trompe l’oeil

- Creation of Adam, with Eve (or Mary) in the wings

- Extremely iconic image

- So clear in composition  

- Using negative space between god and Adam – puts special emphasis  between them

- Mary or Eve is waiting in the wings for her “turn” to be created

- No qualms about depicting God (unlike Islamic culture)

- Libyan Sibyl (pagan) and Prophet Jeremiah (Old Testament)

- Alternating giant men and women

- Act as pillars holding up scenes from Old Testament

- Sibyls = pagan female prophet from the Old Testament

- Brilliant colors with fresco – very sophisticated

- New elegant twisting of the body

- Disegno tradition – planning out his artwork with drawing

- Not from the “colore” school

- Figures do not look very female – basically young muscular men with boobs Page 27 of 42

Titian and Giorgione, Fête Champêtre (Pastoral Concert), oil/canvas. ca. 1509-10 -oil on canvas

-landscape, ideally poetry

-Blurry and soft

-Venetian painters were pioneers in landscape  

painting

-Very thick paint in places—light catches differently

-Not drawing/disegno based art

-not sure who the women or men are

-Women may or may not be allegories

- men are paying attention only to each other

- Painting technique:

- soft blurry qualities, akin to Leonardo’s sfumato

- softness in brushwork

- visible quality to brushwork—“painterly”

- Giving us a general impression of objects—a new level of naturalism (takes into the  account the first visual impression that our eye has, in real life, in a c complex and  sophisticated way)

- using oil in a much freer fashion by creating compositions on the canvas

READING IMAGES:

Leonardo, The Last Supper

•Leonardo creates fully three-dimensional forms  

by painting illusions

•Experiments with an oil-tempera medium on  

dry plaster  

•Creates a spatial setting that seems like an  

annex to the real interior of the room

•Central vanishing point of the perspective  

system is located behind the head of Jesus in the exact middle of the fresco • The window behind Jesus acts as an architectural equivalent of a halo – Leo lets natural  light frame Jesus instead of an artificial halo

• Light, composition, colors, and setting all focus attention on Jesus

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• Each pose and expression of the Disciples is carefully calculated – Peter grabs a knife,  John is lost in thought, Jesus recoils from Jesus into shadow

o Depicts the “intention of man’s soul” through gestures and movements • Leo condenses his subject physically (though the groupings on the figures) and  spiritually (through the many levels of meaning)

• The presence of the Eucharist is also clear, in the bread and wine

Bramante, Tempietto

-Tempietto = “little temple”

-Serves as a martyrium – a special chapel associated with a martyr

-Was meant to mark the supposed site of St. Peter’s crucifixion

-Planned the surround the Tempietto by a circular, colonnaded  

courtyard

-Walls of the courtyard open into concave niches that echo the  

façade of the chapel

-Façade recalls Roman temple architecture: three-step platform, use  

of Tuscan Doric columns

-Entire design is based on the module of the columns – follows the  

rules of temple design established by Vitruvius

- Strongly projecting moldings and cornices, convex shape of the dome – gives the structure a  monumentality that belies its modest size

- Sculptural decoration in the metopes and frieze around the base = papal propaganda - Tempietto proclaims Christ and the popes as direct heirs of Rome

- Publication of the design by Serlio helped spread the specific elements and design concepts  of the building, making it a very influential structure

Raphael, School of Athens

-Illusionistic frescoes

-Shows endless fertility in the creation of daring  

narrative compositions

-Embodiment of the classical spirit of the High  

Renaissance  

-Depicts figures from Greek and Roman history and  

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mythology in illusionistic spaces

- Represents a group of famous Greek philosophers gathered around Plato and Aristotle, each  in a characteristic pose or activity

- Expressive energy, physical power, dramatic grouping of his figures similar to Michelangelo - Body and spirit, action and emotion are balanced harmoniously

- All members of the assembly play their roles with magnificent clarity

- Figures are organized into groups like the Last Supper

- Distinguishes relationships among individuals and groups

- Links them in a formal rhythm

- Symmetrical design

- Key figures are framed by a window behind them

- Building plays a bigger role in the composition – classical in spirit, Christian in meaning - Seems like an advance view of the new St. Peter’s that was being build - Inspired by Roman structures

- Illusionistic sculptures of Greek divinities Apollo and Athena preside of the gathering of  learned men

