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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Kelly Wetmore

Exam 1 Study Guide Bio 242

Kelly Wetmore

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Filled out professor's study guide
Intro Human Physiology
Barbara Van Sciver
Study Guide
Physiology, BIO 242, Study Guide, Exam 1
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelly Wetmore on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 242 at University of Rhode Island taught by Barbara Van Sciver in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.

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Date Created: 02/15/16
Kelly Wetmore  Describe the organization of life  (Cell­>tissue­>etc…)  and describe the  characteristics of each.  Discuss the basic requirements of almost all cells. o Retain oxygen  Lungs­> blood ­> cells o Make Proteins o Transport internally and externally o Control and exchanges between outside and inside (membrane) o Senses and respond to changes in environment o Requirements differ in specialites               ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ o Nucleus­ genetic material (DNA­code)  Genes  Gene expression­ synthesis of a particular protein o Cytosol­ no organelles o Cytoplasm­ outside of the nucleus, but inside of the cell  Organelles and semi­liquid  Intracellular and extracellular fluid  Distinguish between the internal and external environment. o Internal  Inside our bodies but outside of cells o External  Lumen­ hollow part of the tube  Distinguish between the ecf and icf. o ECF  Positive  Outside of cell  Contains Sodium ions o ICF  Negative  Inside of cell  Contains Potassium ions  Discuss the 2 main compartments of the ecf. o ECF  Plasma­ liquid portion of blood  Interstitial fluid­ surrounds cells  Explain the process of differentiation. o Different genes are expressed in different cells  Describe and discuss the 4 primary tissue types, including where they are found,  their structure, their functions, their characteristics. Connective Tissue •Binds, anchors, supports other tissues •Extensive amount of extracellularmatrix (ECM) •Protein fibers outside of cells ­Collagen­ strength in tissues ­Elastin­gives the tissue the ability to stretch and recoil •Bones, blood, tendons, cartilage, adipose tissue Nervous Tissue •CNS (central nervous system)­ spinal cord •PNS (peripheral nervous system)­ outside of the spine •Glial cells (Glia)­ support other types of cells in the nervous system­ Neurons •Neurons­ transmit electrical impulses •Process of electrical impulse through neuron: ­Cell body (nucleus and organelles) ­>Dendrites­> Axon ­> Axon terminal ­>  Neurotransmitters •­> Synapse­ the space between another neuron OR •­> Muscle cell­ muscle contraction occurs OR •­> Gland­ secretion of gland •Neurons usually don’t reproduce Muscle Tissue •Contration •Generation of force •Muscle cells ­Skeletal­ muscle fiber •multiple nuclei •striated muscle •moves the bone ­Smooth­ controls movement through hollow tubes of organs •one nucleus •not a striated muscle  ­Cardiac­ found in the heart •one nucleus •striated muscle •short and branched Epithelial Tissue •Line hollow tubes and organs •Barrier •Lumen­ hollow part of tube •Lumen ­> blood­ has to go through epithelial cells •Exocrine­ sweat glands ­Secrete via ducts to external environment •Endocrine­ hormone glands ­Secrete directly into the blood  Explain what is meant by homeostasis. o Maintenance of a dynamic, steady state of the internal environment (inside bodies, but outside of cells)  ex: glucose levels associated with normal eating patterns  ex: pH of blood needs to be between 7.35 and 7.45  below­ acidosis  above­ alkalosis   Describe what is meant by negative feedback, give examples of negative feedback systems. o A response to a change in a controlled variable in it’s opposition to the  change (it goes in the opposite direction)  ex: Body temp  lower body temp (controlled variable) ­> shiver ­>  increased body temp  ex: Blood pressure  low blood pressure ­> mechanisms in the body change ­>  increased blood pressure  Describe what is meant by positive