Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide BIOL 3040
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Casey Notetaker on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Biology of Plants Exam II Review Guide Your exam will consist of 25 short answer and multiple choice questions based on all readings and lectures from Seedless Vascular Plants Chapter 17 through Angiosperms Chapter 19 Below is an outline of topics and terms with which you should be familiar as well as 10 sample questions This guide highlights important topics which will likely be on the exam it is not a comprehensive list of all potential topics Topics Know the life cycles of all taxa that we covered in class and be able to identify the ploidies of all relevant anatomical structures Also pay special attention to summary tables provided on the powerpoints 1 Seedless Vascular Plants A Features that separate vascular from nonvascular plants vascular plants only sporophyte dominant true xylem and phloem lignin apical meristems at stem tips of sporophyte true roots and leaves B Heterospory vs homospory 1 Heterosporous makes two types of spores 2 types of gametophytes unisexual a Spores produce unisexual gametophytes i Microspores male gametophytes ii Megaspores female b Arose independently several times in seedless vascular plants and seed plants 2 Homospory a Only one type of spore b Spore produces bisexual dametOthtes c The gametophytes have both archegonia and antheridia d This is the ancestral state heterospory evolved later several times C Xylem and phloem found in the stele of roots and stems 1 Xylem a Trachearv elements the general term for ligni ed xylem cells in vascular plants includes tracheids and in angiosperms vessel elements b Tracheid elongated xylem cell with closed tapering ends present in seedless vascular plants transport and rigidity 2 Phloem a Sieve elements the general term for phloem cells in vascular plants includes sieve cells and sieve tube elements angiosperms only b Sieve cells elongated slender phloem cell with tapering end c Have a cytoplasm mostly sugar that s moving through the pipes from the leaves down the roots often have parenchyma and albuminous cells whereas xylem conducts water D Different types of stele architecture and the plant taxa in which they are found 1 Stele central cylinder of the root or stem where xylem and phloem are located may also contain pith a Protostele solid cylinder of vascular tissue xylem and phloem of primitive vascular plants is present in the form of a protostele in the center of the stem b Siphonostele a ring of xylem and phloem contains central pith leaf gap and parenchyma cells i Leaf gap in ferns a region of parenchyma tissue above the point of departure of a leaf trace ii Parenchyma cell thin walled plant cell of variable size and form quotgeneral cellquot E microphylls vs megaphylls 1 Microphylls a small leaf with one vein and one leaf trace found in lycophytes not associated with a leaf gap a Probably evolved as super cial stem outgrowths enations that later became vascularized b Protostele microphyll 2 Megaphyll larger leaf with several to many veins found in ferns horsetails and higher plants leaf trace associated with leaf gapleaf trace gap a Evolved independently three separate times different plant lineages ferns horsetails and seed plants b Siphonstele megaphyll F Describe the morphologies and life cycles of Lycopodia club moss Seaginela spike moss and lsoetes quillworts Know which are homo and heterosporous 1 Club moss bisexual gametophyte 9 homosporous one gametophyte bears both archegonia and antheridia a Sporophytes branching rhizome from which microphylls and roots arise b Microphylls usually spirally arranged c Roots and stems have protostele d Sporangia occur singly on upper surface of special microphylls called sporophylls modi ed leaf that bears sporangia Germinating Spurn Spnroph yll immature sporangium Strnhilus 6 quot 7 quotit I l Symbiotic fungus v Gametophyte n II I a f Mature Rhiznids q sporophyte 39 l2nl Immature h u archegonium r i Imrnature antheridilurn a II Mature Ynun Young I zygote antheridiurn 39 I sporoplhyte EMbrY39fl l2quot lFigure 171l6 Raven Bialagyof Plants Eighth Edition 2013 W H Freeman and Company 2 Selaginellacae spike mosses unisexual heterosporous a Gametophytes generations will stay contained within the spores the sporophyte will grow form the zygote which is embedded in the female gametophyte which is still encased in the megaspore wall b The sporangia of spike mosses are borne on sporophylls come in 2 tyeps i Megasporaphylls bear megasporangia that make megaspores female ii Microsporophylls bear microsporangia that make microspores male iii both megasporangia and microsporangia are found on the same strobili Microspores n icrosporangium Mi crospore quot1 A39Vm Immature r r r we 7 Spermatogenouis