Hist1020 Exam 1 Study Guide
1 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
John Kay: inventor of Flying Shuttle, 1733.
James Hargreaves: inventor of the Spinning Jenny, 1764.
Richard Arkwright: inventor of the Water Frame, 1769.
Thomas Newcoming: invented the first steam engine, 1712.
James Watt: made the steam engine powerful and efficient enough to hook machines to, 1765, when the industrial revolution really took off.
Robert Knock: Father of Microbiology; discovered germ theory.
Karl Marx: The father of communism (scientific socialism). He was born in Prussia, 1818 to a Jewish lawyer. Even though he came from money he always felt for factory workers. He went to the University of Berlin and wanted to be a professor but couldn’t due to his radical views. When in Paris, he was exposed to the utopian socialist views and wanted to make guidelines for them and turned to George W.F. Hegel. He and a friend Friedrich Engles wrote the Communist Manifesto.
Friedrich Engles: Helped Karl Marx write the Communist Manifesto. George W.F. Hegel: wrote the Phenomenology of the Spirit in 1807.
King Frederick William IV: King of Prussia 1840-1861. Declined request from Frankfurt Assembly to use their constitution. He wrote a new constitution to unify Germany in 1850. This was to maintain political stability and power.
Minister-President: head of ministers under the king (Frederick Williams IV) who fulfilled kings wishes and kept everyone in line.
Otto von Bismarck: 1815-1898. He was the leader of German unification. Member of the Junker class or aristocracy. He wanted a unified Germany of Prussia and the 37 states. He was appointed by William I to be Minister-President of the Prussian Diet. He wanted a unified Germany even if it takes iron and blood. His idea was using war.
Count Vincent Benedetti: French ambassador sent to talk William I out of governing in Spain leading to the Ems telegram.
Count Ferdinand de Lesseps: engineer behind the Suez and Panama Canals.
David Livingstone: (missionary #1) went to Africa from Great Britain. Arrived in South Africa in 1841 and traveled up Africa through rivers. His goals were humanitarian; he was there to assist medically and share Christianity. He gained We also discuss several other topics like lsu poli
much respect from them for his help. He sent regular reports to Britain describing his journey and the people which became immensely popular. Many people wanted to find him for money reasons and one did: Henry Morton Stanley. We also discuss several other topics like calculus 3 study guide
Henry Morton Stanley: found Livingstone living happily deep in Africa. Livingstone died shortly after arrival and was given a large native burial. Stanley was in Africa to strike it rich and his trip was paid for by King Leopold II of Belgium 1878. Stanley had no money of his own so was trying to find gold/diamonds/silver for them both. If you want to learn more check out math ttu
King Leopold II of Belgium: funded Stanley’s expedition to Africa in search of treasures. He is very greedy. He and Stanley stabled the International Congo Association in 1878. Stanley claimed a large part of Africa for Belgium.
John Boyd Dunlop: inventor of the pneumatic tire, 1887.
Zappo Zaps: native African group and warrior tribe who were employed by the Belgians to force harvesting as much rubber as possible.
Arch Duke Franc Ferdinand: the murder of he and his wife by Gavrilo Princip (member of Black Hand) in Sarajevo got the gears turning for WWI. He was the heir to the powerful aristocrat in Austria-Hungary who mobilize for war against Serbia immediately. If you want to learn more check out math 3070 study guide
Gavrilo Princip: assassin of Franc Ferdinand and his wife; member of the Black Hand.
King William II: King of Germany who gave up the throne days before WWI ended in hopes of easier peace terms. King from 1888-1918.
Great Britain (England): Birth place of the Industrial revolution.
Cities of major urbanization: Liverpool, Birmingham, Manchester and London (capitol that was already a city but did industrialize).
Austro-Hungary: the new name of the Habsburg Monarchy since 1867. Capitol is in Vienna. This had a complex ethnic composition which caused internal rivalries due to competing loyalties.
Vienna: capitol of Austro-Hungary
Prussia: capitol at Berlin. The population of this and the other 37 states were largely homogenous in composition (mainly German). This made it more inclined to make a untied independent Germany.
Berlin: capitol of Prussia and independent Germany.