- The school reflects the most learned humanism of the day

- Two schools of philosophy come together

- Plato holds his cosmology and numerology book

- Book provided the basis for much of the Neo-Platonism that came to pervade  Christianity

- Aristotle holds a volume of Ethics

- Plato points to the heavens, Aristotle points to the earth

- Raphael organizes his philosophers into the Idealists and the Empiricists - Figures representing mathematics and physics (the lower branches of philosophy that are the  gateway to higher knowledge) are also featured

- Pythagoras – diagrams and tablets at his feet symbolize the importance of number in  philosophy

- Euclid – seem measuring two overlapping triangles

- Zoroaster the astronomy and Ptolemy the geographer are holding globes - Self-portrait of Raphael is placed in the Aristotelian camp

KEY TERMS

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- Cartoon: a form of two-dimensional illustrated visual art.  

- Chiaroscuro: an effect of contrasted light and shadow created by light falling unevenly or  from a particular direction on something.

- Lunette: an arched aperture or window, especially one in a domed ceiling. - Pendentive: a curved triangle of vaulting formed by the intersection of a dome with its  supporting arches.

- Pouncing: an art technique used for transferring an image from one surface to another. It is  similar to tracing, and is useful for creating copies of a sketch outline to produce finished  works.

- Sfumato: the technique of allowing tones and colors to shade gradually into one another,  producing softened outlines or hazy forms.

- Sibyls: a woman in ancient times supposed to utter the oracles and prophecies of a god. - Spandrel: the almost triangular space between one side of the outer curve of an arch, a wall,  and the ceiling or framework.

KEY CONCEPTS:

- Rising Status of Artists

- Vasari and Art History

- Disegno (design or form) vs. Colorito (color)

- Rome as the cultural capital

KEY LOCATIONS

Florence, Rome, Venice

FEB. 15 (M)

Venice, Rome, and Florence in the later Renaissance: Titian, Palladio, and Mannerism KEY IMAGES

Parmigianino, Madonna with the Long Neck, oil/panel. ca. 1535

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- Made for noblewoman of Parma

- Perfect oval of Mary’s head rests on swanlike neck

- Body swells and tapers to her feet

- Unstable compositions – sleeping Jesus balances precariously on her lap - Unbalanced composition: heavily weighted to the left, open and distant to the right - Elongated limbs, ivory-smooth features, compressed space

- Jesus is already aware of his fate

- Gigantic column symbolizes gateway to Heaven and eternal life + Immaculate  Conception

- tiny figure of a prophet down to the right foretells Jesus’ fate

- “mannerism” art = elegant, sophisticated, refined, patrician (painted for rich  people), artificial (in a good way), stylish, elongated, and non-naturalistic  proportions, space, and color

- Mannerism vs. Late Renaissance

- Parmigianino: long limbs, artificial colors, weird space, long baby - very popular in Florence, but Parmigianino was from Parma, Italy - Went to Florence and changed his name — “Little Person From Parma”

- Titian: Naturalism, proportions, space, clear fore and background, window, no  distortion

Michelangelo, plan and dome, St. Peter’s. 1546-1564

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- Uses a colossal order on the exterior of St. Peter’s – colossal order of pilasters - Emphasizes the compact body of the structure, setting the dome off more  dramatically

- Interior space is simplified – shows desire for compactness and organic unity - One cross and square

- Dome has a powerful thrust that draws energy upward from the main body of the  structure

- Borrowed the double-shell construction and Gothic profile from the Florence  Cathedral

- Michelangelo gets appointed as head architect to the Vatican (1546) – considered  the foremost artist of his day, even though he was not really an architect - Most architecture was completed after his death – takes a very long time - Had designed walls and city gates and piazzas, etc.

- St. Peter’s Basilica – NOT a cathedral

- Hold important bones – possibly st. peter?

- Lots of martyrs, people who were crucified, etc. – built over an ancient cemetery - New building was built around the old building – fragments of “Old St. Peter’s” - Took two centuries – ran out of money, couldn’t figure out how to construct it, lots  of architectural mistakes

- Michelangelo Plan, St.  