microgametophyte quotia a Mmg tissue 1 Megasporangium Megaspore if rrMegasporolphyll n Ligule Inside microsporewall n v Siperm 39 Archegonia n Megagametophyte Jr Rhizaigg gag p 7 a Immature micro or megasp orangium Strobilus protruding from Wig megaspore wall Mature J 39 microgametophyllge Mature in megagametophyte quot inside megaspore walll Mature gsporophyte an Megaspore wall Young sporophyte I I attached to gametophyte 7 Young embryo Megagainetophyte inside archegonium n 3 Quillworts unisexual 9 heterosporous a Corm short eshy underground stem b Quilllike microphylls on upper surface roots on lower surface c Megasporangia on megasporophylls microsporangia on microphylls d Presence of ligules absence of strobili G Describe the general morphologies and life cycles of the Psilotopsida Marattiopsida Polypodiopsida and Equisetopsida Know which are homo and heterosporous 1 Psilotopsida Eusporangiate Ferns a Two orders i Ophioglossales Genus Botrychium grape ferns and Genus Ophioglossum adder s tongue ii Psilotales Genus Psilotum whisk fern and Genus Tmesipteris 1 Whisk fern mainly tropical and subtropical simple structure no true leaves dichotomously branching stems and small scalelike foliage 2 Marattiopsida eusporangiate largest known fronds of any fern Circinate vernation 3 Polypodiopsida mainly leptosporangia almost all homosporous exception is the heterosporous water ferns a Siphonostele rhizome that produces new batch of leaves each year b Large megaphylls fronds c Leptosporangia on margins or lower surface leaves d Sori sorus and indusial indusium specialized leaf outgrowth that covers the young sori umbrella shape e Photosynthetic gametophyte prothallus f 2 families i Marsileaceae ii Salviniaceae Genus Salvinia Genus Azolla 4 Equisetopsida horsetails a Single genus Equistetum b Moist habitats c Conspicuouslyjointed stems d Whorls of small scalelike leaves e Sporangia borne on sporangiophores F Eusporangiate vs leptosporangiate ferns 1 Eusporangia found in Psilotopsida Marattiopsidam and all higher vascular plants a Larger have more spores and have multilayered walls b Arises from several initial cells and before maturation forms a wall with more than one layer of cells 2 Leptosporangia found only in Polypodiopsida a Smaller fewer spores and their walls are only one cell thick walls are very delicate and can be easily ruptured b Sporangium that arises from a single initial cell and whose wall is composed of a single layer of cells Leeapaidliaplwta Spun ra ngila Elna sparaaphiglla Ftlaiaame with leaves and L on ad aaeae Humane aarsaua I eiiersa h Ila Pramstele strelaili ma be Lyaaphyteaquot if p p p V V 139 raa ts elubmaaa areaent Eula inellaceae Heteraa arena fellcm l1 rile Prataatele Dm w m mmg Li ales reserlt aikemaee g 7 H p pv atrolailipreaent quotg Fifi E39 39 lsaetaceae Heterospawns leiiersaphvlla F ratastele in sparaphiglla Ligulea and term quillwart Mammalian l anilaphytee F t d V H V V M V m H Prataste e air Lateralr Eubterranean mvcar rhu aall Fernaandifam 5 Gum 3 Dm gp mu quot E Eap y 5 mare complex euepmau igia gametap wtesgfema alliea V V V V V V Large iv39iritl l esamplealeaeea V V Slphsanaastelesar Gasparaahella l aramagaltlla Homaaparsaua M egapl lella V V V gametepl ytes mare eamplea we meaarangla phatsawnthelac ferns Prateate e Elms arahwlls F I E V d MESLW M V m H Eu m m DVVV Sari 1 p 1quot Dwer segametaph ea 39i ip mp5 239 Flameaparaua quotEg ap 3quot E p 7quot i phataeynthetitfem mare campiea leptasparamgua Felicia h Ila Dru V p v V Euatkelealllte V V V Eamaetapslda Hamaparsaua likethmmgh V sparangiiapharee Harsetanls alphanaastele red action In atraabill 2 Gymnosperms A Features that separate gymnosperms from seedless vascular plants seed vascular cambium etc 1 Gymnosperms have seed secondary xylem heterosporous megaphylls a Seed plants are heterosporous they make megaspores that give rise to megagametophytes make microspores that give rise to microgametophytes Seed makes it unique an extreme form of heterospory in which the embryo develops inside the ovule B Events in ovule evolution 1 The Ovule develops into a seed ovule is part of the sporophyte and contains a megasporangium 2 When immature it has two parts a b Megasporangium in which megaspores are produced in seed plants the megasporangium is called the nucellus Additional layers of tissue is called the integument 3 Events in Ovule Evolution a Retention of megaspores in megasporangium Reduction of megaspore mother cells to 1 Survival of only 1 megaspore out of 4 Formation of megagametophyte entirely within the megasporangiumnucellus Development of embryo within female gametophyte within megasporangium like quotRussion dollsquot An integument surrounds the megasporangium except for micro le Megasporangium apex modi ed to receive pollen micropye opening where the sperm enters C Anatomy of male and female cones male and