GC 444 - Midterm
GC 444 - Midterm GC 4440
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie S on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GC 4440 at Clemson University taught by Dr. O'Hara in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Current Trends and Deviations in Graphic Communications at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Research Design Explain pure and applied research, the scientific method o Pure research Knowledge for the sake of knowledge What happens if…? o Applied Research Attempt to solve a problem An exercise in practical problemsolving o The Scientific Method Observation, define the problem Develop theory Make prediction, formulate hypothesis Test Hypothesis via experiment Interpret the results Hypothesis statements, statistical significance o Restate Question as Research hypothesis Nondirectional hypothesis only predicts difference Directional Hypothesis predicts a hierarchy (more, less, lower, higher) Include the metric for assessment o The Null Hypothesis In proving your hypothesis (confirming your prediction), the assumption you must overcome is that there is no difference. This is the Null Hypothesis. Your experiment will either reject or accept the null hypothesis, based on the probability that the results could not have happened by chance. o Statistical Significance If the probability of the result occurring by chance is small, reject the null. The test is considered statistically significant. If the result can be attributed to chance, fail to reject the null. You can select the level of probability, typically 95% or 90%. It depends on how much risk of being wrong you can assume. Experimental design, difference between independent and dependent variables o Experimental Design Manipulate an independent variable The independent variable is the experimental treatment Control all extraneous variables. Match conditions or block effects. Observe/measure the predicted effect on the dependent variable. o Difference between independent and dependent variables Independent variables Predicted effect, controlled variable Dependent variables Response variable, measured variable Differentiate between Validity and reliability o Validity The degree to which the result, instrument, or experimental design does what it is designed to do—Accuracy Is the test meaningful, appropriate o Reliability The degree to which the results are repeatable—precision are the results consistent, or are they left to chance? Explain extraneous variables, threats to validity (the concept, not the list) o The extraneous variables are anything other than the experimental treatment that might affect the outcome. o If not controlled, the represent threats to validity. o Internal Validity The degree to which the experimental treatment made the difference as opposed to extraneous variables. o External Validity The degree to which the result can be generalized beyond the experimental conditions. o Threats to Internal Validity History—unexpected events during experiment (stuff happens) Maturation—subjects change (learning) Mortality—lose subjects (lose press sheets) Pretesting—subjects become sensitized to test (clues) Instrumentation—instruments drift, poor procedures, fatigue, failure to record data properly, poor survey design Regression—subjects chosen for extreme characteristics Differential Selection—subjects chose for particular knowledge of ability Expectancy—Experimenter Bias o Threats to External Validity PreTesting Differential Selection Experimental Procedures Understand and explain factors that influence sample size o Not cost effective to measure everything; statistics allow inferences from sample of population o Sampling size: If N is small, n must be small If variance is small, n can be small If bound is small, n must be large If probability of error is low, n must be large If cost is high, n is preferably small o N=t 2a/2=.05ariance/bound ; (ta/2=.05 ) NonImpact Printing Explain how the following technologies work: electorphotographic, thermal transfer/dye sublimation, inkjet o Dominant Technologies Electrophotographic Electrophotography o The most widespread NIP (nonimpact print) technology o A printing process that uses electric charges to create an image on a photoconductive surface that acts as the printing plate. o Toner attaches to the charged areas and then is transferred to the paper as it goes through the printer. o This surface is cleared after each image and imaged again for the next copy o This technology is used in common photocopiers and laser printers, as well as highend digital printers like Indigo Eprint, Xeikon, DocuColor, Xerox IGen, etc… Electrophotographic Process o Imaging: A photosensitive surface (light exposure reduces the surface’s resistance) is uniformly charged with static electricity. When the surface is exposed to an optical image through light, a latent or invisible image is formed from the electrostatic charge. o Inking/Developing: Toner, either a fine powder or suspended in a liquid, is spread over the surface. The toner adheres only to the charged areas, thereby making the latent image visible. o Toner Transfer (printing): Electrostatic forces are generated via a charge source (corona) in the printing NIP. The printing nip (not NIP) is the point of contact between the photoconductive drum and the substrate. The electrostatic transfer is assisted by direct contact with the substrate. o Toner Fusing/Fixing: Heat and pressure are employed to melt the toner in order to adhere it permanently to the substrate. o Cleaning: Mechanical cleaning physically removes any residual toner that failed to transfer to the substrate. Electrical cleaning refers to neutralizing the electrostatic charge on the drum so it can be exposed for the next image. Thermography Direct Thermography Substrate coating changes color with heat Often used in fax machines and for labeling/coding purposes, such as labels or receipts Not a HighResolution system Transfer Thermography The colorant is the form of a donor sheet; the colorant is transferred to the substrate either directly or through application of laminates. Heat is applied to the donor sheet to create the image. Process is either one of transfer via direct contact or sublimation Thermal Transfer o Donor sheets and