Microbiology Exam 2 Lecture Notes & Study Guide cards
Microbiology Exam 2 Lecture Notes & Study Guide cards MCB2000
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsi Rau on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MCB2000 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Asghari in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Microbiology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Monday, February 15, y MCB2000 Exam 2 Notes Genetics GMO genetically modified organism, manipulating a seed or bacteria to have a desired effect Eukaryotic Cell: more complex, has 2 or more chromosomes, mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own DNA that carries additional genes Prokaryotic Cell: simpler, DNA is THE genetic material Bacteria: has 1 chromosome Extra chromosome is available on DNA Virus: Acellular, have DNA or RNA, only viruses can have one or the other, may have single stranded DNA (always the exception) DNA is a polymer of Nucleic Acid Nucleic Acid is made up of Nucleotides, double stranded, connected together by hydrogen bonds, its helix shape makes it compact Duplicating DNA: relax DNA, separate two strands, make a copy for each one, then have two Nucleotide: sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base (ATCG) All cells have double stranded DNA, including plasmid, chloroplasts, and mitochondria Genes segments of chromosome code for a specific protein called a gene not all DNA are genes, only segments of genes some genes made code for an RNA molecule that is not coded for a protein Virus few hundred genes 1 Monday, February 15, y Bacteria couple thousand genes Humans tens of thousands of genes (in Eukaryotes) every gene has a start and an end every gene has to be expressed, this happens in the form of RN every gene copes for one molecule of RNA more complex the organism is, the more genes it has Vertical Gene Transfer: from parent gene directly to daughter gene Horizontal Gene Transfer: in bacteria, conducted through conjugation, transformation, and transduction Conjugation: there is direct contact, DNA is copied from the daughter and the copy of DNA is transferred to the recipient, there is a Vector that carries the DNA the plasmid, diseasecausing genes are passed on through this conjugation, virulence genes, antibiotic resistance genes/pathogenic genes Transformation: pick up DNA from the environment (naked DNA), no direct contact, DNA comes from other cells that die and cause DNA to be free, this process isn't very common, use this in lab to introduce genes into bacteria can be in the form of plasma, also is a lab technique to introduce DNA into a host Transduction: virus, attack one hostpicks of DN fragment transfer to another host, happens very naturally, carry toxic genes from one bacteria to another, involved in spreading resistant genes, do not kill the host just carry the genes from one host to another Reverse Transcript: take RNA and copy it to DNA Bacteriaphage, take from one bacteria into the new bacteria—> then has a piece of gene from another bacteria Virus do exactly what plasmid does, one virus attacks one host—>picks up DNA from that host and carries to another 2 Monday, February 15, y Exotoxins: contribute to the diseases, they kill human cells, genes encoding these toxins are carried by phage, they go from one bacteria to another and carry these genes with them, Transposons carry genes from one bacteria to another, can jump from chromosome to plasmid or from plasmid to chromosome, help plasmid to carry gene from chromosome also, sometimes called jumping genes, when these genes reach the chromosome they are more permanent NakedDNA, Cellfree DNA Replication of DNA Binary Fission: the cell doubling, replication (exact copy of the DNA) Enzymes involved in replication: Helicase unwinds the DNA and opens it up, PrimateSynthesizes the RNA primer & is required to start replication, DNA polymerase adding bases to the new DNA chain; proofreading the chain for mistakes & removes primercloses gapsrepairing mismatches, Ligase final binding of nicks in DNA during synthesis and repair, Topiosomerases supercoiling and untangling Bacterial DNA circulator: Duplicating DNA: relax DNA, separate two strands, make a copy for each one, then have two 3 Prime side of strand, and 5 prime side of strand, the replication always goes from 5 to 3, DNA polymerase always synthesizes in one way Replication always starts at one point ORI, it is Bidirectional it goes both ways, goes from 53 direction Replication is semiconservative (one strand is old from the parent cell, one strand is new) the two strands are complimentary, G —> C, C —> G (3 hydrogen bonds), A —> T, T —> A (2 hydrogen bonds), two strands are antiparallel (53, then 35) 3 Monday, February 15, y You can tell one strand from the other by regarding the Antiparallel aspect and the complimentary aspect To start replication you need a Primer, RNA during replication one strand is segments and one strand is in one piece Replication SUMMARIZED: Double stranded, one chromosome, circulator, super coiledcompact molecule, always starts at ORI, moves in both directions, goes 5’—3’ direction, needs a RNA primer to start, semiconservative, the two strands