female gametophytes 1 Young female pine cones quotfemale strobiliquot contains multiple ovules a Their strobili is directly homologous whereas seedless vascular plants strobili is contained in the sporangia ony b Gymnosperm strobili contain true ovules in which the sporangia are enclosed in the integuments these ovules will eventually develop into pine seeds c Each cone scale ovuliferous scale has two ovules on the underside d Beneath each cone scale is a sterile bract together the cone scale and the bract make up the seedscale complex e The mature megagametophyte has a few thousand cells in contrast to the microgametophyte which has 3 cellsnuclei at maturity f Contains 2 or 3 archegonia at the microper end each with an 999 g 2 Male Cone Anatomy a Each scale is a microsporophyll b Each scale contains 2 microsporangia c The microsporangia contain multiple microsporocytes microgametophytes pollen grains d The microsporocytes undergo meiosis in early spring producing four haploid microspores e Each microspore develops into a 4celled winged pollen grain the immature microgametophyte 9 contains 2 prothallial cells 1 generative cell and 1 tube cell no antheridia i 2 prothallial cells ii 1 tube cell tube nucleus iii 1 generativve cell steriecell and spermatogenous cell two sperm cells iv all of this happens over the course of a year f At fertilization the mature microgametophyte releases two sperm into the egg cytoplasm they unite with the egg to form a zygote E Pine life cycle in detail see lab handout F Primary stem anatomy secondary stem anatomy and the vascular cambium 1 Primary stem anatomy Epidermiel Phloem of the Vascular bundle Cortex a 2 Secondary stem anatomy Epidermie I Phleern 39 quot mc39e ex X3 lerri Pith Pmean1hiurn g 7 39 lnterfaecieular I parenchyma a Vascular a bundle b Secondary growth begins with the initiation of vascular cambium a cylinder of meristematic tissue that produces additional xylem and phloem tissues 3 Vascular Cambium cylindrical sheath of meristematic cells that produces secondary xylem wood to the inside and secondary phloem to the outside Epidermis 7 Phloem 7 interfascicular pa rem hyma a b The vascular cambium forms when the cells of interfascicular parenchyma dedifferentiate and divide periclinally in a plane parallel to the surface of the stem G General features of cycads Ginkgo Gnetum Ephedra and WeWitschia 1 Cycads characterized by a stout and woody Iigneous runk with a crown of large stiff evergreen leaves sometimes confused with palms a Dioecious individual plants are either male or female b Cycad seeds may be large with brightly colored outer coat and hard inside layer 2 Ginkgo only one remaining species Ginkgo bioba a Living fossil the part that looks like a fruit isn t a fruit called a sarcotesta b Male ginkgo small pollen cones with sporophylls each sporophyll has 2 microsporangia wind pollinated haustorial pollen tube motile sperm i Haustoria structure that penetrates and absorbs nutrients from a host tissue often used in reference to parasitic plants c Female ginko don t produce cones two ovules are formed at the end of a stalk and after pollination one or both develop into seeds i Seeds surrounded by reshy material containing butyric acid called sarcotesta and beneath this is a hard sclerotesta the shell of the seed 3 Gnetophyta 3 genera nonmotile sperm like conifers most are dioecious like cycads Representative genera Ea niferalpltsr ta Pines Est arlla pasta Eamra Einkga phyta Ei nirga Enema hyta Ephedra Galerase Warwitsshra 3 Angiosperms a Gnetum look like owering plants archegonia lacks most closely related to angiosperms i Leaves Seed covering the covering on the seed also looks like the quotfruitquot of a owering plant Pollen quotconesquot ook like an in orescence collection of owers in a owering plant b WeWitschia in desert two straps dioecious shaped leaves get torn up in desert wind split longitudinally c Ephedra dioecious shrubs Leaves Misc Needles ar scales Felrlentuhe eelmegs spew Male and female eases an same plant neetl les in fascicles Na res Male and female series an separate plants res Max Palmlike Male and female mites arr separate plants res hia Fa l t d Male and female turtles usuallsr an separate plants lesteptians in Ephedral rrlafrli latlr arthegania Mal res Ephedra nesmall and stalelike Gnarum bread and leathery Weiwirseaia twa large straplike leases A Describe the anatomy and development of owers ovaries and fruit B Floral terms perfect complete inferior etc 1 Perfect contains both androecium and gynoecium Imperfect ower contains only one or the other unisexual male or female Complete contains 4 oral whorls sepals petals stamens and carpels a Sepals cover and protect the ower parts when the ower is a bud b Petals play an important role in attracting animal pollinators c Stamens male reproductive unit consists of a lament attached