Receiver (carrier) sheets o Based on the ink melting onto the carrier film when heated, transferred to the substrate under low pressure. o Binary process—the optical density of the print is set in advance by producing the donor with a specified thickness of layer, pigment concentration, and hue. Thermal Sublimation o Heat evaporates the dye and initiates a diffusion process onto the paper. o This requires a special polymer coating on the substrate to take on the diffused colorants. o With this method, several gray values can be produced per dot depending on the quantity of ink diffused. o The process is controlled by the temperature and/or the duration of the heating signal Inkjet—differentiate between continuous flow and dropon demand, piezo vs. thermal o Continuous Flow versus Drop on Demand Continuous Inkjet Only part of the continuously generated flow of small ink drops is directed onto the paper during the printing in accordance with the image. Two types of continuous inkjet: o BinaryDeflection The drop has one of two charge states (namely uncharged for conveyance to the paper and charged for deflection in an electrical field) Priniciple of a nozzle system based on Hertz technology, which enables a high frequency stream of drops (of 1 MHz) to be created. The pressurized liquid is pressed out of the nozzle. The highfrequency excitation via a piezoscillator results in the constriction of the stream due to fluid dynamicsrelated effects and the separation of individual drops from the stream The individual drops are electrically charged by an electrode in accordance with the image just before separation from the jet. The charged drops are deflected in a subsequent electrical field (plate capacitor, deflector) and fed to a collecting device. o MultiDeflection The drops receive different charges, so that as they pass through the electric field, they are deflected in different directions and are transferred to different positions on the substrate. The height of a line written in this way depends on the distance between the ink jet head and the paper surface. The writing height increases as the spacing increases, although the resolution will be reduced. The resolution in the direction of printing is determined by the speed of the substrate and the drop frequency. Drop on Demand With drop on demand technologies, a drop is only generated if the print image requires it. Two types: o Thermal inkjet This is done by heating the liquid ink until it vaporizes, where upon a cetain quantity of ink is ejected from the nozzle as a result of the pressure exerted by the vapor bubble, hence the name “bubble jet”. No moving parts but for the ink itself. Building the bubble An electrical pulse of 2microseconds is applied to a resistor that raises its temperature by 100,000,000 C per second. o This heats ink at its surface to over 300 C in a superheated vapor explosion Jet of ink leaves nozzle at 1015 meters/second The color printers used in desktoppublishing or in an office environment mostly use thermal ink jet systems (HP, Canon, Lexmark). About 75% of inkjet printers employ this technology In a typical application, a separate inkjet head is used for each color Printer Speeds Smaller the droplet, the more it takes to cover substrate In 2000, limited to 20 million droplets/sec. By 2005, HP Photosmart 8250 delivers 100 million droplets/sec from 3900 nozzles integrated to single silicon chip Number of droplets doubles every 18 months. Speeds of printers held back by drying time on substrate. Pico Liter 12 1 Pico Liter = 10 Liter, or 1/100,000,000 of a liter One million droplets to cover a square inch of substrate Printers can lay down 100 million droplets in a second Piezo inkjet The drop is generated as a result of a change of volume within the ink chamber due to piezoelectric effects, which leads to the drop of ink being ejected from the nozzle system. Piezo technologies are used by Epson. With piezo ink jet, unlike thermal ink jet, ejection of an ink drop is generated by mechanical displacement in the ink channel, and not by heating and vaporization within the ink jet system. The channel walls are deformed, which produces a pumping/suction action in one channel and an ejection action in the adjacent channel. LargeFormat Ink Jet Printing Systems There are many systems available for printing large format products such as posters and largescale advertising displays. Widths of about 135cm are common, though there are also systems for printing widths of about 5 to 8m. Differentiate between digital (electrostatic) press technologies—what are the pros and cons of each? Discuss recent innovations in inkjet (grayscale droplets, fixed head technologies, the HP T300) o Innovations: Grayscale droplets: printheads can eject droplets at different sizes Fixed head tech: print head has the width of the paper. Enhanced speeds. o HP T300 30” wide 400’ per min nozzle redundancy: 8 ways to print one pixel if one head goes bad the other printheads pick up the slack nozzle cycling: density variations are suppressed and reduces streaking Discuss innovations in Nanography: Why is the gamut extended? What is the role of the transfer blanket? Why doesn’t the ink absorb into the substrate? How fast can it print? o Transfer Blanket: transfer ink to substrate o Trasfer as dry polymer film for sharp does and unique properties make the ink not absorb into the substrate o 13,000 sheets an hour, 660ft/min Workflow Discuss the role of automation for process control and increased efficiencies o Role of automation for process control Automation allows for prepress to cut 1000 of jobs into one automated workflow. • What is CIP4? o The International Cooperation for the Integration of Processes in Prepress, Press, & Postpress Organization (manages JDFjob definition format) • Explain the “4 Rs” as goals in implementing an automated workflow. o Remove wasted time: automate time consuming repetitive tasks, reducing turnaround time while increasing capacity, reduce cost o Reduce errors: automate number intensive or objective tasks, error reduction leads to cost savings o Refocus employees: automate nonvalueadded processes, employees focus on customer service, and quality assurance, and learning new skill sets. o Record of activity: track actions, searchable record • Explain