Chem 2 Exam 1 Study Guide
Chem 2 Exam 1 Study Guide CHEM 1200
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Britney Notetaker on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1200 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Dr. Alexander Ma in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Chemistry II in Chemistry at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Thermodynamics: Three laws of thermodynamics can be summarized as 1. You can’t win 2. You can’t even break even 3. You can’t get out of the game w=‐PV ΔE=qv The entire E change is due to the heat absorbed or lost Heat at constant Pressure: More common Thermodynamically Reversible: Processes that can be reversed and are always close to equilibrium the change in quantities is infinitely small For example, the expansion of gas. Done reversibly, it does most work on the surroundings. Enthalpy: H=E+PV Change in EnthalpΔH=Δ+PΔV ΔH=qp at constant pressure only Assuming gases are ideal: V= nRT/P P and T constanΔV=Δn(RT/P) Spontaneity: Many spontaneous rxns are exotherΔE &ΔH are both negative. Sproducts > SreactanΔS+ Entropy increases Probability of state increases favors spontaneity (G) indicates a spontaneous process (+G) indicates a nonspontaneous process When G=0, the system is at equilibrium Spontaneous rxns produce useful work Only harnessed energy does work: energy not harnessed if run in an open dish Entropy: Symbolized by S Thermodynamic quantity S=kln(W) k=1.38*10^23 J/K W= the number of energetically equivalent ways a system can exist W is unitless Equilibrium: No work done at equilibrium ΔG=0 No “free” energy is available to do work Phase change equilibrium: only one possible temperature for the phase change at equilibrium (first order transition) Solid/Liquid : at freezing/ melting point Liquid/Vapor : at boiling point T= H/Δ Phase Diagrams Heating/Cooling Curves Solutions: In ideal solutions, the resultant solute–solvent interactions are equal to the sum of the broken solute–solute and solvent–solvent interactions. ideal solutions follow Raoult’s Law Effectively, the solute is diluting the solvent. If the solute–solvent interactions are stronger or weaker than the broken interactions the solution is nonideal. Surface Tension: The layer of molecules on the surface behave differently than the interior. The cohesive forces on the surface molecules have a net pull into the liquid interior. The surface tension of a liquid is the energy required to increase the surface area a given amount The stronger the intermolecular attractive forces, the higher the surface tension will be. Raising the temperature of a liquid reduces its surface tension. Raising the temperature of the liquid increases the average kinetic energy of the molecules. The increased molecular motion makes it easier to stretch the surface. Phase Structures: Molecular solidare solids whose composite particles are molecules. Ionic soliare solids whose composite particles are ions. Atomic solidare solids whose composite particles are atoms. Nonbonding atomic solidare held together by dispersion forces. Metallic atomic solre held together by metallic bonds. Network covalent atomic solare held together by covalent bonds. Freezing Point Depression: The freezing point of a solution is lower than the freezing point of the pure solvent. Therefore, the melting point of the solid solution is lower. The difference between the freezing point of the solution and freezing point of the pure solvent is directly proportional to the molal concentration of solute particles. (FPsolventsolutionTff The proportionality constant is called the Freezing Point DepressionKf. tant, The value oK depends on the solvent. f The units ofre °Cm. Vapor Pressure: Vapor pressur orequilibrium vapor press is defined as tpressur exerted by apor inhermodynamic equilibriumwith its condensedphases (solid or liquid) at a given temperatclosed system. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquidevaporation rate. It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referrevolatil The pressure exhibited by vapor present above a liquid surface is known as vapor pressure. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the kinetic energy of its molecules also increases. As the kinetic energy of the molecules increases, the number of molecules transitioning into a vapor also increases, thereby increasing the vapor pressure.
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