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USC / Political Science / POLI 201 / political science exam 1

political science exam 1

political science exam 1

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Political Science
Course: American National Government
Professor: Darmofal
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Exam 1, Study Guide, political science, american, and Government
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide - Poli Sci
Description: This study guide covers terms and other things for exam 1 of political science.
Uploaded: 02/15/2016
18 Pages 12 Views 14 Unlocks
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Terms to Know:


What is a Autocracy?



Affirmative Action is a policy or program designed to redress  historic injustices committed against specific groups by  making special efforts to provide members of these groups  access to education and employment opportunities

Authoritarian Government is s system of rule in which the  government recognizes no formal limits but may nevertheless be restrained by the power of other social institutions.

Autocracy is a form of government in which a single  individual rules. ex. a king or dictator

Checks and balancesare the mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to participate in and influence  the activities of the other branches.  

Civil liberties are the protections of citizens from improper  governmental actions

Civil rightsare the legal or moral claims that citizens are  entitles to make on the government

Constitutional Government is a system of rule in which formal and effective limits are placed on the powers of the  government.


What is a democracy?



Democracy is a system of rule that permits citizens to play a  significant part in governmental process, usually through the  selection of key public officials.

Dual citizenship is the idea that each American is a citizen of  the federal government and, separately, a citizen of one of  the states. This means that citizens have liberties that protect them against action by the federal government and a  separate set of liberties that protect them against action by  state governments.

Equal protection clauseis the provision of the 14th Amendment guaranteeing citizens “the equal protection of  the laws.” This clause has been the basis for the civil rights of African Americans, women, and other groups.  

Establishment clauseis the 1st Amendment clause that says,  “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of  religion.” (Separation of church and state)


What is a federalism?



Federalism is the system of government in which a  constitution divides power between a central government  and regional governments.  

Government is the term generally used to describe the formal political arrangements by which a land and its people are  ruled.

Miranda ruleis the convention derived from the Supreme  Court’s 1966 ruling in the case of Miranda v. Arizona whereby persons under arrest must be informed of their legal rights,  including their right to counsel, before undergoing police  interrogation. If you want to learn more check out mgmt 371 final exam

Oligarchy is a form of government in which a small group of  landowners, military officers, or wealthy merchants controls  most of the governing decisions.  

Principal-agent relationshipis the relationship between a  principal and his or her agent. This relationship may be  affected by the fact that each is motivated by self-interest,  yet their interests may not be well aligned.  

Public goodis a good that, first, may be enjoyed by anyone if  it is provided and, second, may not be denied to anyone once it has been provided.

Separation of powersis the division of governmental power  among several institutions that must cooperate in decision  making.

Strict scrutinyis the most stringent standard of judicial review of a government’s actions in which the government must  show that the law serves a “compelling state interest” Don't forget about the age old question of brian langowski

Totalitarian Governmentis a system of rule which the  government recognizes no formal limits on its power and  seeks to absorb or eliminate other social institutions that  might challenge it.  

Court Cases to Know:

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

Barron v. Baltimore (1833)

Gideon v. Wainwright (1961)

Mapp v. Ohio (1961)

Roe v. Wade (1973)

Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)  

Gonzalez v. Oregon (2006)

Ledbetter v. Goodyear (2007)

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)

Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)

Five principles of politics

1.The Rationality Principle:  

a. All political behavior has a purpose

i. People do what they do politically to achieve  purposes – personal, social, philosophical

2.The Institutional Principle:  

a. Institutions structure politics

i. The rules we use to make decisions influence  the outcomes

Institutions provide authority in 4 ways:

∙ Jurisdiction

∙ Agenda and Veto Power

∙ Decisiveness

∙ Delegation

3.The Collective Action Principle:  If you want to learn more check out ucr irb

a. All politics is collective action

i. Politics involves many people who compete,  bargain, and cooperate

Collective action and provision of public goods  becomes difficult as the number of parties involved  increases.

