New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BCOR 12 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Brooke Pietrafesa

BCOR 12 Exam 1 Study Guide BCOR 012 (Biology- Alison Brody and Melissa Pespeni)

Brooke Pietrafesa
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

A review of the lecture notes that will be on exam 1. It is advised that you still look over your pre lecture homework questions on blackboard and launchpad, textbook, and lab materials to prepare ...
BCOR 12- section C- 10022
Alison Brody and Melissa Pespeni
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in BCOR 12- section C- 10022

Popular in Biology

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke Pietrafesa on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BCOR 012 (Biology- Alison Brody and Melissa Pespeni) at University of Vermont taught by Alison Brody and Melissa Pespeni in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see BCOR 12- section C- 10022 in Biology at University of Vermont.

Similar to BCOR 012 (Biology- Alison Brody and Melissa Pespeni) at UVM


Reviews for BCOR 12 Exam 1 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/15/16
Study Guide BCOR 12 Exam 1 The exam will cover material from chapters 7.4, 8, 15, and 16. This study guide will be a review of lecture materials but it is advised that you also look through the corresponding chapters in your textbook as well as the pre lecture questions on Launchpad and Blackboard. Chapter 7.4 Mitosis- cell division of somatic cells start and end with the same number of chromosomes Meiosis- cell division of gamete cells (gamete production), start with 2N chromosomes and end with 1N. Crossing over is the source of genetic exchange in this form of division. Cell cycle (IPMATC)- interphase (longest), prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis Chapter 8 Gregor Mendel- father of genetics  Studied pea plants over multiple generations and kept meticulous notes  Observed patterns of inheritance  tested hypothesis Key concepts of Mendel:  Blending inheritance- offspring an intermediate between 2 parental phenotypes (NOT ACTUALLY TRUE)  Particulate inheritance- genes carried on chromosomes  Alleles and genes interact to produce phenotypes Medels Laws 1. Law of random segregation of alleles into gametes. Assumes alleles sort independently and alleles are on different chromosomes 2. Law of independent assortment of genes- genes sort independently of each other, alleles of one trait sort independently from those of other traits. Assumes: genes are not linked, no intermediates between dominant and recessive phenotype, alleles don’t interact with each other, only 2 alleles per gene Key finding: Each parent has 2 copies of a gene and one is passed down to offspring by each parent Definitions to know:  Phenotypes- outward appearance of traits  Genotype-alleles/ genes that produce a phenotype  Gene- set of nucleotide base pairs that reside on a chromosome at a particular locus  Allele- nucleotide base sequence at a particular locus  Heterozygote- organism with 2 different alleles, Aa  Dominant trait- always expressed, DOES NOT tell us about the frequency of an allele in a population, DO NOT affect the function of the recessive gene  Recessive trait- only expressed in homozygous form  Incomplete dominance- intermediate phenotype between 2 parents – looks like blending inheritance but it is NOT  Codominance- expression of both phenotypes in offspring  Test cross- cross unknown with homozygous recessive- tells what unknown parent is  Epistasis – phenotypic expression of one gene is affected by another  Pleiotrophy- single gene with more than on effect  Polygenic traits – quantitative traits, multiple alleles control phenotype  X linked traits- primarily expressed in males- only have one X chromosome, only females can be carriers  Bar body- inactivated X chromosome in females – entire chromosome is turned off  Expressivity- degree to which a phenotype is expressed  Aneuploidy- odd number of chromosomes  Non- disjunction- chromosomes don’t separate properly when pulled apart in meiosis 1 or 2  Karyotype – chromosome map Chapter 15 People who accepted evolution BEFORE Darwin:  Lamarck- theory of acquired traits – individual acquires traits in its lifetime  James Hutton – geologist who recognized rock was laid down at different times  Georges Cuvier- believed in “catastrophism” catastrophic events wiped out organisms which created gaps in the fossil record  THOMAS MATHUS- influenced Darwin and believed human pop couldn’t grow due to resource/food limitations Darwin (1809- 1882)  Looked at Galapagos finches  hypothesis o Believed diversity arose from a single bird (medium ground finch) o Beaks took on different shapes dependent on food type  Published origin of species in 1859 Mendel published inheritance papers in 1865 What is needed for Natural Selection to occur? 1. Variation in trait of interest 2. Trait must be heritable 3. Must have a reproductive consequence- affect fitness Outcome of natural selection change in frequency of phenotype and underlying genotype *Selection operates at the level of the individual BUT is expressed at the level of the population Type of fitness Absolute fitness- # offspring produced by individual/ # genes individual contributes to next generation Relative fitness- # offspring an individual produces Average # offspring produced by member of the population Why does selection NOT EQUAL perfection  Environments are not constant  Maintenance of sub optimal phenotypes due to mechanisms like linkage  Trade offs between traits and their effects on fitness  Phylogenetic constraints- trait not in gene pool to adapt to environment Ecological factors that may lead to selection/ adaptations  Geographic isolation- prevents mixture of genes with original species( other islands)  favors stabilization of genetic characteristics  Different ecological environments- lead to specializations characterized by differences in beak size  Competition- favors those better adapted to environment Types of selection 1. Directional stabilization (Sparknotes) 2. Disruptive stabilization (Sparknotes) 3. Stabilizing selection (Sparknotes) Hardy Weinberg Theorem: no matter how often organisms in the pop. Make gametes, gametes recombine at fertilization, the frequency of alleles in the population WONT change UNLESS the population is acted on by some outside force Rules for hardy Weinberg equilibrium occur:  Large population  No selection  No mutation  No emigration/ migration  Mating is random Equations: p+q=1 or p^2 +2pq + q^2 =1 Key terms: Genetic drift- loss of alleles due to random chance events  more common in small pop Founder effect- over representation of few alleles due to population going through bottleneck Types of Selection  Frequency dependent selection- selective advantage to the rare phenotype  Sexual selection o Intersexual selection- most often female choice of males with greater ornamentation (indicative of male quality) o Intrasexual selection- male – male competition Chapter 16 Carolus Linnaeus- father of taxonomy Linnaean Classification King Kingdom Philip Phylum Came Class Over Order For Family Good Genus Soup Species specific epithet Key terms  Microevolution- changes in allele frequency of population  Population- group of interbreeding individuals of the same species in a given area  Biological species- group of organisms /populations that are able to mate and produce viable and fertile offspring  Phylogeny- hypothesis about evolutionary relationships among taxa o Traits that can be used in phylogeny:  Morphology  Behavior  DNA  Fossils  development  Homologous structures- derived from a common ancestor  Analogous structures- evolved independently NOT from same ancestor  Vestigial trait- traits that no longer function in taxa of interest but may have functioned in ancestor  Convergent evolution- independent evolution of similar traits  Maximum parsimony- simplest explanation that includes the least # of steps of character state changes  Maximum likelihood- uses rules of probability of character state changes  Hox genes- head to tail organization of the body  Exaptation- trait evolved in one context, adaptive in another context  Sequester- ability to store secondary compounds  Basal trait- primitive trait from common ancestor  Sister taxa – within a branch point  Polytomy – unresolved pattern of divergence Groups of taxa  Monophyletic group aka clade- common ancestor with ALL its descendants  Polyphyletic group- many taxa with no common ancestor  Paraphyletic group- common ancestor, but NOT ALL of its descendants Phylogenetic trees  Cannot tell time of ancestral tree unless time scale is provided  Show patterns of descent NOT phenotypic similarity  Doesn’t show how much change occurred ====


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.