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Cal State Fullerton - HIST 110 - Wk 3 Notes - Class Notes

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Cal State Fullerton - HIST 110 - Wk 3 Notes - Class Notes

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background image   A.   The Century of Persia (6 th  century/500’s BC)  a.  Conquered largest empire yet seen  
b.  Assyrian Factors of success 
i.  Terror, but it made them unliked, people wanted an opportunity to gain  back freedom.  ii.  They had many civil wars and were weekend and provided Assyrian  people the power to rebel  iii.  The Assyrian capital of Nineveh was destroyed in 612 BC by people who  had rebelled against Assyria  iv.  They hated Assyrians so much they did their best destroy these people  v.  Very few Assyrians survived and they almost dis appeared from history.  c.  Four major powers of the Middle East  i.  Media  1.  Persians were subjects of Media 
2.  Persians were Indo-European people 
3.  They were related linguistically to Greeks, romans and us 
4.  Persians had never played a role in history until the role of Cyrus 
II, or Cyrus the Great  5.  Cyrus II ruled from 559-530 BC 
6.  He was able to change the fact they were subjects to media 
7.  Led rebellion against Media, won freedom for Persia, and led 
conquest of the conquering of Media.  8.  The Persians went on to conquer Libya and Babylonia  ii.  Babylonia  iii.  Libya  iv.  Egypt  d.  Cambyses II  i.  Son Cyrus II, led from 530-522 BC  ii.  During his reign the Persians conquered Egypt  iii.  In 522 BC Cambyses dies under mysterious circumstances   iv.  Most of what we know from Persians we get from the Greeks, who were  enemies of the Persians  1.  They had little idea of wat was actually happening in Persia  e.  Darius I   i.  Ruled from 521-486 BC  ii.  During this time, Persians complete conquest of the vast empire  1.  Conquered as far east as India 
2.  For the first time ever they reach into the Europe and also to the 
Danube River.  B.  Persian Success Factors  a.  Good leadership, were lucky because they had three great leaders in a row 
b.  Had an elaborate imperial administration 
background image i.  Some of the ideas they took from the Assyrians  1.  They divided into more than two dozen provinces which they  called satrapies.   2.  Each of the Satrapies was ran by a Satrap, or a governor 
3.  They would collect taxes, enforce laws, and keep people under 
control  c.  The Persians were far nicer than the Assyrians  i.  Subjects of Persia had two main obligations  a.  Pay taxes 
b.  They had to serve in the Persian army when called 
ii.  Despite the Persians being nice, they were still hated by many people  d.  Persians had a very good and very big army.  1.  They had around 300,000 soldiers.  e.  Religion plays a big role in the expansion or the Persian empire  i.  They had a unique religion that was established by Zoroaster   1.  Established Zoroastrianism  a.  There were only two gods  i.  Ahura Mazda (Good God)  ii.  Angromanya (Bad God)  b.  People could choose which gods side to be on  2.  According to this religion good would always triumphs 
3.  Then there would be a judgement day 
a.  All people living and dead would be judged to see if they  were good or bad  b.  Good would go to heaven and bad to hell  4.  Persians believed that they were a chosen people and that they  would rule the world and spread the word of Zoroastrianism.  a.  They did not force people to change religion, but accepted  converts.   C.  Greece  a.  The dark age in Greece had finally ended and a new age began 
b.  Known as the Archaic Age 
i.  Period of dramatic recovery for Greece  1.  Population began to rise 
2.  The number and size of cities began to rise dramatically 
3.  The Greeks began to send out colonies around the known world. 
4.  They meet all sorts of new and interesting people 
5.  They are able to borrow vital technology from these people 
a.  One of these thing  6.  The Greeks meet a people known as the Phoenicians who had  invented an elevated form as writing called the alphabet  a.  Systems before this were pictograms 
background image b.  A symbol represented a word which made it hard t read and  write  7.  The Phoenicians came up with a system that only had 22 symbols,  each represented a sound in their language  a.  The greeks used this and came up with the Greek alphabet,  which is still used today  b.  So much of their accomplishments could not have been  done without the alphabet  c.  They eventually hand of the alphabet to the romans who  make a few changes to create the latin alphabet, who give 
us the alphabet and we make changes to the alphabet we 
have today 
c.  During the Archaic Age, iron was introduced to the Greeks, before  the intro to  Iron, the Greeks would use bronze as weapons  i.  Such as armor and weapons  ii.  Government would not pay for the armor and weapons of its soldiers  1.  Soldiers had to bring their own stuff 
2.  Bronze was incredibly expensive so only few could actually afford 
to buy weapons and armor  3.  If you could not afford it you were not eligible to serve in war 
4.  As a result Greek armies were relatively small 
d.  A Hoplite was a type of soldier 
e.  Iron was far cheaper than bronze, which led to the growth of Greek armies 
f.  Military service and political power were very closely related 
i.  This meant that if u served in the military you had  political power  ii.  When iron is used and more people want power and because there are  thousands of them and had weapons they got power  g.  Polis   i.  There were about 1000 Polis’s   ii.  A polis is an independent little state and there were 1000 of them  1.  Even though they are separate they were basically ran the same  way  2.  They were not ran by a king or an elected leader, instead each polis  was governed by an assembly of citizens.  3.  If you had political rights you were allowed to attend meeting, as  well as getting up and making proposals, you could get up and 
debate, and you had the right to vote in the assembly 
4.  This was the first example of a democratic government 
5.  There was some restrictions on who had political power 
a.  You had to be male 
b.  Aliens were not allowed to participate 
c.  An alien was someone from outside the Polis 
d.  If you moved to a polis you would be considered an alien 

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School: California State University - Fullerton
Department: History
Course: World Civilization to 16th Century
Professor: Stefan Chrissanthos
Term: Winter 2016
Tags:
Name: Wk 3 Notes
Description: The third week of notes covers Assyrians, Persians, and Greeks
Uploaded: 02/15/2016
7 Pages 44 Views 35 Unlocks
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