what relational databases are and the mechanism by which they are linked. o Relational Databases (RDBMS) Predominant way to organize data Tables are related to each other References between table using id numbers Data can be entered once and shared Example: customer address used on multiple jobs o Mechanism: Database Tables. Basic SQL Query. • Describe various types of automation that may be employed (saved settings, hotfolders, action list, prepress workflow software, database queries, scripts, JDF) o Saved settings o Hotfolders “Watched” folders Triggers scripted action Input/output Common in proofing systems Very easy to setup • Discuss proofing considerations to accurately simulate a printed product: color, line/dot gain, trap colors (spot overprints), substrate color/texture, min dots, etc. o Soft proof: on screen o Hard Proof: on paper. Inkjet. Color o Fingerprinting: dot gain compensation curves, color overlay, ICC Profile, substrate. • Discuss how JDF doesn’t simply command equipment, but provides feedback as well (updated status, output logs, new tasks added, availability of resources) o JDF: provide a common language between all devices and systems in a printing workflow, facilitating easier automation between them. Gives you an up to date status check , on task that gave errors and time performance. As well as a new task and let us know the availability of resources. Output logs: which task gave errors and time performance • Implementing smart marks and smart words when setting up an automated workflow o Implement smart marks and smart words so that your workflow works more than one type of job • RIP issues—resolution, onebit tiffs, compression, normalized pdfs, etc. o Produces high resolution tiff or len o Converts vector file into 1bit raster file that the platesetter understands o Normalized pdfs are pdfs ready to be put through workflow • Ghent workgroup o Develops best practices specifications for graphic arts workflows o Free specifications aid users in creating reliable, pressready files fully optimized for print o We already have PDF/X: why is this necessary? These go much further—recommend best practices for a specific market or process Magazines/newspaper advertising, sheet offset, web offset, publication gravure, packaging Different requirements depending on “output intent” o Soft Proofing Ticket Keeps track of approval status, viewing conditions when soft proof was approved, and the person who approved the proof o Proof to Preflight Allows users to view a PDF file’s preflight history What GWG specifications were used and what were the results? o Both potentially enable automation o The real world significance: Shifts prepress responsibilities upstream to the customer/print buyer Documents that are printable anywhere in the world, with minimal variation and quality problems Onestop checkpoint for processspecific requirements in PDF creation New initiatives provide opportunities for workflow enhancement/automation Storefronts and PURLS What are PURLs? o Personalized universal resource locator Many companies have been using them and refer to them as personalized landing pages. o The way you use a PURL is going to be driven by the desired end result. The other elements that drive the process. Such as: How is the PURL going to be delivered? What is the outcome of the PURL? o A survey, a sales pitch, an electronic form, a lead generation, a purchase, a new customer experience, additional services offered, a product launch, etc… How much personalization is needed or is appropriate? o Provides email blasts mechanism and can track if the recipient opened the email o Can set email trigger GURL o Generalized URL Explain what a digital storefront is and how it accommodates ebusiness. Be prepared to discuss integrating digital storefronts with VDP, JDF, and/or other digital technologies. o Digital storefront: website that offers goods and or services for sale and which the customers can visit at anytime and from anywhere. Describe a crossmedia campaign and the concept of multiple touches, as well as the various channels available to marketing campaigns o Cross Media Campaign: when several media categories are used to target a specified group. The aim is to create an additional information level and a potential feedback channel to enable direct interaction with the consumer. Direct mail Print Email Social media Mobile Explain how W2P makes small runs profitable. o Turn around time o Makes small jobs possible due to digital print, automated production, and reduced overhead No customer service No designer involved Proofed online Ganged with other jobs Canned Spam Laws o Controlling the assault of Nonsolicited pornography and marketing Act Discuss response rates for direct mail vs. email, VDP vs. static mail o Direct Mail vs. Email Earns the highest response rate. Postcards get highest response. o VDP vs. Static mail VDP makes personalized information on a post card and is relevant to you. Static mail is “junk” mail sent to everyone. VDP has a higher response rate. Email blasts vs. email triggers o Email blasts: Electronic mailing sent all at once to a large mailing list o Email triggers: automated messages in response to input or lack of from a recipient Discuss the crossmedia case studies o Chickfila: Postcard with 2 campaign offers mailed to 5,048 homes, instructed to log on to PURL to activate offers (free sandwich & free biscuit), on PURL filled in a few simple questions, if shared on social network/email/text entered to win free CFA for a year (people they sent it to also eligible for offers)… total response of 14,124 (279.8%)… direct mail piece alone was 22% response rate… exceeded 100% within 24 hours o SteinMart: 20,000 postcards with coupon to customer database, instructed to log onto PURL, on PURL they validated information and answered question about how often they shop at SteinMart and could share on social media/email/text, everyone who shared was entered to win $1000 shopping spree at SteinMart, total response of 30,068 (150.58%) o HP LinkedIn Challenge: Engaged commercial clients and encouraged hp recommendations via st LinkedIn. Created company page. 2,000 product recommendations 1 2 weeks, 20,000 new followers, 500,000 viral updates.
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