Political Science 100 Spring semester
Political Science 100 Spring semester PSCI 1040
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia Brooksbank on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSCI 1040 at University of North Texas taught by Wendy Watson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 195 views. For similar materials see American History in History at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Notes: Test 1 notes 2/8/16 Central Ideas inAmerican Government 1. The constitution, the nations rulebook, is the product of conflict and compromise 2. The four major principles ofAmerican government are republicanism, separation of powers, checks and balances, and federalism (rooted int he constitution) 3. The constitution is a relatively brief collection of articles and amendments that both define and limit the powers of the national government 4. The difficulty of amending the constitution is balanced intentionally vague language, which leaves much room for interpretation Federalism: Power of the government being shared between the National Government and the State governments Goal of writing new constitution: Create a more effective National government than the one created in theArticles of confederation Double Security: Madison felt that the separation of power between the branches would be effective in controlling power as well as checking power between them and dividing power between the national and state governments. This would protect the people from government abuse, they were secure. National Government under theArticles of Confederation: Inability to raise revenue, provide for the common defense, or manage interstate conflict, hard for the national government to meet the public needs of the citizens. Dual Federalism: (LAYER CAKE) National and State governments working independently from each other (Distinct powers, functions and responsibilities DID NOT overlap)Also commonly referred to as “layer cake” federalism. Distinct layers of cake, each layer of government possesses specific powers and retains political sovereignty in these areas) Cooperative federalism: (MARBLE CAKE) National and State governments work together in overlapping responsibilities with public services. Grants in aid: The national government provided funding to state and local governments to support public programs designed to create jobs and stimulate the economy. Commerce clause: Supreme court played an important role in limiting the power of the national government. The supreme court distinguished between commerce, which presumably too place among states (interstate) and manufacturing within states (intrastate). Devolution: The delegation of Power by the federal government to the state and local governments Succession from the Union: Though slavery served as the moral catalyst for violent conflict, deep philosophical disagreement on issues concerning state sovereignty and the supremacy of federal law provided the grounds for regional succession from the union. Highways molding federalism: The national government provides vast majority of funding for interstate highways, the states are responsible for their construction and maintenance. Block grants: Federal funding given to the states to spend on general programs and services, with very few restrictions Deregulation: The process of reducing government rules and red tape that control social and economic activity, with the purpose of promoting competition, increasing productivity and lowering prices Notes: Test 1 notes 2/8/16 Categorial grants: Federal funding given to state and local governments for narrow purposes specified by the federal government Federalism: 1. Federalism may lead to conflict between state and federal laws (Critical thinking) 2. Because of federalism, federal and state governments share responsibility for providing healthcare under medicaid (social responsibility) 3. Understanding federalism is critical for illustrating the financial relationship between federal and state governments (communication) 4. The adoption of Common Core educational standards raises important ethical considerations (Personal Responsibility) 5. With the division of power to make a strong national government, it empowers the states to make and implement policy Federal Political Systems: Divide power between a national government and regional units. The National and regional governments are both sovereign, which means that they both have the authority to make and implement policy. Federal: Political system that divides sovereignty between a national government and regional units Medicaid: EXACTLY how it sounds, a public assistance program designed to provide healthcare to low income persons _____________________________________________________________________________________ Federalism Notes Class: Federalism Divided: Power divided or shared between - Acentral government - Smaller, regional governments Dual sovereignty: - National and states working independently from each other Cooperative federalism: - Concurrent jurisdiction - Both regulate Benefits of federalism: Balance between Small government - More responsive to public - More accountable (easier to watch) - More rapid action Big government - Pooled resources - More diverse, so less concern with tyranny of majority Downside to diverse government: - Policy is bland - Appeals to everyone Notes: Test 1 notes 2/8/16 National government powers: - Foreign affairs, generally - Collect taxes and spend money for the common defense and general welfare - Power to regulate interstate commerce (Regulate exchange of goods and services across state lines) - Necessary and Proper clause - Enforce 13, 14, 15 amendments (slavery, equal protection, right to vote regardless of race) - Supremacy clause (Any law made prudent to the us constitution and the us constitution itself, constitutes the supreme law of the land) Powers of the states: - 10th amendment (Reserved powers) - Decisions must be constitutional - If power isn't given to congress it is given to the states (people) - Police power > the power to regulate heath, safety, welfare and morals - 11thAmendment (Can’t be sued in federal court) Big controversies: - Necessary and proper clause (Governs congress) - Commerce clause - Federal use of the taxing and spending clauses to coerce state behavior - Supremacy Clause Why do we want a National Bank? - Because we collect taxes and need somewhere to collect the money - Be able to give letters of credit, paycheck - Control the national money Necessary and proper: - If the objective congress is trying to achieve is constitutional, all the means by which that are appropriate may be able to be carried into effect - Huge extension of federal Power - Anything the congress wants to do to achieve objectives can do what it needs to do Commerce clause EXPANSION: - Industrial revolution (commerce grew) - Great Depression (Fixed with the New Deal, regulating wages, production of goods) - Civil rights Movement - Today (Federalization of criminal law) Why do we have the Commerce clause in the constitution - Because states were taxing each other - competing economically - Regulate interstate commerce - control predatory behavior
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