intro to PKSC 102 MIDTERM REVIEW
intro to PKSC 102 MIDTERM REVIEW 81499 - PKSC 1020 - 001
Popular in Introduction to Packaging Science
81499 - PKSC 1020 - 001
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Addie Pearson on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 81499 - PKSC 1020 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Heather P Batt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 144 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Packaging Science in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Clemson University.
Reviews for intro to PKSC 102 MIDTERM REVIEW
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/15/16
1 MidTerm Review MidTerm Review PKGSC 102 History Trends and Timeline Three M’s of Packaging Definition 1. MATERIALS 2. METHODS 3. MACHINERY Trends and Timeline Ancient Man-Made Packages 3000 B.C.—Egyptians blew and cast glass 105 A.D.—China invented paper c. 1500—first evidence of protective packaging; cork stopper used for bottles Industrial Revolution 1809—Nicholas Appert: canning process 1810—Peter Durand: tin canister 1868—John Hyatt: leading developer of cellulose, the first plastic 1877—Quaker Oats use iron to represent product c. 1895—“convenience packaging”: tooth paste was first offered in tubes 1897—use of paperboard for biscuit company “uneeda” Late 1800-early1900s: major use of graphics began 1930—polyethylene discovered England, plastic Late 20th Century 1950s to 60s—convenience and brand expansion. Ex. McDonalds 1970s—improvement in distribution and material handling 1980s—improvement in barrier film and microwave packaging 1990s—environmental awareness and market globalization Notable Developments in Late 20 Century 1954—polypropylene used 1960-70—laws clarified 1987—New Jersey enacts 1 statewide recycling law for plastics 1990—nutritional labeling and education act Future Trends Away from glass and metal toward plastics and composites Away from rigid toward flexible and semi-rigid Metallized instead of foil laminates Tamper evident and anti-theft devices More informative Convenience ex. Easy open/reseal-able Reduced packaging Incorporation of more recycled materials More technically complex packaging o Ex. Breathable, temp, sensors, oxygen absorbers, holographic images 2 Users and Suppliers - Functions Questions to Ponder Contain Protect Inform/Sell Utility of Use* (not in your textbook) Four Levels: Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary Protect: contents, environment, damage…. Inform/Sell: required, motivational,“trade dress” Utility of Use: consumer, retailer, shipper/distributor Materials - Four Types Paper and Paperboard Metals Glass Plastic Paper and Paperboard Raw material: 50% cellulose (structure of paper/paperboard) 30% lignin (brown sticky substance that holds it together) 20% carbohydrates Thickness: paper vs. paperboard Paper= 0.012” thick or less Paperboard > .012” POINT= 0.001” ex: .014” is 14 point baord What “plastic” comes from wood? CELLOPHANE Three ways to make pulp? Mechanical (groundwood) o Least expensive; low brightness and low strength Chemical Sulfate (kraft) o High quality Chemical sulfite Two ways to make paper/paperboard? Fourdrinier- paper or paperboard Cylinder- paperboard olny General procedure for both? SCREEN, SQUEEZE, DRY Calendering? Paper is run through a stack of rollers; increases density and smoothness. Important for strength and print quality Basis Weight for paper? Lbs/sq. ft; lbs/3000 sq ft Basis Weight for paperboard? Lbs/1000 sq ft Advantages? 3 Renewable recyclable, inexpensive, easily printed on Disadvantages? Pourus to moisture and oxygen, loses strength when wet, combustible Use for bending grade board? Folding cartons Three basic design styles for folding cartons? Tube (straight tuck, reverse tuck, seal end) Tray (beers, brightwood, walker) Hybrid (milk carton) Solid Fiberboard? Uses? Several poles of paperboard laminated toether Shiping containers, dividers, corner supports Five Corrugated Flute Styles? A, B, C, E, F flutes Height of flutes, distance between, liner board Corrugated Constructions? Name of two tests used measure strength of corrugated What’s an RSC? Materials - Metals Cans - Steel and Aluminum Two basic types of cans: Three piece (most soup cans) Two piece Methods of making cans? Drawn and Ironed ( aluminum or steel) o Ironing allows thinner walls ) ( Draw Redraw o Sidewalls have even thickness | | Are there tin cans? No. The term “tin can” is not accurate Steel cans may have microscopic tin coating What’s TFS? What’s Black Plate? “Black Plate” is uncoated steel o Non-corrosive, non-food products such as industrial use TFS – most common food cans o “Tin-free steel” Basebox = 31,360 sq. in. Plating weights measured in lbs./basebox Three ways to seal the side seam of a three piece can 1. Mechanical clinch Seam (like 2 hooks smashed together) 2. Welded seam 3. Adhesive-bonded (cosmented) seam What’s a double seam? Aluminum – what is the raw material? Mined as bauxite Bayer Process Hall-Heroult Process (1886) 4 Produce aluminum from