Free Riding – enjoying the benefits of some good  or action while letting others bear the costs

Tragedy of the Commons – the idea that a  common-access facility, owned by no one because  it is available to everyone, will be overutilized  

4.The Policy Principle:  

a. Political outcomes are the products of individual  preferences and institutional procedures

i. Policies are the result of individual goals,  

institutional rules, and collective action

5.The History Principle: Don't forget about the age old question of utep physics

a. How we got here matters

i. Decisions and actions in the past affect political choices and outcomes today Don't forget about the age old question of intro to philosophy study guide

b. Three reasons why history matters:

i. Rules and procedures

ii. Loyalties and alliances

iii. Historically-conditioned points of view

Interests in colonial America

∙ New England Merchants

∙ Southern Planters

∙ Royalists

∙ Shopkeepers, artisans and laborers  

∙ Small farmers

British tax policy toward the colonies  

The British began taxing colonists in the 1750s to pay  the cost of imperial defenses.

The types of taxes (stamps, sugar, etc.) caused several  colonists to organize against the Crown.  

Provocative acts and counter-acts that led to the  Declaration of Independence:

∙ Boston Tea Party (1773)

∙ First Continental Congress (1774)

∙ Lexington and Concord (1775)

∙ Second Continental Congress (1776)

The Declaration of Independence

Government is ruled by consent of the governed

Declares that when a government no longer serves the  needs, of the people, the people have a right to revolt.

THE DECLARATION DOES NOT CREATE A  

GOVERNMENT**  

The Revolutionary War

Long and bloody war, casualties among colonists, British  soldiers and Native Americans

It was so expensive for the British, seemed there was no  end in sight

Articles of Confederationis America’s first written  constitution. It was adopted by the Continental Congress in  1777 and served as the formal bases for America’s national  government until 1789, when it was replaced by the  Constitution.  

13 sovereign states with a weak central government We also discuss several other topics like ronald johnson psu

∙ No standing army

∙ Weak executive

∙ No ability to tax and spend

∙ Problems of international standing

∙ Shays’ Rebellion

Constitutional Convention of 1787

Hot topics of the convention:

∙ Revise/scrap the Articles of Confederation

∙ National Power vs. State Power

∙ How much democracy?

∙ Slavery

The Great Compromisewas an agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that gave each state  an equal number of senators regardless of its population  but linked representation in the House of  

Representatives to population.

Virginia Plan (big states) – Votes in the leg.

Based on population of state

New Jersey Plan (small states) – All states  

should the same amount of votes in the legislative  branch

The Three-fifths Compromisewas an agreement reached  at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 stipulating that  for the purposes of the apportionment of congressional  sears, every slave would be counted as 3/5 of a person.  

Bicameralismis the division of a legislative branch into  two chambers or houses. (Senate and House of  Representatives)  

Antifederalists

Opposed ratification but disagreed among themselves  about what the alternative should be.  

∙ Representation:

o Small farmers

o Government should be close to the people and  power in the elites is dangerous

∙ Retention of power by state governments and protection  of individual rights

∙ Key Leaders:

o Patrick Henry

o George Mason

o Elbridge Gerry

o George Clinton

Federalists

Favored ratification and a stronger national government.

∙ Representation:

o Property owners

o Elites were best fit to govern  

o Only elites could obtain power

o Tyranny of the majority

∙ Strong national government

∙ Key Leaders:

o Alexander Hamilton

o James Madison

o George Washington

Federalism – National vs. State Power

The Consitution gives expressed and implied powers to  the national government

10th amendment: powers not stated to national  government rest in the power of the states

Reasons to keep the states because some preferred an even  stronger national government than the one created and  because of the well-established history of the state  governments.  

Four stages of federalism

1. Dual Federalism (1789-1937)

∙ Powers shared by federal and state gov.

∙ States had most important powers

∙ Duties of different levels of govnt. remained strictly  separated

∙ Policy responsibilities rested on states

∙ McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden

∙ During new deal, Congress enacted legislation that  expanded the federal government’s role in  

commercial activity which lead to cooperative  federalism…

2. Cooperative Federalism (1937-1960s)

∙ Supportive relations/partnerships btw fed. and state govnt.  

∙ Rise in funds given by congress to state and local  governments

3. Regulated Federalism (1960s-1990s)

∙ Federal government dictates rules and standards  states must follow

∙ Rise in unfunded mandates imposed on states 4. New Federalism (1990s-Present)

∙ National policies to return more discretion to the  states

∙ Rise in block grants

∙ Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

∙ More narrow interpretation of the interstate  

commerce clause

Health Care Reform Act

Arguments for and against why the individual mandate in the  reform is constitutional:

o NO!

∙There is no expressed power in the Constitution to  require citizens to purchase anything from a  

private firm, and it has nothing to do with  

regulating interstate commerce.  

o YES!