to an anther an anther where pollen grains are produced d Carpel female reproductive unit consists of a stigma style ovary Incomplete missing one or more whorls Connate fusion of similar parts 9 example all petals fused into a single tube Adnate fusion of dissimilar parts example carpel and stamens fusing into a single structure If the ovary is above the receptacle where sepals and petals attach it s said to be superior if its below the receptacle its inferior B Angiosperm life cycle in detail including double fertilization and triple 1 Male and female gametophytes both HIGHLY reduced a Mature microgametophyte 3 ces b Mature megagametophyte 7 cells eight nuclei 2 Life cycle a Male spores and pollen i Sperm formation microsporogenesis formation of the microsproes within the microsporangia microgametogenesis formation of immature 2celled microgametophytes pollen grains ii The microsporangia develops anthers when it is formed anther consists of a cell mass with a partially differentiated epidermis iii Four columns of sporogenous cells develop each column is surrounded by several sterile cell layers that will become the wall of the pollen sac 1 innermost layer of pollen sac nutritive tapetum iv The sporogenous cells become the microsporocytes v Microsporocyte meiosis tetrad microspore 2 celled pollen grain immature microgametophyte b Female spores and megagametophytes i In the ovule9 medasoorodenesis meiosis and formation of megaspores megagametogenesis germination of the megaspore into the megagametophyte also called the embryo sac in angiosperms ii Ovules are enclosed in ovaries iii lnteguments are cell layers that envelope the megasporangiumnucellus could be one or many small opening called the micropyle iv Early in ovule development a single megasporocyte megaspore mother cell arises in the developing nucellus 9 megasporocyte undergoes meiosis forming 4 haploid megaspores 3 degenerate and 1 survives v Mature megagametophyte will have 7 cells and 8 nuclei vi Surviving megaspore will undergo 3 rounds of mitosis to form the megagametophyte embryo sac 9 8 cells are forms antipodals 3 cells at the opposite end of micropyle 2 polar nuclei 2 shot lived synergids cells THE EGG fuse to form zygote c Double fertilization i 1 sperm migrates to the egg and forms a zygote ii Other sperm cell migrates and unites with the 2 polar nuclei of the central cell d Triple Fusion i 1 sperm 2 polar nuclei triploid 3n nucleus ii called endosperm provides food for the growing embryo e Fruit development i After double fertilization endosperm provides essential food materials for the embryo seedling ii Zygote develops into an embryo iii lnteguments develop into a seed coat iv Ovary wall and related structures develop into a fruit v fruits mature ripened ovaries C Contrast gymnosperm and angiosperm reproductive features see nal slides lecture 17 Angiosperm Gwymnosperm Ster ovary micropyfe 39 39T g integulmeints 39 macropylle ntegument ovary walll nwce ws n I 39 megaspomcyte nwce us megaspmcy te funiculus Sample Questions 1 Medicines that ease breathing bronchial dilators such as Sudafed are made with compounds found in which member of the Gnetophyta WeWitschia Ephedra Ginkgo Pin us Gnetum FHDDFNB 2 Horsetails are also called scouring rushes because of in their stems magnesium calcium carbonate potassium chloride silica lipids F1909 A Seaginela microspore will develop into which of the following 11900539 female gametophyte male gametophyte female sporophyte male sporophyte none of the above Pines W009 are homosporous are pollinated by bees lack archegonia produce archegoniophores have pollen and seed cones on the same plant Pines and angiosperms are similar in that they EWWPOWP 11900539 Triple fusion results in formation of an W009 The plant below is commonly called an build up nutritive tissue for the embryo before fertilization occurs lack antheridia produce archegonia produce endosperm produce one sperm per pollen grain hich of the following is an aril nutritive tissue surrounding the megagametophyte of conifers a bundle of pine needles an immature microgametophyte in pines a eshy material surrounding some seeds like those of yew a mature ovary wall which nourishes endosperm the developing embryo indusium developing megaspores zygote the developing megasporangium sporophyte the developing archegonium nucellus developing megaspores and is in the genus quillwort lsoetes quillwort Psiotum lycopod Equisetum r horsetail Equisetum g whisk fern Psiotum 39 11900539 9 The picture below depicts structures that may be found on Leaf Seaginela club moss liverworts ferns quillworts W009 10 What happens to the integument after fertilization A It is shed falls off B It continues to hold the ovule on the ovulate scale C It becomes the seed coat D It becomes the fruit E It becomes the seed
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