alumina o Al2O3dissolved in Na3AlF6(Cryolite) o Heated to 900-1000 C How thin is aluminum foil? 0.006” (6 mil) Is aluminum used for packaging a pure metal? What happens to WVTR as thickness of foil decreases? Why? As thickness decreases, the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) increases Thinner foil has a greater chance of pinholes What's the difference between a foil laminated film and a metallized film? What simple experiment can you perform to see the difference? Shine a flashlight through it o If light shines though==Metallized film o If no light==Foil Adv. and Disadv. for Steel Adv o Relatively abundant o Absolute barrier o Unbreakable Disadv o Rust/iron pickup if not coated o Heavy weight o Limited recycling Adv. and Disadv. for Aluminum Adv o Relatively abundant o Absolute barrier (depending on thickness) o Lightweight o Unbreakable o Doesn’t contribute to off taste (less than glass) o Printable o Recyclable Disadv o Energy intensive o Relatively costly o Not degradable (but nothing is in a landfill) Materials - Glass Materials - Glass Major ingredients. What is Cullet? Sand o Main structural component Soda ash o Reduces the melting temp Limestone o Improves hardness Cullet 5 o 20% recycled, used to reducing melting temp Two methods for making glass bottles. Blow and Blow o Narrow neck containers Press and Blow o Wide mouth containers o Uses plunger in first step for better glass distribution What is a gob? Gob is the cut of molten glass that is to be formed What is annealing? Why is it important? Purpose: to reduce internal stress, keep it from cooling to quickly and cracking Gradually heating container to 1050 F and gradually reducing temp Improves strength of finished container Parts of a bottle Adv. and Disadv. of glass Adv o Almost completely inert to all product—doesn’t altar smell or taste o Absolute barrier for gas and bacteria o Transparent o Perceived Quality Image Disadv o Breakable o Heavy weight o Energy intensive manufacturing process Materials - Polymers What is Gutta Percha? Derived from latex of tropical trees “Getah”—sap Percha—strips of cloth Used for knife handles, picture frames What was the first synthetic plastic? Cellulose o John Hyatt 1868 What plastic is most widely used? Polyethylene—PE o Six times more than the second most used Thickness of a film? Measured in Mils All plastics based on carbon unit Name of chemical reaction used to link monomers? **Dehydration synthesis** What is the name for linking two or different types of monomers? (see above) Know abbrev. for HDPE, LDPE, PP, PET, PVC, PVDC (saran) PET—Polyester 6 o Used for carbonated beverage bottles PP—Polypropylene o Living hinge. Strong, stiff, used for caps w/ hinges used for closures PE—Polyethylene o Different densities: LDPE, HDPE, LLDPE o Used for bread bags to milk bottles o Most common plastic PVC—polyvinyl chloride o Used for fresh meat overwrap, worse oxygen barrier PVDC—Polyvinylidene chloride o Saran wrap, used as a barrier coating. Best oxygen barrier What is density? What is yield? How are they related? Density o Amount of molecules that can pack in a given space Yield o Amount of finished material (area) that can be produced from raw material Low density = higher yield Thermoset vs. Thermoplastic Thermoset o When exposed to high temps, bonds are set and can’t be unlocked Thermoplastic o When exposed to high temps, bonds are loose and form upon cooling Since the basic structure of most common polymers are similar, what makes each one different? The different side groups give the polymer different properties What basic process is used for all types of plastic forming methods? Extrusion What is extrusion Used to melt polymer resin, beginning step in most plastic processing methods What are two ways to make film? What does orientation mean as it relates to film? Process of aligning molecules in the direction in which they are being pulled What is coextrusion and what is it used for? Used for films, sheets and bottles Has multiple extruders making layers What is injection molding used for? Used for cups, caps, small tubs etc. What type of packages extrusion blow molding produce? What is a parison? Hollow tube which exits extruder and will be inflated into the final shape of a bottle. Line on the bottom of jug/bottle is a sign of extrusion blow molding 7 How is wall thickness controlled during extrusion blow molding? What types of packages are made by injection blow molding? Stretch blow molding? How many steps are involved in these processes? What are two advantages of extrusion blow molding compared to IBM and ISBM? one mold and handles What types of packages are made by thermoforming? Adv. and Disadv. of Plastics Adv o Handleware readily produced o Co-extruded bottles readily produced o Very versatile o Light weight o Unbreakable o Low energy for production compared to glass and metal Disadv o Requires two mold sets o Handleware difficult o Petroleum based (mostly) o Non-degradable o Recycle issue o Not totally inert
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'