are complimentary, are antiparallel, LIGASE&SIMPLE DIAGRAM OF RE Genomic: the study of genes and structures Bioformatic: the science of comparing DNA Transcription from DNA to RNA, read DNA and then make RNA transcription: making copy of DNA in form of RNA has multiple forms, tRNA mRNA rRNA all microbes in protein synthesis segments of DNA that code for RNA segment is called a gene some RNA molecules are made to make protein, some are not mRNA: codes for protein, where info comes from to make a protein, CODON used as a template for making the protein tRNA: help synthesize the protein coded for by mRNA RNA polymerase uses DNA as a template, it then reads the gene, and then synthesizes RNA 4 Monday, February 15, y Translation Protein synthesis/translation, end result is a protein molecules the size and composition of ribosome in human is different from those in bacteria some antibiotics target bacterial ribosomes instead of human ribosomes because they are different happens at the Ribosome (every cell must have a ribosome) Ribosome is a complex molecule made of proteins plus RNA mRNA transcript reads the mRNA and uses it as a template to mRNA carries Codon for Amino Acid, a strand of molecule made of GCUA, every 3 base pair is one Amino Acid —> a polypeptide Codons are triplets each Codon for a different Amino Acid, different combinations code for different things Ribosome hooks the tRNA and Amino acid together tRNA has a matching codon, an anticodon, binds to an amino acid and brings them to the Ribosome Initiation: first step of translation, mRNA is sandwiched between two ribosome Elongation: second step of translation, a new amino acids and the polypeptide chain is growing UNDERSTAND CONCEPT OF EACH STEP Termination: Point Mutations Spontaneous Mutations: mistakes naturally made by DNA polymerase, key is to have mistakes fixed 5 Monday, February 15, y Fidelity of Mutation: DNA polymerase will go and correct itself and repair anything that went wrong Frameshift happens halfway through where you either add a base pair or remove a base pair Sequencing DNA GCAT …… Human Genome Project: has all human genes/mitochondria/chromosome sequenced, we know the sequence of DNA all the way from the first humans Studying DNA Gel Electrophora: Run it through gel and observe it, put DNA on the gel, run it through electricity, then turned from negative to positive, this technique visualizes DNA for you RFLP: a friendly technology, used by law enforcement agency, takes human DNA runs it through enzyme restriction, then runs it through the gel, every human has a different pattern,used by forensic scientists to identify DNA from different sources Restriction Endonucleases: enzymes that cut DNA at certain points, cut DNA into segments Restriction Enzymes: cut DNA with the enzyme, Restriction enzyme cuts the DNA at different placesthis is a natural source, take plasmids and cut them the same as DNA connect them together to create Recombinant DNA (DNA from at least 2 sources) Polymerase Chain Reaction every cycle the DNA is doubled the key is what type of primer to use to perform the PCR 6 Monday, February 15, y no matter how small it is we are now able to extract DNA from it DNA has to denature and open up and synthesize in this process Prokaryotes to Eukaryotes Ti plasmid: bacteria that attacks plant, this has been tamed, now able to be put into Eukaryotesplants, introduced genes from other plants Some Mutagens and their Affects Base Analaog: structured, GCAU Alkylating agent: example nitrosoguanidine incorrect pairing—>point mutation Some chemicals damage Ames Test FDA will require any new product to be testes through this for carcinogen (can cause cancer) every chemical in the new product has to be tested Simple test: bacteria grown on a plate, in the plate their is a missing amino acid, the bacteria cant grow, you then add the amino acid to the plate to trick the bacteria, some chemicals can cause that bacteria to grow even without amino acid Cancer: unregulated growth, whatever cancer you have: your cells keep growing uncontrollably, each cell has a control gene DNA Repair DNA constantly repairs itself DNA polymerase is an enzyme that replicates Exonuclease Activity: chopping the DNA, cutting it back 7 Monday, February 15, y if damage is not fixed, it becomes a mutation Recombinant DNA technology Labs have been able to adjust DNA intentionally modifies genomes of organisms, by natural and artificial processes, for practical purposes Work with DNA, extract it, through genetic engineering phenotype: a gene that is expressed Tools of Recombinant DNA technology Reverse Transcriptase: converts RNA to DNA, comes from HIV, good for us when we have to take a copy of RNA into the DNA form Restriction Enzymes: use to cut your DNA and cut your vectors (plasmid, viruses, manmade plasmid) gene libraries: collection of Bacteria that each carry 2 DNA Protoplast fusion: two cell—> membrane fuses together—> become one cell, if they have cell wall it has to be dissolved Applications of Recombinant DNA technology take pieces of pathogen, put it into another bacteria to grow taken protanes from different pathogens but into new bacteria RFLP: patterns of restriction enzyme, cutting