feedback and give examples of positive  feedback systems. Be able to determine the atomic number and atomic weight of an element by looking at  the periodic table Explain/define/describe the following:   Solution­ a mixture of liquid (solvent) and a solute (dissolved)  Matter­ anything that has mass and occupies space  Molecule­ a group of atoms bonded together  Compound­ two or more separate elements; a mixture  Element­ cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances  Mass v. Weight­ Matter v. Effect of gravity of mass  Subatomic particles­ a particle smaller than an atom or cluster of such particles  Protons and neutrons­ in the nucleus  Electrons­ around nucleus  Atomic number­ the number of protons in the nucleus; determines place on  periodic table  Isotopes­ each of two or more forms of the same element that contain eqal  numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in the nuclei  Atomic mass­ the number of protons and neutrons in an atom  Orbitals­ 2 electrons  Shells­ made of several orbitals  Valence shell­ outer most shell  Ionic bonds o Ex: NaCL  Bonds are weak  Na gives up an electron to Cl and now has 11 protons and 10  electrons  not electrically balanced anymore  Cl accepts an electron from Na and now has 17 protons and 18  electrons  Na has a full second shell and Cl has a full 3rd shell  NaCl falls apart in a solution because of the weak bond  Covalent bonds o Ex: CH4 (Methane)  Strong bonds  Do not fall apart in a solution  The 4 hydrogens each give up 1 electron to form electron pairs  with the carbons outer shell  Both carbon and hydrogen now have their outer shell filled  Certain atom types have a stronger attraction than others  Hydrogen bonds­ Bonds between a hydrogen and a nearby oxygen, nitrogen,  hydrogen, or chlorine  Polar vs nonpolar o Polar  Covalent bonds that have electrons that are not shared equally  Molecules tend to be soluble in water   Hydrophilic  o Non­polar (neutral)  Electron pairs are shared equally  Molecules are not soluble in water  Hydrophobic  Adhesion­ the attraction between 2 unlike molecules (usually a liquid and a solid)  Surface tension of water­ water has high surface tension  Cohesion­ the attraction for like molecules  Diffusion­ movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area  of a low concentration of those molecules o The movement of molecules downhill o The more molecules in a high concentration = the faster the diffusion  occurs to get to a lower concentration  Osmosis­ the movement of water from an area of higher concentration of water to  an area of lower concentration of water through a semi­permeable membrane  Discuss/describe chemical reactions, enzymes. o Substrates to products  Discuss and differentiate between acids and bases. o Acids  A substances that yields hydrogen ions in solution  Ex: HCl  Found in stomach­ pH 1­1.5  increase hydrogen ion concentration solution because they  fall apart  HCl ­> H+ + Cl­  Ex: H2CO3 ­> H+ + HCO3­  Only the free hydrogen ions contribute to the acidity  o Bases  Remove hydrogen ions from solution, thereby decreasing the  hydrogen ion concentration in a solution  Ex: NaOH (sodium hydroxide)  NaOH ­> Na+ + OH­  Salts are formed because of the reaction between acids and bases  Human blood pH­ 7.35­7.45  Urine pH­ around 6  Describe the pH scale. o Potential hydrogen o Concetration of H+ of a solution o pH scale­ 0 ­> 7 ­> 14  Discuss chemical reactions, including distinguishing between substrate and  product, balancing chemical equations  Describe the function, structure, and characteristics of enzymes. o 100 seconds for 1 reaction without enzyme o 1 second for 1,000,000 reactions with enzyme o Most proteins o Catalysts­ speed up reaction rates o Specific­ for reactions they catalyze    salivary and amylase  Ex: carbs —————————> sugars o Substrate ­> bonds in substrate are weakened ­> products o Not changed within reaction o Recyclable o Have an optimum pH and temperature (depends on kind of enzyme)  Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic reactions.  