∙The penalty imposed for not purchasing health  insurance is a tax. In addition, this is simply part of regulating a commercial activity, just as most  

states require people to purchase auto insurance.  Federalist 10

James Madison outlines argument for Federalists for why

popular government will succeed in U.S.  

He argues:

∙ Key problem of democracy is instability and  factionalism

∙ Must control the effects of faction:

o Representation and “filtering” of public opinion o Take in a greater variety of interests

The Constitution

7 Articles:

∙ 1-3 outline the structure and power of the  

different branches of government

∙ Other articles relate to national power, the  

amendment process, and the ratification process Article I: Legislative Branch 

∙   Bicameralism

∙   Expressed powers of government

∙   Necessary and Proper clause enumerates the  powers of Congress and provides Congress with the  authority to make all laws “necessary and proper”  to carry them out; also referred to as the elastic  clause

∙   The legislative branch was expected to be the most  powerful branch. This is one reason for  

bicameralism.  

Article II: Executive Branch 

∙   More independent, energetic and strong executive  branch

∙   President = commander in chief, chief executive,  chief diplomat

∙   President nominates executive and judicial officials ∙   President has the power to grant reprieves and  pardons

Article III: Judicial Branch 

∙ Supreme Court

∙ Judges/Justices have lifetime terms, nominated by  president, confirmed by Senate

∙ Does not explicitly provide for judicial review o Used sparingly for most of American History o Used more frequently in recent years

Articles I, II, and III: The Separation of Powers: Legislative:

∙ Passes federal laws

∙ Controls federal appropriations

∙ Approves treaties and presidential appointments ∙ Regulates interstate commerce

∙ Establishes lower court system

Executive:

∙ Enforces laws

∙ Serves as commander in chief of armed forces ∙ Makes foreign treaties

∙ Nominates Supreme Court justices and federal court judges

∙ Pardons those convicted in federal court

Judicial:

∙ Reviews lower-court decisions

∙ Decides constitutionality of laws

∙ Decides cases involving disputes between states

Articles IV and VI: National Unity and Power 

∙ Provides reciprocity among the states

o The Full Faith and Credit Clause is the provision in Article IV, section 1 of the Constitution  

requiring that each state normally honors the  

public acts and judicial decisions that take  

place in another state.  

 wanted to make sure that all the states  

acted as one single unit or nation instead  

of individual states

o The Privileges and Immunities Clause says a  state cannot discriminate against someone  

from another state or given special privileges  

to its own residents

∙ Promotes national power through the national  supremacy clause

Article V: Amending the Constitution 

∙   Sets forth the procedures for amending the  

Constitution

Article VII: Ratification 

∙ Calls for ratifying conventions in each of the 13  states

∙ Constitution is deemed ratified when 9/13 states  vote to ratify

The Bill of Rights are the first 10 amendments to  the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1791. The Bill of Rights  ensures certain rights and liberties to the people.

9th Amendment: stated that the list of rights was not  exhaustive and that there are other liberties that people  enjoyed.

Freedom of Religion

∙ Establishment clause: separation of church and  state

o The lemon test – government can be involved  in religion if it has a secular purpose, it neither  advances nor inhibits relgion and it doesn’t  create excessive entanglement

∙ Free Exercise clause: protects a citizens right to  believe and practive whatever religion he/she  chooses.  

Freedom of Speech

∙ “Congress shall make no law…abridging the  freedom of speech”

∙ Freedom of speech is not absolute

o Clear and present danger test

o Libel and slander are not protected

∙ One’s right to speech only go as far as not to  infringe on someone else’s rights

∙ Political speech is the most protected speech ∙ SPEECH PLUS: sit-ins, picketing, demonstrations o Protection is conditional based on political  order

Freedom of the Press

∙ The Court has ruled that this means no prior  restraint – an effort to block the publication of  material it deems harmful or libelous

Search and Seizure

∙ 4th amendment

∙ Exclusionary Rule is the ability of the courts to  exclude evidence obtained in violation of the 4th Amendment (Mapp v. Ohio)

Rights of the Accused

∙ 5th Amendment – protection against self

incrimination and double jeapordy

∙ Miranda Rights

∙ 6th Amendment – a speedy and public trial, impartial jury, right to counsel, right to confront one’s  

accusers

∙ 8th Amendment – prohibits excessive bail/fines and  cruel and unusual punishment