DNA it is possible to express pathogens/genes into humans, to produce protein in your body plants, animals, fungi, parasites, protozoans—> Eukaryotes 8 Monday, February 15, y Endosymbiosis Monera —> unicellular, prokaryotes not everyone has cell wall, bacteria does —> peptidoglycan fungi and plants have cell wall Viruses Acellular, no hallmarks of the cell lots of activity, but not alive, has an automatic pilot, is functional, works and does what its supposed to do Smaller than all else, nanometers (nm) need Electron Microscopy to see them can’t be grown on a plate, always need a host Flask used to grow virus is a host, monolayer destructed when virus attacks make monolayer by taking host (animal tissue, human/plant tissue) homogenize it, grows for few days and dies off primary culture comes straight from source, fuse normal cell with cancer cell and that cell will grow forever plaques: one virus got in, killed the host, cleared it out, bacteria coloni—> viruses plaque fewer genes than others, has few hundred obligate intercellular parasite, always need host, have to be inside host cant just attach to host Virus can recognize skin as a host or respiratory system as a host, go straight to that portion of host and cause issues there eating food with Hepatitis A gives you Hepatitis Astraight to liver, Hepatitis C blood or sex goes to specific liver to attack 9 Monday, February 15, y Archaea attacked by viruses made of piece of protane and a piece of nucleic acid Capsid (protein), these proteins assemble automatically Nucleic Acid DNA and RNA, singlestranded or doublestranded, one or the other but all possible cell“envelope” made of lipids, not membrane but similar to membrane spikes needle embedded into the envelope of the virus molecule, allows attachment to a specific host, additional layer not a lot of cure, not a lot of treatment when attacking a human, the virus takes your polymerase & ATP to attack you and your system, they take control of your movement smallest of all molecules, some 1520 nanometers unique structure Icosohedron multi face shape, covers the nucleic acid, due to shape of the capsid Viral Replication set of steps to make sure virus gets into host attaches with capsid or spikes inject DNA or RNA into the host through penetration, the capsid remains outside sometimes gets in with the DNAcapsid then needs to get out of the hosthappens through Uncoating (additional step) target to stop virus from initiating suffocation Synthesize make virus pieces, make all components of the virus, made inside the host Assemble put the pieces together at the same time, aka packaging or maturation, made of Preformed components 10 Monday, February 15, y Release rupturing the cell to release all the viruses, lysis of the host, host is disrupted, one virus gets into the host hundred get out using host polymerase the cells make more of themselves as the virus squeezes out of the host they carry a piece of membrane with them which becomes their envelope, spikes develop later this describes a typical Human virus (DNA) when viruses come in as an RNA virus and needs to go through a process to convert RNA into DNA involves an enzyme called reverse transcription —> RNA copy to DNA —> DNA inserted into host for replication HIV is a Retrovirus has to be converted to DNA first, take RT inhibiters when virus is inserted into the chromosome of the host stage of life called ProVirus refers to the DNA of the virus embedded into the chromosome of the host as host replicates, DNA replicates, make more viruses One Step Growth Curve After attachment and penetration and start of assembly there is a period of time where no virus is detectable during this period it is called Biosynthesis and Maturatio—> Eclipse Period once assembly stops they viruses are coming and keep showing up at the same time Viral Syndromes oral and respiratory tract infections flulike (body ache, feeling under the weather, heaviness on your system) and systematic symptoms congenital, neonatal and perinatal viruses 11 Monday, February 15, y infections of the CNS Hepatitis liver Important Human Virus Families viruses herpes variety family of possible types chicken pox viruses Pollo virus families: groups of viruses that have similar characteristics Animal defenses against viral infection fever: speeds up the immune system, slows down bacteria, viruses get killed, beneficial immune system response interferon: antiviral proteins, effect RNA viruses antibioties: proteins produced by immune system that recognizes viruses and neutralizes them targeting viruses for cure are difficult because you have to target human cells Few Successful Drugs: need a drug that targets the viral mechanism instead of the host machinery/system —> tamiflu: attack influenza virus A and B, amantadine, acyclovir, ribovirin viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens, this means they must have a host to replicate or multiply, use the hosts machinery (metabolism, synthesis system, transcription, translation, etc) Properties of viruses obligate intracellular parasites of bacteria, protozoa, fungi, algae, archaea must use host machine 12 Monday, February 15, y ultramicroscopic submicroscopy Electron Microscope made of same