German Reich: unified Germany
Hall of Mirrors: in Versailles, France. This is a sacred place of the French and where the German king was crowned king.
Dark Continent: what Europeans called Africa when they knew nothing about it. Africa’s interior was mainly small farming communities with elder leaders who lacked written language but had rich storytelling culture. They were looked down upon as inferior.
Alsace-Lorraine: French land given up as reparations after losing WWI.
Bosnia-Herzegovina: the Serbs that didn’t live in Austria-Hungary. Capitol was at Sarajevo. Was taken over by Austria-Hungary in 1878 because they wanted all the Serbs in one place. Serb nationalists like the black hand weren’t happy.
Sarajevo: capitol of Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Weimar Republic: name of Germany after WWI.
Acid and Rain: by Robert Smith about acid rain and the industrial revolution. The Wealth of Nations: by Adam Smith, 1776.
Theory of Four Movements: by French Utopian Socialist Charles Fourier, 1808. In this he wrote of wanting an end to economic competition and in his utopia he saw people belonging to phalanxes voluntarily to put resources together and share evenly.
A New Christianity: by French Utopian Socialist Henri de Saint-Simon, 1825. He wanted people to pull weight evenly (aimed at lazy aristocrats), he wanted people to use their talents and abilities, and he wanted a technocracy aka government ruled by technical and scientific experts.
What is Property?: by French utopian socialist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, 1840. Henri is the most radical of the 3 utopian socialists mentioned and in this he wrote of much about the mistreatment of workers by factory owners, he said that workers working power was their form of property (labor), and he wanted better shared profits.
Communist Manifest: written in 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles. They talked about how class conflict over production was what drove the laws of history. They predicted that the bourgeoisies are bringing into being the proletariat (workers) and due to the law of history, they would clash and come to a classless, stateless society of freedom, equality, and wealth for all. Once the clash did happen, right after releasing the pamphlet, it became enormously popular.
Phenomenology of the Spirit: written in 1807 by George W.F. Hegel. This famous philosopher believed in the dialectic (argues clash of thesis and antithesis aka Marx’s clash ideals) as well as the Geist or spirit that drove the dialectic (Marx didn’t believe in the Geist idea).
Ems Telegram: by William I and faked by Bismarck leading to the Franco-Prussian war. This was named after the meeting place: A small spa town called Ems.
The Casement Report: written by Robert Casement in 1904. This encouraged the human rights act against Leopold helping lead him to end the mistreatment.
Red Rubber: written by E.D. Morel in 1906. Also helping to end the mistreatment by Leopold in Africa.
King Leopold’s Soliloquy: written in the United States by Mark Twin in 1905. This helped lead Leopold to stopping the mistreatment which he did finally in 1908 due to international pressures.
The Happy Science: written by Frederich Nietzche in 1882. Had the famous quote “God is dead” talking about crisis of values in Europe in the early 20th century. People were losing faith, knowing right from wrong and were very anxious.
The Scream: by Eduard Munch in 1893. This was a painting expressing spiritual anguish and decline of faith in Europe.
The Young People of Today: written by Henri Massis and Alfred de Tarde in 1913. They surveyed students at a Paris University about what they think on the current day in age and they said they’re bored, lack direction and have a crisis of values. They said war could fix it and war is what they got.
The Economic Consequence of the Peace: written by John Maynard Keynes, 1919. This warned the world of the catastrophe that could come from the reparations on Germany after WWI.
Austro-Prussian War (Seven Weeks War): war started by Bismarck to unify Germany. He mismanaged affairs in Schleswig-Holstein intentionally by accusing Habsburg monarchy of the mismanagement. Habsburg mobilized war against Prussia which started June 15, 1866. This only lasted 7 weeks because the habsburg monarchy army was so out of date. This was very humiliating so they undertook reforms to modernize which led to Austria-Hungary.
Peace terms: Habsburg could no longer be involved in affairs with Prussia and the 37 states. This means Bismarck/Prussia could take over the 37 states. By the end of 1867, Prussia had defeated 21 of the states so far and organized them into the North-German Confederation (king was King of Prussia).