Right to Privacy

∙ Not expressed in the Bill of Rights

∙ Court cases that helped to establish a “zone of  privacy”

o Griswold v. Connecticut

o Roe v. Wade

Constitutional amendments

Expansion of the Electorate: 

∙ XIV- a national definition of citizenship

∙ XV- extended voting rights to all races

∙ XIX- extended voting rights to women

∙ XXIII- extended voting rights to DC

∙ XXIV- extended voting rights to all classes by  abolition of poll taxes

∙ XXVI- extended voting rights to citisens ages 18 and over

Changing Elections: 

∙   XII- separate ballot for the vice president in  

electoral college

∙   XIV- penalized states for depriving freed slaves of

the right to vote

∙   XVII- provided for the direct election of senators ∙   XX- shortened the time between elections and  inauguration of the new president and Congress ∙   XXII- limited the presidential term

∙   XXV- provided for presidential succession in case of  disability

Expanding and Limiting the Power of Government: 

∙   XI- limited the jurisdiction of federal courts over  suits involving states

∙   XIII- eliminated slavery and rights of states to allow  property in the form of persons

∙   XIV- established due process of law in state courts  for all persons; later used to apply the entire Bill of  Rights to the states

∙   XVI- established the national power to tax income ∙   XXVII- limites Congress’s power to raise its own  salary

Fourteenth amendment seems to apply the Bill of Rights  to the states… No state shall make or enforce any law  which shall abridge the provileges or immunites of  citizens of the US nor shall any state deprive any person  of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.

Selective incorporation deals with the Court’s decision  that the 14th Amendment did NOT apply to Bill of Rights  to the states. Later the Courts ruled that the  

compensation clause of the 5th Amendment applied to  the states. This started “selective incorporation” – the  application of the liberties in the Bill of Rights, one by  one, to the states

Voting Rights

Right to vote is not included in the Consitution. Initially,  states restricted voting rights based on religion,  property, gender and race.

These voting rights have expanded. (SEE EXPANSION OF  ELECTORATE UNDER CONSITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS)

Civil Rights  

∙ Courts did not use the 14th Amendment to enforce  civil rights immediately.  

∙ Civil Rights Act was struck down in 1875

∙ Plessy v. Ferguson “Separate but Equal” 1896, court upheld segregation of races in public facilities. Held  that public facilities could be segregated but only if  facilities were equal.

∙ 1930s – the courts became more active in equal  protection

o rulings rejected claims of separate but equal  facilities but did not directly address the  

“separate but equal argument” itself.

∙ Brown v. Board of Education  

o Black child was denied admission to the school  closest to her home (whites only school)

o Court ruled that “in the field of public  

education” separate but equal has no place.  

 Delay in enforcement of Brown by local  

officials

 Could do nothing about de facto  

segregation

 Did not directly address discrimination in  

employment, voting, etc.

Civil rights movement

∙ Movement began to build slowly after the March on  Washington in 1963

∙ Massive resistance to desegregation, delays on  segregation from local officials

Discrimination

Employment 

∙ Title VII: outlaws job discrimination by all private and  public employers

∙ Ledbetter v. Goodyear (2007)

o The Court ruled that a charge of discrimination  must be brought within 180 days of the time the  discrimination was alleged to have occurred

o Congress overturned the Court's decision by  passing the Fair Pay Act in 2009

Gender 

∙ Seneca Falls Convention (1848)

∙ 19th Amendment

∙ Equal Rights Amendment falls short of ratification in 1982

Latinos and Asian Americans 

∙ Mendez v. Westminster – important desegregation  precendent

∙ Lau v. Nichols – required that students be taught in  a language they understand

Native Americans 

∙ 1924 legistlation – citizenship to all those born in US ∙ The Indian Self-Determination and Education  Assistance Act (1975)

∙ No state regulation of gambling

Disabilities and Age

∙ The Americans with Disabilities Act guarantees  equal employment and access to business

∙ The Age Discrimination in Employment Act prohibits discrimination by employers with more than 20  employees

Sexual Orientation 

∙ “Don’t ask, don’t tell” – recently repealed ∙ Lawrence v. Texas overturns Bowers v. Hardwick

Undocumented Immigrants and Equal Protection 

∙ The Equal Protection Clause – “no state shall deny  to any person within its jurisdiction the equal  protection of law”

∙ Debate over how far states should go in providing  protection

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