Distinguish between organic and inorganic molecules. o Organic­ carbon o Inorganic­ no carbon  Exceptions: CO2, CO  Differentiate between a monomer and a polymer. o Polymer means many monomers. Sometimes polymers are also known as  macromolecules or large­sized molecules. Usually, polymers are organic  (but not necessarily). A monomer is a molecule that is able to bond in long chains.  Describe/ differentiate between hydrolysis and condensation reactions. o Polymerization­ bonding together of monomers  Condensation reaction­ monomer in, water out  Hydrolysis­ water in, monomer out (splitting with water) Name and describe the functions, structure, and characteristics of the biomolecules:  Proteins  o Amino acids o 20 amino acids o 2 carboxyl groups  H2N  COOH o ex: Alanine, tyrosine, glutamate, lysine o Formation of a peptide bond by a condensation reaction  Carboxyl group + amino group ­> peptide bond o Fibrous protein­ Collagen o Globular protein­ Insulin  Carbohydrates o Monomer­ saccharides  CHO  CH2O  C6H12O6­ glucose  1:2:1 ratio  Ribose has 5 oxygens… how many carbons? 5… how many  hydrogen? 10 o Monosaccharides   Glucose   Fructose  Galactose o Disaccharides  Sucrose (glucose + fructose)  Lactose (galactose + glucose) o Polysaccharide  Glycogen  Starch  Cellulose­ structural form of carbohydrates in plants  Lipids o Oily, waxy o Simple­ Glycerol + 3 fatty acids (triglyceride) o Complex­ 2 fatty acids + something else*  Describe the structure of phospholipids including how and why their different  regions are oriented (towards water or not). o Hydrophilic (polar) head o Glycerol backbone o Hydrophobic (non­polar) tails (2 fatty chains) o Structures formed by phospholipids in an aqueous environment  Phospholipid bilayer  Micelle  Explain what is meant by an ampipathic molecule o A molecule with both poplar and non­polar portions o Hydrophilic and hydrophobic  Explain how and why phospholipid bilayers and micelles are formed.  Differentiate between cytoplasm and cytosol. o Cytosol has no organelles but cytoplasm does  Describe the structure and function ATP.  Distinguish between endergonic and exergonic reaction. o Exergonic­ energy release requirement o Endergonic­ energy taking requirement  Recognize/discuss all the different processes of cellular respiration  o C6H12O6 + 6O2­­­­­­ 6CO2 + H2O + Energy ­­­ ATP + Heat  State and explain the First Law of Thermodynamics. o Energy cannot be created or destroyed o Energy can be transformed  Describe oxidation­reduction reactions. o Oxidation­ one molecule loses an electron o Reduction­ one molecule gains an electron  Explain the following: NAD+ <­> NADH  Describe the role of coenzymes. o Nicotamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) o NAD+ <­> NADH o NAD+ accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced o This reaction forms NADH, which can donate electrons  Transfer molecule o Most energy releasing reaction in the cell produce NADH (or similar  reduced coenzyme) o Cells need a way to connect the 2 coenzymes  Recognize the coenzymes discussed in class. o Lyosomes  Digestive enzyme o Peroxisomes  Oxidative enzyme  Catalase  Membrane enzyme core, lumen  H2O2 ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ H2O + O2 (hydrogen peroxide)       catalyse                water and oxygen (harmless)   Explain what is meant by oxidative phosphorylation. o Oxidation of NADH and FADH2 o Phosphorylation of ADP ­> ATP o The energy released when passing down is used to pump hydrogen ions  from the matrix to the inter­membrane space o 10NADH + H+ + 2FADH2 –> oxidative phosphorylation ­> 34 ATP  Explain/describe the overall process of cellular respiration. o Oxidation of glucose release energy to make ATP  Describe the processes of glycolysis o 2 3C pyruvates ­­­­­­­­­­­ lactates anaerobic  The linking step between glycolysis o 2 3C pyruvates ­­­­­­­­­­­ 3C pyruvate­­ 2C Acetyl­CoA + CO2 aerobic  Kreb’s cycle  o Oxygen required  Oxidative phosphoylation/ electron transport chain o Oxygen required o Occurs in mitochondria  Describe the events of chemosmotic coupling as it related to Oxidative  Phosphorylation o The production of ATP via a proton (H+)


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