- Diamond shape – centralized, symmetric

- Antiquity

- Final shape however was done by Bernini

- Designs the exterior sheathing in the back – “back façade”

- Rich decoration on the stone/travertine sheathing – using “colossal orders” - Plasters that span several stories

- Really thinking about tightening up composition, making the building more  cohesive

- Bramante’s Plan = original plan of St. Peters – why didn’t it work? - Lots of little columns, without any big piers

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- Michel changes it and makes it much thicker – consolidates all the piers and  columns to make them stronger

- Also clarifies and simplifies the space inside – very straightforward - Exterior of the building is tighter, more sculptural, more organic – instead of a just a  series of right angles, like Bramante’s

- Bramante’s original design for the dome of St. Peter’s

- Low and broad, like the Pantheon

- Michel made it very tall – looks similar the Brunelleschi’s dome of the Florence  Duomo

- Wanting to make a tribute to Brune’s dome – the “sister” dome

-

READING IMAGES

Giovanni Bologna, The Rape of the Sabine Woman

-Artist: Giovanni Bologna  

-Completed in 1583

-Florence

-Marble  

-About 13 feet tall

-Bologna was the most famous sculptor of the time in Florence  

-Chose to make such a difficult sculpture in order to show his skill  

-Inspired by ancient Roman story: city founders invited all of the  

Sabine tribe into Rome for a festival and then attacked them and  

took away the woman by force

-The piece displays an act of “raw power and violence”

- Sculpted to “massive scale”

- “the contrast between form and content that the mannerist tendency encouraged could not be  clearer”  

Michelangelo, Last Judgement

-Artist: Michelangelo

-Fresco

-On the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City  

-1534-1541

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- Pope Paul III asked Michelangelo to paint this  

- The choice of the Last Judgment scene to be painted reflected the current mood in Rome,  which had just been sacked (“the Sack of Rome”) by Habsburg troops when the Catholic  Church and Holy Roman Empire reached a conflict

- Hell is represented by spiritual torments “through violent contortions of the human body within  a turbulent atmosphere”, which differs from Giotto’s Arena Chapel painting of the last  judgment that is depicted as physical torment

- “angelic trumpeters signal the end of time”  

- Christ stands in the upper center with his right hand raised

- Right hand raised signals the rising of the dead on earth that yearn towards heaven that are  in the lower right hand of the picture

- Assembly of saints painted in heaven  

- Left hand side of the painting shows the damned plunging from heaven towards Charon, into  hell.  

- Charon is a secular figure- in greek mythology he is the ferryman to Hades (the underworld) - Almost all the figures are twisted in some way but still looking at Christ - Human forms in this painting seem “superhuman in their muscular power” - Nudity represents the sanctity that Michelangelo felt about the human body  - After his death, someone was commissioned to paint clothing on the figures  - “brilliant colors, compressed space, and dramatic compostion”  

- links the world to mannerist style  

- we know this piece expresses Michelangelo’s opinion on the end of the world because his  face is painted on Bartholomew (under Christ to the right, holding someones skin)- shows  that he feels he himself is “unworthy to be resurrected in the flesh, which is a key theme of  the image”  

- In his late age, Michelangelo’s poems and art reflected death and salvation

Andrea Palladio, Villa Rotunda

-Andrea Palladio

-1567-70

-Vicenza, Italy

-“Exemplifies his interpretation of the ancients”

-A country residence built for humanist cleric Paolo Americo  

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- It is a square block surmounted by a dome with identical porches in the shape of temple  fronts (stairs leading up, columns, etc.) on all four sides  

- Based on Alberti’s principle that the ideal church was symmetrical- Palladio felt the ideal  home should be symmetrical

- “Palladio’s use of the temple front was more than his regard for antiquity, he considered this  feature both legitimate and essential for decorum- namely, appropriateness, harmony, beauty,  and utility” he felt these were the qualities of the home of a great man

- social outlook of the 16th century required one to show their wealth through material things:  “display of great wealth to assert social status”

- the temple fronts on each side also allow one to see views from all sides of the house  - villa rotunda’s feel of “serene dignity” and “festive grace” are enhanced by the sculptures  placed all around the facade

Titian, Venus of Urbino

-Titian  

-1538

-oil on canvas

-Florence

-This piece was commissioned by the  

Guidobaldo II della Rovere, the Duke of Urbino  

-Nude woman is central focus of the piece, two  

woman in the background are searching  

through a cassone (wedding chest)  

- They are in a well furnished chamber- shows wealth and status  

- Presence of the cassone and the dog lead scholars to believe this is the celebration of a  marriage (the dog represents faithfulness)

- Titians use of color “records the sensuous textures of the woman’s body” - May have been intended as an erotic image

- Not sure it is actually Venus  

- The nude woman becomes a staple of Titian’s works  

KEY TERMS

Central-plan church: Plan of Old St. Peter's Basilica, showing atrium (courtyard), narthex  (vestibule), central nave with double aisles, a bema for the clergy extending into a transept, and  

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an exedra or semi-circular apse. The church building grew out of a number of features of the  Ancient Roman period: The house church

Greek cross: a cross of which all four arms are of equal length.

