Print Media Study Guide
Print Media Study Guide Comm 214
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jamie Berger on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 214 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Milner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Communications in Journalism and Mass Communications at College of Charleston.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Communications Exam 2 Study online quizlet.com/_20b0ej 1. Codex An early type of book in which paper like sheets were cut and sewed together along the edge, then bound with thin pieces of wood and covered with leather - Significance:dominant book form in the ancient world that replaced the scroll 2. Printing Press A 15th century invention by Johannes Gutenberg whose moveable metallic type technology spawned modern mass communication by creating the first method for mass production - Reduced the size and cost of books - Made book the first mass medium affordable toless affluent people - Provided the impetus for the Industrial Revolution, assembly-line production, modern capitalism, and the rise of consumer culture 3. Before the Printing Books had tobe copied by hand Press - Slow, painstaking process that could take more than a year for each book, and the people copying them often made mistakes - Very few books were published, and they were available only tomonks and scholars 4. Manuscripts A handwritten book, poem, or other document, or a collection of such handwritten documents bound together - Created by first making the parchment, then writing, illuminating, and binding - Circulation:readers would copy out their favourite works intolarge bound volumes called commonplace books (remained among the aristocrats) 5. Publishing Industry The history of publishing is characterized by a close interplay of technical innovation (writing, paper, and printing) and social change (spread of literacy) - It is called the first media industry because it has been at the heart of the expanding intellectual movement of the past 500 years 6. Dime Novels Cheaply produced and low-priced novels that were popular in the US beginning in the 1860's - Books themselves were produced toreinforce conventional values of the time 7. Pulp Fiction Term used todescribe many late 19th century popular paperbacks and dime novels, which were constructed of cheap machine-made pulp material - Magazines were best known for their lurid and exploitative stories and sensational cover art 8. Booksin a All thanks towords being printed on paper, free speech and news were made possible Democratic Society - Caused a moral panic focusing on class antagonism, perversion, and the censorship/banning of books 9. Partisanship and - Partisan Press:an early dominant style of American journalism distinguished by opinion newspapers, which Objectivity in News generally argued one political point or pushed the plan of the particular party that subsidized the paper Reporting - Objective Journalism:a modern style of journalism that distinguishes factual reports from opinion columns; reporters strive toremain neutral toward the issue or event they cover, searching out competing points of view among the sources for a story 10.From Penny Papers - Penny Papers:newspapers that, because of technological innovations of printing, were able todrop their price to Today toonce cent beginning in the 1830's, thereby making papers affordable toworking and emerging middle classes and enabling newspapers tobecome a genuine mass medium - Today:news has become more digital, causing one tohave to"subscribe tothe experience" 11.Yellow Journalism A newspaper style or era that peaked in the 1890s;it emphasized high-interest stories, sensational crime news, large headlines, and serious reports that exposed corruption, particularly in business and government - Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst both wrote papers that were accused by critics of sensationalizing the news in order todrive up circulation, although the newspapers did serious reporting as well - Nellie Bly:faked insanity tostudy a mental institution from within, starting a new kind of investigative journalism 12.Minoritiesand ... Marginalized Populationsin the Past 13.Challengesfor - Digitalization Newspapers - Multimodality (could mean increased observation) Today - Diminished Agenda Setting - Social conversation - Credibility concerns 14.Specialization A method of production where a business or area focuses on the production of a limited scope of products or services in order togain greater degrees of productive efficiency within the entire system of businesses or areas - Print publications worked tostand out from their competitors by developing market niches (advertisers could target groups by gender, age, race, class, and social and cultural interests) 15.Magazine Began with just an elite audience but spread toa broader spectrum when monthly magazines gained popularity Audience 16.Muckraking A style of early 20th century investigative journalism that referred toreporters' willingness tocrawl around in society's muck touncover a story - Reports exposed bribery and corruption at the city and state level, as well as in Congress, that led toreforms and changed election results 17.Photojournalism The use of photos todocument events and people's lives - Provides a sense of engagement, giving the reader or viewer a chance tohave some sort of an emotional attachment tothe piece 18.PriscillaCoit "Books Are Dead, Long Live Books" Murphy - Historical Contestation:Print Era, Broadcast Era, and Digital Era - People feared that future generations would be less intelligent or contributive tosociety thanks totechnology - Murphy argues that "if one would predict the death of books, it is necessary toknow how they live" - Since Murphy wrote her piece in 1999, we've seen exponential growth in many sectors and welcomed new ways of thinking about and doing ordinary things - communication is easier and faster, social networking has come into play - these factors support Murphy's claim that there cannot be just one view towards as towhether or not media are a good thing since nonew forms of medium would be produced if the world agreed/disagreed on everything 19.Murphy's - Rivalry:opposing forces Conceptions - Convergence:things coming together and becoming one - Complementarity:working together;either of twoparts or things needed tocomplete the whole 20.David Carr "Print is Down, and Now Out" - Confident and optimistic towards the future of print and serious news because newspapers continue togenerate cash and solid earnings, but, those results are not enough tosatisfy investors (not meeting demands for growth because people have a renewed focus on print) - Newspapers (and magazines) are trying toturn toward readers for digital revenue at the same time that they have denuded their products of much of their value due tobudget cuts and the slimming down of their enterprises - Sowhose fault is it? Noone's;nothing is wrong in a fundamental sense:A free-market economy is moving to reallocate capital toits more productive uses, which happens all the time;just because the product being manufactured is news in print does not make it sacrosanct or immune tothe natural order 21.Digital Revenue The income generated from sale of goods or services, or any other use of capital or assets, associated with the main operations of an organization before any costs or expenses are deducted - Carr disagrees with this potential solution tojournalism because its not fair for newspapers and magazines toask for a profit when they have denuded their product of much of their value 22.William Powers "Massless Media" - ToPowers, polarization in media is constituted by democracy and national identity (different niches and demographic groups) - Powers believes that this could be good for the public - The example Powers brings up is Benjamin Franklin's piece in his brothers newspaper that was "America's first fiercely independent newspaper, a bold, antiestablishment journal that helped tocreate the nation's tradition of an irreverent press" regarding "homogeneous media environment" - Powers characterizes the relationship between media partisanship and national identity by claiming that even though the media of this period were profuse, partisan, and scandalously downmarket, they were at the same time a powerful amalgamator that encouraged participatory democracy and forged a sense of national identity 23.Mary "The Decline of Print Isn't the End of Journalism" Kissel - The "old guard" Kissel refers tois print media competing with websites and social media with their "splashy headlines and tabloid-like reporting styles", leading journalists topotentially dowhat their online competitors were doing (Kissel believes that this competition is negative for journalism) - In an era of infinite demand, journalists must rise above the crowd complex that suffuses somany newsrooms (donot make their work free because they will gain zerorevenue) - causes work tobecome reliable and energetic for the public 24. Scott "The Vocabulary Comics" McCloud - The communicative power of the icon is how realistic it may be (color, depth, etc.) - Images are uniquely iconographic by how they relatively change, if they vary a lot in iconic content and little in iconic abstraction (vice versa), and if they change throughout both iconic abstraction and iconic content - Abstract art uses color and form in a non-representational way - Realistic art objectifies its characters - The universality of a cartoon image states that:"when you enter the world of the cartoon - you see yourself...We don't just observe the cartoon;we become it
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