Franco-Prussian War: in September 1868 seeds of war were planted in Spain where there was a coup d’etat (overthrow of government). This was an effort by Bismarck for the other 16 states. A temporary government was established in Spain and they wanted a king on the throne and they decided on the Hohenzollern Royal Family which was that of Prussia. France didn’t want enemies at both borders. July 13, 1870, France sent French ambassador (Count Vincent Benedetti) to Prussia was sent to a spa town called Ems where he had a short conversation with King William I. William wrote the Ems telegram which Bismarck re-wrote offending the French government. July 15, 1870 the war broke out and was over by January 1871. Prussia won and got the rest of the 37 states. January 18, 1871, Germany was unified under the name German Reich (German Empire). King of Prussia was King of the German
Reich and was declared emperor in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles (really offending to France because it is a sacred place for them, intensifying hostility).
Matabele Uprising: in Zimbabwe, 1893-94. First uprising in Africa put down by Maxim guns. British were expanding into the Matabele territory of South Africa but they didn’t want that to happen so they fought back and lost (50 vs 5000).
Kuba Massacre: one time when Belgians were unhappy with a group who didn’t fill the quota so they had Zappos kill them, loot them, and burn down their villages (happened whenever quotas weren’t met).
World War I: (1914-1918) fought between the Triple Entante and the Triple Alliance. This was started by many reasons such as French and German hostility, crisis of values, race for empire, and Serbian national hostility towards Austria Hungary. Laster 4 years with a tremendous death toll.
Schlieffen Plan: developed by the German military in 1905. This was a plan to win quickly in a two front war effort if Germany had hopes of winning. This argued that once war broke out between the triples, first Germany would take all military might against France because Russia would take a long time to mobilize. Once France was defeated in 5-6 weeks, Germany could take troops and defeat Russia. This is premised on the thought that Russia would take a long time to mobilize for war.
The loom: at the heart of the industrial revolution and textile production. The loom consists of 3 elements: Warp strings (vertical stationary threads), weave thread (horizontal moving threads), and the shuttle (device attached to weave thread that passes across warp thread).
The Flying Shuttle: a loom by John Kay invented in England, 1733. Still had original 3 elements from original loom but did add some mechanics. This wasn’t used much after invention due to lack of string.
Spinning Jenny: invented in England by James Hargreaves in 1764. This made thread faster; it could spin 8+ bundles at a time making more string available to the Flying Shuttle (too bad it was weak string and didn’t hold up).
The Water Frame: Invented in England by Richard Arkwright, 1769. This machine used water to stretch cotton before spinning it making it stronger. This was very large and very expensive so only owned by entrepreneurs. Arkwright designed buildings to house these; aka first factories.
The first steam engine was invented in 1712 by Thomas Newcoming but it was very inefficient and used too much energy. This was improved in 1765 by James Watt and was used to power factories.
Iron and steel: replaced old bridges and buildings of stone and wood. Ships were also being built of these metals and they could carry more troops and heavier loads.
Suez Canal: completed 1869. This massively helped European expansion. This is a 100 mi long canal in Egypt that cuts through the Isthmus of Suez between the
Mediterranean and red seas. Ships no longer have to sail around Africa. Count Ferdinand de Lesseps was the engineer and was a French financed project. Great Britain saw the advantage and bought a share.
Panama Canal: cuts through the isthmus that used to divide North and South America. Count Ferdinand de Lesseps was the engineer behind this project too. Before this they had to sail around South America or unload and carry supplies across the isthmus. Completed in 1914.
Maxim gun: invented by Hiram Maxim who was an American in Maine of humble origins who wanted to invent something to make himself rich. He travelled to Europe in 1881 and went to an electric gadget convention in Paris where he got the advice: “if you want to make a lot of money, invent something that will enable the Europeans to cut each other’s throats with great facility.” He invented the gun in 1884. He made a lot of money off of European powers.
Pneumatic tire: (air filled tire) invented in 1887 by John Boyd Dunlop. This headed the demand for rubber.