Impasto: the process or technique of laying on paint or pigment thickly so that it stands out from  a surface.

Pier: a solid support designed to sustain vertical pressure, in particular.

KEY CONCEPTS

Classicism and Anti-classicism

Mannerism

Venetian painting technique

KEY LOCATIONS

Rome, Florence, Venice, Vicenza

FEB. 17 (W)

16th Century art in Northern Europe: Grünewald, Dürer, and Bruegel KEY IMAGES

Albrecht Dürer, Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, woodcut. 1498

-Angel pointing forward to our right

-Directs the horsemen and the viewers eye

-Upper left: fire and brimstone coming from heaven: opening of the  

Seven Seals

-Images that foretell the destruction of humanity (famine, death, familiar  

images of illusionistic composition)

-horses don’t actually touch the earth—flying over

-king swallowed up by “hell mouth”

- figure falling out of composition with hands up

- 3 horses above move in sync

- draws upon similar work of “Cloisters Apocalypse”

- hell mouth = entrance to hell

- woodcuts can produce multiple copies

- masterpiece of woodcut technique: details in “figure of death”

- captures different materials—emaciated chest of man and horse

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- contour of lines and cross-hatchings/hatchings (creates depth)

- billowing fabric, hardness of crown, jaws of the beast

- woodcuts = in the “relief” family

Dürer, Adam and Eve, engraving. 1504

-Engraving—involves a copper plate

- ~size of a piece of paper

-contemplated the piece for 2-3 years

-people would want to buy this because its religious

-also allowed him to show them nude, in their perfect form

-animals in the foreground, dense forest, hillside in background with  

mountain goat

-two trees in foreground, Adam and Eve, parrot, and serpent

-can’t produce as many impressions as woodcut

-receiving apple from serpent, being tempted

- serpent has peacock feathers because it fell rom heaven (peacock symbolizes pride) - Classical elements:

- Durer looking at classical sculpture/art

- creates Adam as the ideal man—in the image of apollo Belverde

- Contropposto stance, weight shifting, head in profile, torso turning

- 6 pack; ideal male body

- Eve is shaped like the Medici Venus

- Also interested in the “theoretical approach” to depicting a figure

- “perfect proportions”: Leonardo’s Vitruvian Man

- calculating different proportions, Dürer maps these out for accuracy

- Trial proofs:

- outlines the figures first in simple lines

- worked on the background second—shapes, shading, light

- interested in the shadows of the limbs

- Signage:

- monogram

- humor

- celebrating himself.

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Pieter Bruegel, Return of the Hunters, oil/panel. 1568

-Bruegel was known as a “second Bosch”

-Amazing painter and draftsman

-Very sophisticated man, though he painted peasants

-oil/panel

-massive landscape

-extraordinary composition

-interest in showing us the details of life in the cold

-composition: Diagonals, use of space, foreground vs.  

background

- sweeping Alpine vista—not what Belgium looks like, but still incorporated

READING IMAGES

Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, oil/panel. ca. 1510-15

-oil on panel

-Alsace, Germany; the monastery church of the Order of  

St. Anthony at Isenheim  

-one of the few religious images created before The  

Reformation took a strong hold on Europe

-triptych altarpiece

-this church served as a hospital attached to the  

monastery

- monks there specialized in treating St. Anthony’s Fire, a disease caused by eating spoiled rye - this piece was on the high altar where both the sick in the hospital and the monks who served  them could see it  

- it encases a huge shrine carved in wood by Nicolas Hagenau  

- 9 panels organized in 2 sets of movable wings

- When all wings are closed it shows the crucifixion of Christ- which was the view during the  week.  