polymers of others acellular, no cell membrane, not selfregulated, no regulation of their activities RNA or DNA as their genetic material (not both) could be single or double stranded Host specific must have capsid, must have nucleic acid, matrix proteins (spikes) may or may not have oncogene: cause uncontrollable growth, this causes a tumor formation, example of this type of virus is the Retroviruses virus brings gene with them that takes over the gene of the human cell, takes control of the hosts cell division Virus Induced Changes in Cells Virus gets in, starts multiplying and making more viruses Acute infection Permissive or productive infection: results in acute infection and host cell lysis (break up), typical outcome of virus infection Abortive or nonproductive: no viruses produced, no harm to the host Persistent infection: keep producing viruses at low level, host survives but keeps making viruses, not good for the host, turns your system into a virus making machinery, form of chronic infection Latent: virus lives in you, stays in you, one day may flare up and cause problems, also chronic, no virus produced, just hosted with possible flare up at any point 13 Monday, February 15, y transforming: cancer, transformation into malignant cells cytopathic effects (CPE): visual effects of the virus on the host, you can see from eyes or under a microscope, cell lysis is a form, causes damages to the cell that can be visualized, results in different infections (latent infection) Latent Infections virus lives with the host Herpes virus: HSV1 oral, HSV2 genital Chicken Pox CMV: causes mono EBV: Burkitt ’s lymphoma type of cancerHIV Chronic Infections Hepatits B & C: effects liver, plasmasalivagenital secretions can cause cancer - cirrhosis- makes liver spongy, cells damaged carcinoma: cancer Rubella virus: congenitalpass onto the fetus Viruses & Cancer Cell division is a highly regulated process Neoplasia uncontrollable cell division mass of neoplastic cells is a tumor Benign vs. Malignant tumors: metastasis, cancers HPV: genital warts, can result in tumor 14 Monday, February 15, y Characteristics of Prions Acellular, noncellular structures MadCow disease Alpha helixnormal Beta sheet abnormal accumulation of Beta sheet protein results in neurological damage Microbial Pathogenesity CDC keep in touch with this website, updated information microbes can possess molecules and structures that cause disease Survival of the fittest very simple structures, no internal organelles no nucleus no mitochondria, grow rapidly allows exchange of waste and brining in nutrients survive harsh conditionsproduce endospores, attachment devices help thispili capsule fibre Capsule protects it against the immune system Symbiosis: Normal Flora symbiotic relationship with us, bacteria, no virus, no parasite, this changes as your age changes no association of microbes in areas like middle, inner ear, sinuses, circulatory system, glands, organs, brain and spinal cord, ovaries and testes Epidermis constantly growing and shedding off dead cells, top layer of skin, covers a large portion, cooler, lower pH, salt Staph can live on the skin 15 Monday, February 15, y The Infectious Triangle Host—> Microbe —> Environment number of how much you get exposed to microbes is important ID50 & LD50: the number of microbes that cause disease, lower the number the lower the ID50 the more virulence Immunocompromised Individuals: have some form of immune system deficiency, receive immune suppressant drugs, receiving radiation or cancer qualifies, diabetes, HIV low ID50: get sick more often, come into contact with low amount of bacteria this will get you sick LD50: lower the lethal dose, the more vicious the bacteria is, a certain level will kill you Intracellular pathogens: the virus most go into the host to multiple, must go inside obligate and intracellular to use the host machinery, protected when the immune system try to fight off the pathogen Biggest difference from bacteria bacteria uses its own system Extracellular systems: have more room to spread and move Produced toxins will send throughout the system by transportation by things like living under the nails Bacterial Pathogens Usual pathogen: go there and touch it, you get sick Opportunistic pathogen: have to have a certain environment to infect you Endotoxin Gram negative bacteria Systemic infection: spreads through several sites of the tissue fluids 16 Monday, February 15, y Focal infections: start at one point but spread of other locations from that point Chronic infection: slow but long process, progresses over time Virulence Factors attachment devices: pili, fimbrae, capsule, glycocalyx Virulence Factors can be an enzyme, a structure, a toxin, even simply just being able to grow and invade Extracellular enzymes: use to breakdown host barriers Toxins: exotoxins/endotoxins, produced by both Gram positive and Gram negative, it is both produced and secreted, LPS only gram negative Phagocytosis: white blood cells engulf and remove bacteria from the body Exotoxins & Endotoxins LPS outer membrane of gram negative bacteria, endotoxin, part of Lipid A most toxic part of LPS, causes inflammation, fever, drop in blood pressure, coagulation, released