1750: Start of the Industrial Revolution
Factory act 1833 aka Althorp’s Act
Factory act of 1847 aka the 10 hours act
1776: Adam Smith published the Wealth of Nations (This is also the date of the American Independence)
1808: Theory of Four Movements by Charles Fourier
1848: Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Fredreich Engels. 1904: the Casement Report by Roger Casement
1840: What is property? By Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
1872: Acid and Rain by Robert Smith
1906: Red Rubber by E.D. Morel
1825: The New Christianity by Henri de Saint-Simon
1807: The Phenomenology of Spirit by George WF Hegel
1905: King Leopold’s Soliloquy by Mark Twain
1887: pneumatic tire by John Boyd Dunlop
1712: old steam engine by Thomas Newcoming
1769: water frame by Richard Arwright
1764: spinning Jenny by James Hargreaves
1884: maxim machine gun by Hiram Maxim
1733: flying shuttle by John Kay
1765: improved steam engine by James Watt
June 28, 1914: the day Franc Ferdinand and wife was murdered. August 4, 1914: the day WWI began.
November 11, 1918: the day WWI ended. Triple Entente won; USA rises as superpower.
1850: Prussian Constitution of 1850
Pay attention to other mentioned dates. (I may have forgotten to add one here but they are mentioned, especially in laws/politics)
Bourgeoisies: a 19th century term for middle class. These were factory owners, small amount of people (<15%). They were the drivers of the industrial revolution and founded classical liberalism.
Classical Liberalism: founded by the bourgeoisies. The believed in not interfering in the economy (laissez-faire), they have faith in linear historical progress that is moved forward by Reason, and representation of government. They did eventually start breaking from laissez-faire.
Representation of Government: (as seen by the bourgeoisies) they didn’t want a queen or king ruling government alone; they had to have a parliament as well or just a parliament which would consist of elective representatives. Poor men lacked Reason so they weren’t involved.
Universal male suffrage: only men over a certain age could vote. Began in England in 1928 where it was based on one man one vote so everyone had equal vote. In Belgium, as we saw in the film Daens, male suffrage was extended in 1893 to all men over 25 but rich men got 3 votes, poor men got 1 but all men got the vote in 1918.
Universal adult suffrage: both genders can vote over a certain age. In Belgium, women got the vote in 1948.
Factory act 1833 aka Althorp’s Act: This was complicated but had 3 parts: prohibited children under 9 from working in textile factories, limited the number of hours per day to 9 plus 1 hour lunch for kids 9-14, and children 14-18 were limited to a max 12 hours per day.
Factory act of 1847 aka the 10 hours act: not as complex; has 3 parts: children under 10 couldn’t work in factories, children 14-18 couldn’t work more than 10 hours, and women were limited to 10 hours per day no matter the age.
Utopia: a state of social and political perfection (Utopian Socialism hint hint)
Utopian Socialism: wanted people to live in a utopia but had no guidelines and making that happen. This stemmed from the industrial revolution.
Communism (scientific socialism): Also grew out of the industrial revolution in the 1840’s. Communism had the same concerns as utopian socialists except it had guidelines to make it happen. The found scientific proof in the inevitable laws of history. Karl Marx is the father of Communism.
Christian Socialism: appeared at the end of the 19th century. Religion and politics work together (as in Daens). They put pressures on the classical liberalist helping them break from laissez-faire. They wanted to improve the lives of workers and it did help.
Nationalism: two definitions: 1. Having loyalty to one’s country (requires a country to be loyal to). 2. Nationalism can mean having feelings of common national identity that can come from shared language, common shared traditions/cultural symbols (flags, holidays, etc.), shared past/history/memories.
German Nationalism: led to the creation of independent Germany (Jan 18, 1871), contributed to WWI and WWII as well as Nazi Holocaust.
Frankfurt Assembly: May 1848- May 1849. (Finished April 1849) Composed of the middle class bourgeoisies whose goal was to make a constitution for a unified Germany that didn’t exist yet. The finished constitution called for a unified Germany of only Germans, didn’t include the Habsburg monarchy (too many ethnicities) and the state was to be led by a constitutional monarchy. They went to Frederick William IV of Prussia to fulfill the constitution but he doesn’t associate with the middle class He “won’t accept a crown from the gutter.”
