Exam 1 Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelly Wetmore on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 242 at University of Rhode Island taught by Barbara Van Sciver in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Kelly Wetmore Describe the organization of life (Cell>tissue>etc…) and describe the characteristics of each. Discuss the basic requirements of almost all cells. o Retain oxygen Lungs> blood > cells o Make Proteins o Transport internally and externally o Control and exchanges between outside and inside (membrane) o Senses and respond to changes in environment o Requirements differ in specialites o Nucleus genetic material (DNAcode) Genes Gene expression synthesis of a particular protein o Cytosol no organelles o Cytoplasm outside of the nucleus, but inside of the cell Organelles and semiliquid Intracellular and extracellular fluid Distinguish between the internal and external environment. o Internal Inside our bodies but outside of cells o External Lumen hollow part of the tube Distinguish between the ecf and icf. o ECF Positive Outside of cell Contains Sodium ions o ICF Negative Inside of cell Contains Potassium ions Discuss the 2 main compartments of the ecf. o ECF Plasma liquid portion of blood Interstitial fluid surrounds cells Explain the process of differentiation. o Different genes are expressed in different cells Describe and discuss the 4 primary tissue types, including where they are found, their structure, their functions, their characteristics. Connective Tissue •Binds, anchors, supports other tissues •Extensive amount of extracellularmatrix (ECM) •Protein fibers outside of cells Collagen strength in tissues Elastingives the tissue the ability to stretch and recoil •Bones, blood, tendons, cartilage, adipose tissue Nervous Tissue •CNS (central nervous system) spinal cord •PNS (peripheral nervous system) outside of the spine •Glial cells (Glia) support other types of cells in the nervous system Neurons •Neurons transmit electrical impulses •Process of electrical impulse through neuron: Cell body (nucleus and organelles) >Dendrites> Axon > Axon terminal > Neurotransmitters •> Synapse the space between another neuron OR •> Muscle cell muscle contraction occurs OR •> Gland secretion of gland •Neurons usually don’t reproduce Muscle Tissue •Contration •Generation of force •Muscle cells Skeletal muscle fiber •multiple nuclei •striated muscle •moves the bone Smooth controls movement through hollow tubes of organs •one nucleus •not a striated muscle Cardiac found in the heart •one nucleus •striated muscle •short and branched Epithelial Tissue •Line hollow tubes and organs •Barrier •Lumen hollow part of tube •Lumen > blood has to go through epithelial cells •Exocrine sweat glands Secrete via ducts to external environment •Endocrine hormone glands Secrete directly into the blood Explain what is meant by homeostasis. o Maintenance of a dynamic, steady state of the internal environment (inside bodies, but outside of cells) ex: glucose levels associated with normal eating patterns ex: pH of blood needs to be between 7.35 and 7.45 below acidosis above alkalosis Describe what is meant by negative feedback, give examples of negative feedback systems. o A response to a change in a controlled variable in it’s opposition to the change (it goes in the opposite direction) ex: Body temp lower body temp (controlled variable) > shiver > increased body temp ex: Blood pressure low blood pressure > mechanisms in the body change > increased blood pressure Describe what is meant by positive feedback and give examples of positive feedback systems. Be able to determine the atomic number and atomic weight of an element by looking at the periodic table Explain/define/describe the following: Solution a mixture of liquid (solvent) and a solute (dissolved) Matter anything that has mass and occupies space Molecule a group of atoms bonded together Compound two or more separate elements; a mixture Element cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances Mass v. Weight Matter v. Effect of gravity of mass Subatomic particles a particle smaller than an atom or cluster of such particles Protons and neutrons in the nucleus Electrons around nucleus Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus; determines place on periodic table Isotopes each of two or more forms of the same element that contain eqal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in the nuclei Atomic mass the number of protons and neutrons in an atom Orbitals 2 electrons Shells made of several orbitals Valence shell outer most shell Ionic bonds o Ex: NaCL Bonds are weak Na gives up an electron to Cl and now has 11 protons and 10 electrons not electrically balanced anymore Cl accepts an electron from Na and now has 17 protons and 18 electrons Na has a full second shell and Cl has a full 3rd shell NaCl falls apart in a solution because of the weak bond Covalent bonds o Ex: CH4 (Methane) Strong bonds Do not fall apart in a solution The 4 hydrogens each give up 1 electron to form electron pairs with the carbons outer shell Both carbon and hydrogen now have their outer shell filled Certain atom types have a stronger attraction than others Hydrogen bonds Bonds between a hydrogen and a nearby oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, or chlorine Polar vs nonpolar o Polar Covalent bonds that have electrons that are not shared equally Molecules tend to be soluble in water Hydrophilic o Nonpolar (neutral) Electron pairs are shared equally Molecules are not soluble in water Hydrophobic Adhesion the attraction between 2 unlike molecules (usually a liquid and a solid) Surface tension of water water has high surface tension Cohesion the attraction for like molecules Diffusion movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of