Organic Chem Study Guide Test 1
Organic Chem Study Guide Test 1 CHEM 1130
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jojo Reep on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1130 at East Carolina University taught by David Rudel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Orgnc and Biochem for AH Sci in Chemistry at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Jojo Reep Chemistry 1130: Study Guide T est One Rudel // Spring Semester 2016 1120 review and Introduction to organic chemistry Hydrocarbons: molecules that only contain carbon and hydrogen Alkane: single bonds Properties: odorless, insoluble in water, less dense than water, flammable, not very reactive Alkenes: contains at least one double bond Alkynes: contains at least one triple bond Properties: more reactive, go from unsaturated to saturated by adding h to carbon on each side Aromatic rings: six-membered rings containing single/double bonds (3 of each) Cycloalkanes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons containing one or more rings of bonded carbon atoms. Saturated vs Unsaturated Saturated: a molecule whose carbon atoms bond to maximum number of hydrogen, All c-c bonds are single bonds Unsaturated: a molecule which contains a c-c multiple bond to which more hydrogen atoms can be added Addition reaction: 2 reactants turn into 1 product, multiple bon becomes single Elimination reaction: 1 reactant turns into 2 products, single bond becomes multiple Jojo Reep Substitution reaction: 2 reactants, 2 products, one atom (usually h) or a group of atoms is replaced by a different atom or group of atoms Rearrangement reaction: 1 reactant, 1 product, produces and isomer Isomer: compounds with the same chemical formula, but different structure, therefore different properties Constitutional isomers: Compounds with the same molecular formula, but different connections among their atoms. Halogenation: Reactants react with F2, Cl2 or Br2; Heat or light required to replace H on alkane with halogen. Ozone depletion: opposite of halogenation Dehydration: elimination reaction, water is a product Oxidization: loss of hydrogen/ gain of oxygen Resonance: Where the true structure of a molecule is an average among two or more possible structures; chemically stable because electrons move. cis vs trans: When a double bond separates elements into “sides” pay attention to where similar elements are located. Cis: if similar elements are directly across from each other, separated by double bond Trans: if similar elements are diagonal from each other, separated by double bond c-c single bonds: chemically stable, generally unreactive Jojo Reep c-c double bonds/triple bonds: chemically unstable, exposed electrons participate in reactions Polymer: A large molecule formed by repetitive bonding together of many smaller molecules; chemically stable. Monomer: The small molecules that combine together to make a polymer. MEMORIZE THE Functional groups!! Alkyl halide: carbon and halogen Alcohol: carbon and OH Ether: bond between carbons Amine: carbon and amino acid Aldehydes: r (another element), carbon, and oxygen (double bond) Jojo Reep Ketones: carbon and oxygen (double bond) between r (another element) Carboxylic acid: carbon, oxygen, oh, and r (another element) Anhydrides: complex, no hydrogen (but can have ch3) Esters: fats are together Amides: proteins and peptide bonds Propyl groups: n-propyl: “prop” meaning 3 carbons, “branch” but shape is normal, straight Jojo Reep isopropyl: “prop” meaning 3 carbons, y shaped branch Butyl groups: N-butyl: “but” meaning 4 carbons, normal, branch off first carbon Sec-butyl: r group is coming off second carbon Isobutyl: y shape coming off 4 carbon tert-butyl: fork shape coming off 3 carbon Naming rules Naming alkanes: 1. Find longest chain of carbon = parent chain 2. Count number of carbons in the parent chain 3. Locate branches coming off parent chain 4. Give branches lowest possible number 5. Separate numbers from name by hyphen 6. Separate numbers from numbers by comma 7. When writing name, list branches in alphabetical order Jojo Reep Counting carbons; 1 carbon= “meth” 7 carbon= Based on number of “hept” bonds, follow the 2 carbon= “eth” 3 carbon= “prop” 8 carbon= prefixes of numbered “oct” carbons with its 4 carbon= “but” matching suffix- “- 9 carbon= ane”,”-ENE”, or “- 5 carbon= “penta” “non” yne”, place a number 6 carbon= “hex” in front to specify the location of multiple Types of carbon atoms: bond (only for alkenes Primary carbon: attached to one other carbon Secondary carbon: attached to 2 other carbons Tertiary carbon: attached to 3 other carbons Cycloalkanes: 6 alkanes in a cycle or ring. Contains double bond. When numbering, 1and 2 must be at both ends of the double bond. Jojo Reep Naming aromatic compounds (with more than one substituent): *benzene is the parent name *Depending on the branches, list elements in alphabetical order, numbers will match in this order * 3 different types of aromatic bonding 1. “ortho”: meaning branches are close together 2. “meta”: meaning middle/ in between close and far away 3. “para”: meaning far apart Benzene as a substituent: *benzene has 6 carbons, but when it is connected by a branch to a chain of 7 carbons, it is the substituent Aromatic compounds undergo substitution: 2 reactants, 2 products, one atom (usually h) or a group of atoms is replaced by a different atom or group of atoms. Two types of substitution: 1. Nitration: replaced with nitrogen Jojo Reep 2. Halogenation: Replaced with a halogen Chapter 14 Alcohols phenols ethers R - OH Aromatic - R’ - O - R: OH R’’ carbon/hydroge n group OH: hydroxyl R’,R’’: same or group different OH: hydroxyl group carbon/hydroge n group Oxygen likes electrons, makes partial charges in molecules. When paired with hydrogen it has a slight negative charge, but if it isn’t paired with another partial positive, the molecule is non polar. These slight charges change the properties of molecules Alcohols, phenols, and ethers are all similar to water (h-o-h), replace one or both hydrogens with an organic group (R) Adding oxygen increases boiling point Adding oxygen/ hydrogen allows for hydrogen bonding by providing a partner. Strong inter molecular forces create higher boiling points (alcohol’s is highest) - Hydrogen bonding: hydrogen paired with oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine - AND must have lone pair on oxygen or nitrogen - Alcohols can hydrogen bond to themselves, contain both partners - Alkanes (phenols) and ethers cannot h-bond by themselves Jojo Reep All elements contain London dispersion forces, very weak but the larger the elements molecular mass gets, the stronger the force and higher the boiling point Water solubility depends on molecules ability to make hydrogen bonds with water (alcohols and ethers) in order to bond, must have at least one “partner” Chem 1120 review: Ionic compounds: (inorganic) metal and nonmetal, transfer electrons, soluble, conduct electricity, solid at room temperature, higher boiling points Covalent compounds: (organic) nonmetal and nonmetal, share electrons, non-soluble, don’t conduct electricity, liquid at room temperature, lower boiling points Solubility: like dissolves like Acids: give away an h+, positive charge, lots of free h+ Bases: gains an H+, negative charge, less free h+ Conjugate acid/base: only differ by one h+ Strong acids: give away all H+ (HCl) Weak acids: form chemical equilibrium - Equilibrium constant: Ka=Products/reactants - -log(ka)=pka - Ph for a buffer: pka+log (base/acid)
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