Prussian Constitution of 1850: written by King Frederick IV which called for a constitutional monarchy. The parliament was the Prussian Diet. Voting was via the three class franchise and the king has power to decide if and when parliament meets. The king has ministers who are led by a Minister-President who keeps them in line and fulfill president’s wishes. German unification was technically not part of this.
Prussian Diet: elected by universal male suffrage but this was via the three class franchise.
Three class franchise: a style of voting where people are divided by class but it is skewed to where no matter what, the wealthy group would win out. This gave the king tremendous power because he decided when and if parliament met.
Junker: class of aristocracy.
Coup d’etat: overthrow of government.
Imperialism: efforts to build and maintain an empire.
Empire: is a type of government that rules over a large territory. There is one dominant group of people that rule over subjects group of people in an empire.
“New” imperialism: just like old imperialism except it expands way beyond its borders. The largest empire was that of England. France, Germany, Italy and Belgium built overseas empires as well. This led to expanded encounters with non Europeans and they started taking over production and taking control over governments.
International Congo Association: established in 1878 by Stanley and King Leopold II. This was a private business to help them make money by trading stocks and in 1878 they proclaimed that all of Africa was terra nullius (claimed by nobody, territory without government). This began a large land grab for Europe.
Terra nullius: territory that is without government and unclaimed.
Berlin Conference: 1885, held in Berlin by Otto von Bismarck who was afraid that conflicts in Africa between European nations would break up Germany so he held a meeting of powers. They talked about Africa and how not to go to war with each other. They were worried about the International Congo Association (ICA) so at the conference they transformed it into the Congo Free State (CFS) which is to be ruled by many states. Most lost interest except for Leopold so he and Stanley ruled the area alone.
Congo Free State: what the International Congo Association was named after the Berlin Conference. Was supposed to be governed by many states but ended up staying under control of Belgium. This area didn’t have treasures but did have rubber trees which made lots of money after the invention of the pneumatic tire.
Triple Entente: (WWI) France, England, Russia until 1917, and USA starting 1917.
Triple Alliance: (WWI) Germany (surrounded on both sides by enemy), Austro Hungary (Habsburg Monarchy), Italy until 1915.
Unity or Death (Black Hand): Serbian nationalist organization dedicated to bringing about a strong national state with all the Serbs in its borders.
Peace of Paris: started January 1919. This was the peace settlement for after WWI. Two important treaties: Treaty of St. Germaine and Treaty of Versailles.
Treaty of St. Germaine: this determined the fate of Austria-Hungary. The guidelines were from the Fourteen Points by Woodrow Wilson. Austria-Hungary was broken into many states after WWI which defies the nation-state rule of the fourteen points. Most of these new states weren’t ethnically homogenous. Also had to establish a democracy which didn’t hold in the end except for in Czechoslovakia.
Treaty of Versailles: covered what would happen to Germany. After WWI, the capitol of Berlin changed to Weimar. Weimar Republic was the new name of Germany. Government shifted to constitutional monarchy. Days before WWI ended, King William II of Germany gave up his throne in hopes of easier peace terms (didn’t happen… they were catastrophic terms). Peace terms: must claim full responsibility
of war and casualties (Article 231) as well as pay insane reparations. The peace lead to a large military force with no job and reason for the Nazi party to emerge.
Article 231 (War Guilt Clause): Germany must accept full responsibility to causing WWI and all the damage and destruction. This lead to deep resentment.
Fourteen Points: by President Woodrow Wilson of the united states, Jan 1918 (before WWI ended). Called for the creation of homogenous nation-states and democracies.
Democracy: according to Wilson, must have three characteristics: Universal adult suffrage, must have parliaments that make laws of the land and must have multi party rule.
Authoritarianism: the same as democracy except have one government rule instead of multiple.
Promise Questions and Possible Questions (went over in class)
Laissez-faire: “hands off” this was an idea of not letting the government interfere with private property.
Communism Karl Marx Communist Manifesto
January 18, 1871: independent Germany came into being.
Possibly who invented the Spinning Jenny
Possibly Robert Smith on industrial revolution pollution
Know the books, people, and dates!