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- On the left wing, St Sebastian (who was invoked against the plague) and on the right wing,  St. Anthony Abbot (thought of as a healer)

- the central image of the crucifixion draws on late medieval tradition of the Antachtsbild to  emphasize suffering of Christ and grief of mary  

- Christ has twisted limbs, many wounds, streams of blood

- Christ is depicted in a “heroic scale” so that it dominates the other figures and the landscapes  - The crucifixion “lifted from its familiar setting” is depicted as a “lonely event”- the background  is just blue black sky  

- All though the background is dark, light is shown on all the figures which “heightens  awareness”

- Left: mary in all white “swoons” at the sight of her son being tortured

- Below the cross: mary magdalen kneels in grief to lament

- Right: John the Baptist points at Christ with the words “he must increase and I must  decrease.” A body of water lies behind him which signifies the healing power of baptism. The  Lamb at John’s feet is bleeding and is a reminder of the sacrament of the Eucharist

- In the predella below: tomb of Christ awaits while his mother and friends hold his body and  “bid him farewell.” The split in the predella slices through christs knees, which may have  caused amputees to see their own suffering in this piece.  

- When the wings, were opened on Sundays and feast days, the mood changes  - Three scenes in the second view: The Annunciation, Madonna with Child with Angels, and  The Resurrection  

- These scenes celebrate the life of Christ, and insinuate a promise of heaven  - Throughout these inside panels there are tools of healing used in medicine at the time:  music, baths, herbs and light

- Contrast of resurrecting Christ to the Christ In the predella gives viewers consolation in dying - Grunewald links the panels in color and composition

- red and pinks in the annunciation (left) carry through all the way to the resurrection on the  right  

- the simple gothic chapel depicted in the annunciation “gives way to the fanciful tarbernacle  housing choirs of angels” in the next panel

- beneath the tabernacle lies the virgin, who is illuminated

- the central image of Madonna and child of the central panel gives a vision of heaven “also  made of pure light”

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- the eye is lead to the right panel, where Christ is floating over his stone sarcophagus, guards  of the tomb are depicted as knocked over and lying on the ground

- the guards on the floor contrast with Christ floating and give him a weightless feel  - Christ’s hands show the crucifixion wounds

- engulfed by a large gold halo

- Grunewalds approach to this altarpiece is “strikingly individual” but based on the traditions of  northern European Renessaince  

- Low horizon line suggests a deep a space for his figures  

- His aim was to create an emotional response

Hans Holbein, Henry VIII

-Hans Holbein

-1540

-oil on panel

-England

-Holbein was the kings painter at the time

-Captures supreme self confidence  

-Paints the king in “rigid frontality” like Durer chose to paint his self  

portrait  

-The kings physical bulk “creates an overpowering sense of his  

ruthlessness and commanding personality”

- Depicted the Kings jewels on his clothing and crown

- Memorable public image of the time

Bruegel, Peasant Wedding

-Pieter Bruegel the Elder

-1568

-oil on panel

-used inverted persective: putting the apparent subject of  

his pieces in the background  

-inspired by Bosch

-it is a peasant wedding in a barn  

-bride sits in front of green curtain to distinguish her  

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- only food is porridge

- gives a sense of a high noise level  

- figures in this photo have a “weight and solidarity,” a Flemish characteristic  - Bruegel felt the common man had an important place in society and the “grand scheme of  things”

- Little boy licking bowl in foreground

KEY TERMS

- Aerial Perspective: the technique of representing more distant objects as fainter and more  blue.

- Apocalypse: the complete final destruction of the world, especially as described in the  biblical book of Revelation.

- Crosshatching: (in drawing or graphics) shade (an area) with intersecting sets of parallel  lines.

- Grisaille: a method of painting in gray monochrome, typically to imitate sculpture. - Print: the text appearing in a book, newspaper, or other printed publication, especially with  reference to its size, form, or style.

- Reformation: a 16th-century movement for the reform of abuses in the Roman Catholic  Church ending in the establishment of the Reformed and Protestant Churches. - Wing: a side area, or a person or activity associated with that area, in particular. - Woodcut: a print of a type made from a design cut in a block of wood, formerly widely used  for illustrations in books.

KEY CONCEPTS

- Catholic Mysticism in the North:

- Art and the Reformation:

- Prints:

KEY LOCATIONS

Isenheim, Nuremburg, Antwerp

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