a low concentration of those molecules o The movement of molecules downhill o The more molecules in a high concentration = the faster the diffusion occurs to get to a lower concentration Osmosis the movement of water from an area of higher concentration of water to an area of lower concentration of water through a semipermeable membrane Discuss/describe chemical reactions, enzymes. o Substrates to products Discuss and differentiate between acids and bases. o Acids A substances that yields hydrogen ions in solution Ex: HCl Found in stomach pH 11.5 increase hydrogen ion concentration solution because they fall apart HCl > H+ + Cl Ex: H2CO3 > H+ + HCO3 Only the free hydrogen ions contribute to the acidity o Bases Remove hydrogen ions from solution, thereby decreasing the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution Ex: NaOH (sodium hydroxide) NaOH > Na+ + OH Salts are formed because of the reaction between acids and bases Human blood pH 7.357.45 Urine pH around 6 Describe the pH scale. o Potential hydrogen o Concetration of H+ of a solution o pH scale 0 > 7 > 14 Discuss chemical reactions, including distinguishing between substrate and product, balancing chemical equations Describe the function, structure, and characteristics of enzymes. o 100 seconds for 1 reaction without enzyme o 1 second for 1,000,000 reactions with enzyme o Most proteins o Catalysts speed up reaction rates o Specific for reactions they catalyze salivary and amylase Ex: carbs —————————> sugars o Substrate > bonds in substrate are weakened > products o Not changed within reaction o Recyclable o Have an optimum pH and temperature (depends on kind of enzyme) Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic reactions. Distinguish between organic and inorganic molecules. o Organic carbon o Inorganic no carbon Exceptions: CO2, CO Differentiate between a monomer and a polymer. o Polymer means many monomers. Sometimes polymers are also known as macromolecules or largesized molecules. Usually, polymers are organic (but not necessarily). A monomer is a molecule that is able to bond in long chains. Describe/ differentiate between hydrolysis and condensation reactions. o Polymerization bonding together of monomers Condensation reaction monomer in, water out Hydrolysis water in, monomer out (splitting with water) Name and describe the functions, structure, and characteristics of the biomolecules: Proteins o Amino acids o 20 amino acids o 2 carboxyl groups H2N COOH o ex: Alanine, tyrosine, glutamate, lysine o Formation of a peptide bond by a condensation reaction Carboxyl group + amino group > peptide bond o Fibrous protein Collagen o Globular protein Insulin Carbohydrates o Monomer saccharides CHO CH2O C6H12O6 glucose 1:2:1 ratio Ribose has 5 oxygens… how many carbons? 5… how many hydrogen? 10 o Monosaccharides Glucose Fructose Galactose o Disaccharides Sucrose (glucose + fructose) Lactose (galactose + glucose) o Polysaccharide Glycogen Starch Cellulose structural form of carbohydrates in plants Lipids o Oily, waxy o Simple Glycerol + 3 fatty acids (triglyceride) o Complex 2 fatty acids + something else* Describe the structure of phospholipids including how and why their different regions are oriented (towards water or not). o Hydrophilic (polar) head o Glycerol backbone o Hydrophobic (nonpolar) tails (2 fatty chains) o Structures formed by phospholipids in an aqueous environment Phospholipid bilayer Micelle Explain what is meant by an ampipathic molecule o A molecule with both poplar and nonpolar portions o Hydrophilic and hydrophobic Explain how and why phospholipid bilayers and micelles are formed. Differentiate between cytoplasm and cytosol. o Cytosol has no organelles but cytoplasm does Describe the structure and function ATP. Distinguish between endergonic and exergonic reaction. o Exergonic energy release requirement o Endergonic energy taking requirement Recognize/discuss all the different processes of cellular respiration o C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + H2O + Energy ATP + Heat State and explain the First Law of Thermodynamics. o Energy cannot be created or destroyed o Energy can be transformed Describe oxidationreduction reactions. o Oxidation one molecule loses an electron o Reduction one molecule gains an electron Explain the following: NAD+ <> NADH Describe the role of coenzymes. o Nicotamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) o NAD+ <> NADH o NAD+ accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced o This reaction forms NADH, which can donate electrons Transfer molecule o Most energy releasing reaction in the cell produce NADH (or similar reduced coenzyme) o Cells need a way to connect the 2 coenzymes Recognize the coenzymes discussed in class. o Lyosomes Digestive enzyme o Peroxisomes Oxidative enzyme Catalase Membrane enzyme core, lumen H2O2 H2O + O2 (hydrogen peroxide) catalyse water and oxygen (harmless) Explain what is meant by oxidative phosphorylation. o Oxidation of NADH and FADH2 o Phosphorylation of ADP > ATP o The energy released when passing down is used to pump hydrogen ions from the matrix to the intermembrane space o 10NADH + H+ + 2FADH2 –> oxidative phosphorylation > 34 ATP Explain/describe the overall process of cellular respiration. o Oxidation of glucose release energy to make ATP Describe the processes of glycolysis o 2 3C pyruvates lactates anaerobic The linking step between glycolysis o 2 3C pyruvates 3C pyruvate 2C AcetylCoA + CO2 aerobic Kreb’s cycle o Oxygen required Oxidative phosphoylation/ electron transport chain o Oxygen required o Occurs in mitochondria Describe the events of chemosmotic coupling as it related to Oxidative Phosphorylation o The production of ATP via a proton (H+)
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