Make sure to look at the Daens film sheet on canvas; everything is fair game on that sheet! Every.. single.. word…
Make sure to know the difference between similar treaties, “isms,” and wars. Important Events
The Industrial Revolution: Started in England, 1750. This led to technological changes by introducing new machinery and making old ones better as well as social changes such as internal migration, disease, and pollution.
Important Terms (Leftovers)
Textile Production: this boomed due to so many new inventions for textile production and these helped lead to factories (were produced in home) which led to social and political issues.
Coal mining: technologies for this were important because coal was burned to fuel steam engines. Led to pollution and respiratory problems.
Internal migration: a social change due to the industrial revolution. A form of migration where populations migrate within their own country (here it was from countryside to cities for factory jobs).
Urbanization: process of concentration of populations to urban places.
Disease: living conditions for workers were poor and disgusting so contagious disease was common and killed many. Very high mortality rates due to cholera, typhus, TB, etc.
Germ Theory: discovered at the end of the 19th century by Robert Knock (German, Father of Microbiology). This led to sterilizing of medical tools, discovery of bacteria/disease and increase life expectancy.
Acid rain: coal burning released Sulphur dioxide into the air creating toxic rain that kills forests, fish, and eats away at stone buildings.
Linear historical progress: History is moving in one straight line from a dark barbaric past (inequality, slavery, poverty) forward to a civilized future civilization (freedom, equality, wealth.)
Reason: (with a capitol R!!!) this is the engine of moving forward in historical progress. not everyone can have Reason so not everyone can participate in progress. The classical liberals didn’t think women had Reason, they didn’t think non-Europeans had Reason either such as Indians, Asians, and Africans, etc., as well as the poor who they thought lacked Reason.
Phalanx: voluntary cooperative (or commune) which is an organization people voluntarily enter and they all pull resources together and share equally (Ideal via Charles Fourier).
Dialectic: a model by Hegel that argues the clash of thesis and antithesis which makes synthesis.
Geist: the spirit or driving force of the dialectic (Hegel).
Rubber trees: trees that are milked for rubber by Africans under harsh conditions in the Congo Free State. Millions died do to the major mistreatment.
Reparations: monies that have to be paid by losing power to make things right for any damage during the war.
Blank check: a promise to unconditionally support war effort against Serbia (July, 1914) by Germany to Austria-Hungary.
Answers to the film Daens:
READ THE WORKSHEET!
1. The workers are children and women but ran by men. They are very dirty and treated poorly. It looks very dangerous and children are under the machinery because they’re small enough; they can get easily hurt.
2. Froze to death.
3. They are worried about the lives and how many deaths if they do. They seem to accept it because they’re only letting women and children in and talked about it at the factory.
4. There are a lot pf people in a small area. Very cluttered, lots of trinkets. Not enough food to adequately feed them all.
5. They learn very little because the children are locked away an so are the injured or the ones that look the worst and nobody can understand Flemish, the word of the workers, so the workers couldn’t tell them anything even though some tried like Nette. The man running the factory told the people lies.
6. All of the workers left the factory as the boy was carried out. They were trying to take the child to the committee to show them how bad it is but the commanders and guards took the body and scrambled and scared the workers and killed many of them with sabers.
7. He is preaching equality (Daens). Why is a poor man worth less than a rich man? We are equal under god. This injustice needs to end.
8. There was a strong majority for it.
9. They had a protest going through the poor people’s area saying they will go to hell if they vote for Daens and then when they were counting votes, they made Daens votes invalid for no reason because he was getting too many votes. The court even ruled out the corruption but that leads to another vote. Daens did win!
10.He doesn’t meet with the pope. He was given a letter in Latin by a priest there who read it to him saying it was from the pope. This letter basically tells him not to intermingle with socialists and to be a priest like the others and basically not to keep helping the poor. He wants him to resign.
11.The bishop banned Daens and his brother’s writings in the paper and the church spread the word. A mob of angry people against Daens burns them; they’re called the Bucks Pier was hurt. His brother and family wasn’t hurt.
12.He steals some beats with friends. He was mauled by a tiger and died trying to get meat off of it.
13.Everyone gathers at jefkes funeral that Daens made happen (almost at end). The girl (Nette) and guy (boyfriend) kiss and walk away.
Make sure to read the book and good luck! You got this!