when bacteria is dead, weakly toxic Endotoxins: LOS & LPS Exotoxin: almost all gram negative, affects many things, made of proteins, extracellular, highly toxic, enters body with high immune response, one can inactivate exotoxin and convert to toxoid (inactivated endotoxin, can be used as vaccine) Endotoxins: proteins Examples: Hyaluronidase enzyme bacteria produces that allows the bacteria to spreadmakes an invasive bacteria facilitates movement for bacteria to go further into the system, Hemolysin kills RBC, Leukocidin: kills WBCs, Alpha Toxin: kills all kinds of cells, Streptokinase: blood clots, blocks bacteria from entering your system, Coagulase: molecule forms clot around bacteria to protect it from the immune system to get into 17 Monday, February 15, y Respiratory tract is a main area where bacteria accesses into the system Endotoxins are always gram negative, toxic in high does, LPSLOS part of structures of bacteria, a small amount released when the bacteria is goring Exotoxins made of proteins secreted to the outside and they cause damage outside, make toxoid with this not endotoxins used for vaccine production, highly toxic Sources and Transmission of Infectious Agents Soil not easy to survive in, not much nutrients, lots of composition, worry about Endospores in soil bacterial, dormant, inactive, survive harsh conditions, Clostridium causes Tetanus, fungal spores as well, not lots of viruses or parasites People who work with livestock are at risk of Bacilles, causes skin problem, Antrax disease, in the form of endospore in the soil Portals of Entry 1) Skin: staph relatedcauses skin infection, strep flesh eating bacteria, herpes virus 2) Mucous Membrane: includes digestive tract, urogenital tractHIVchlamydia, respiratory tractfungibacteriafungi, opening your mouth, inside body cavities, most common entry 3) Parenteral route: cutting your skin, Genital Tract, bit by an insect, bypass conventional layers, surgery, cuts/bruises Placenta can allow pass through to the fetus, congenital birth defect something happened when fetus was developed in the womb use the same routes for exit as well, can enter through one route and exit through the other as well capsule antiphagocytic 18 Monday, February 15, y Modes of Transmission Communicable diseases: Direct contact: touching, sexual Indirect: airborne diseasetravel more than a meter distance, droplet, sneezing, famine: nonliving means of transmission through non direct contact drink from the same glasssame razortowels Vehicle transmission: food and water Vector transmission: flies, mosquitos, other insects Arthopod borne disease no bacteria inside the womb, as fetus passes through birth control it accesses bacteria, bacteria then becomes part of the normal flora of the body kids need some exposure to bacteria while growing up and developing to build immunity to them Normal Flora bladder urethra bacteria here, kidney, if you hold bladder to long, bacteria will travel up and give you a kidney infection, flushing with urine gets the bacteria out respiratory tract lung has antibacterial action to kill bacteria reproductive system no bacteria in uterusovariesfallopian tubes Incubation periodtime for bacteria to grow and multiply exposed to the disease and where symptom start to show up can be hours or months, rabies is several weeks to months Prodromal Stage: flulike symptoms 19 Monday, February 15, y Convalescent period: final stage, recovery you are infectious through any stage of this process ^^ signs someone else cans seerashesreddness, symptoms feel but cannot seepainflulike symptoms, syndrome collection of signs and symptomsEx: AIDSnot just one thing Reservoir infection: where disease is found on a regular basis, could be through nature, lakes, animals, humans carrier: carries disease and can transport it to another, healthy person can do this, chronic carrier: carries disease for a long period of time, nonliving or living Zoonotic disease: disease from animal to human, only get from animals, rabies from bites of animals west nile virus through mosquito bites, plague rodents bite humans malaria human to human from mosquito, not zoonotic Arthropod borne diseases: carried through mosquitos Koch’s Postulates observation, isolation, Inoculate second subject, observe same as original, reisolate, compare , found one microbe one disease—> this doesn't apply to all diseases only infectious diseases are caused by microbes not possible to isolate in pure culture in some agents Nosocomial Infections diseases acquired at a healthcare facility, staff, doctor, bathroom, being exposed to elements of being sick 20 Monday, February 15, y - Epidemiology study of the origin and spread of disease everything about the disease, how what when where why, all info besides treatment they collect data and analyze the results and experiment CDC Pandemic: worldwide, passed through several countries Epidemic: in a region Endemic: ongoing disease, in population all the time, like a cold less infectious diseases now because of antibiotics, treatments, etc STUDY CARDS FOR STUDY GUIDE FOUND HERE PLEASE DO NOT SHARE https://quizlet.com/118618005/microexam2flashcards/ 21
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